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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139557/using-somatosensory-mismatch-responses-as-a-window-into-somatotopic-processing-of-tactile-stimulation
#1
Guannan Shen, Nathan J Smyk, Andrew N Meltzoff, Peter J Marshall
Brain responses to tactile stimulation have often been studied through the examination of ERPs elicited to touch on the body surface. Here, we examined two factors potentially modulating the amplitude of the somatosensory mismatch negativity (sMMN) and P300 responses elicited by touch to pairs of body parts: (a) the distance between the representation of these body parts in somatosensory cortex, and (b) the physical distances between the stimulated points on the body surface. The sMMN and the P300 response were elicited by tactile stimulation in two oddball protocols...
November 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135029/quantum-crystallography-a-perspective
#2
Lou Massa, Chérif F Matta
Extraction of the complete quantum mechanics from X-ray scattering data is the ultimate goal of quantum crystallography. This article delivers a perspective for that possibility. It is desirable to have a method for the conversion of X-ray diffraction data into an electron density that reflects the antisymmetry of an N-electron wave function. A formalism for this was developed early on for the determination of a constrained idempotent one-body density matrix. The formalism ensures pure-state N-representability in the single determinant sense...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Computational Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127734/population-representation-among-anatomical-donors-and-the-implication-for-medical-student-education
#3
Amanda J Collins, Whitney Smith, Eustathia Lela Giannaris, Elizabeth Orvek, Peter Lazar, Jan K Carney, Anne M Gilroy, Max P Rosen
INTRODUCTION: Dissection provides a unique opportunity to integrate anatomical and clinical education. Commonly, cadavers are randomly assigned to courses, which may result in skewed representation of patient populations. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the anatomical donors studied by students at Medical School (MS) accurately represent the disease burden of the local patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared Medical Center patient claims data and body donation data from the Anatomical Gift Program (AGP)...
November 11, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122675/high-throughput-method-for-extracting-and-visualizing-the-spatial-gene-expressions-from-in-situ-hybridization-images-a-case-study-of-the-early-development-of-the-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#4
A M Abdol, Andrew Bedard, Imke Lánský, J A Kaandorp
Studying the spatial gene expression profiles from in situ hybridization images of the embryo is one of the first steps toward the comprehensive understanding of gene interactions in an organism. In the case of N. vectensis, extracting and collecting these data is a challenging task due to the difficulty of detecting the cell layer through the transparent body plan and changing morphology during the blastula and gastrula stages. Here, first, we introduce a method to algorithmically identify and track the cell layer in N...
November 6, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120289/the-gendered-workplaces-of-women-garment-workers-in-istanbul
#5
Başak Can
Drawing on 20 semi-structured interviews with women garment workers in a low-income neighbourhood of Istanbul, and observations in the ateliers where they worked, this article examines their work experiences in the gendered and sexualised work atmosphere of garment workshops. There are three interrelated levels upon which the gender-related issues emerge in women garment workers' stories. The first set of discourses portrays young female garment workers in highly sexualised terms, and the second concerns the use of kinship vocabulary and avoidance of impersonal work relationships...
October 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119109/all-atom-four-body-knowledge-based-statistical-potentials-to-distinguish-native-protein-structures-from-nonnative-folds
#6
Majid Masso
Recent advances in understanding protein folding have benefitted from coarse-grained representations of protein structures. Empirical energy functions derived from these techniques occasionally succeed in distinguishing native structures from their corresponding ensembles of nonnative folds or decoys which display varying degrees of structural dissimilarity to the native proteins. Here we utilized atomic coordinates of single protein chains, comprising a large diverse training set, to develop and evaluate twelve all-atom four-body statistical potentials obtained by exploring alternative values for a pair of inherent parameters...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115673/seeing-iconic-gestures-while-encoding-events-facilitates-children-s-memory-of-these-events
#7
Suzanne Aussems, Sotaro Kita
An experiment with 72 three-year-olds investigated whether encoding events while seeing iconic gestures boosts children's memory representation of these events. The events, shown in videos of actors moving in an unusual manner, were presented with either iconic gestures depicting how the actors performed these actions, interactive gestures, or no gesture. In a recognition memory task, children in the iconic gesture condition remembered actors and actions better than children in the control conditions. Iconic gestures were categorized based on how much of the actors was represented by the hands (feet, legs, or body)...
November 8, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107950/a-new-method-to-determine-cortical-bone-thickness-in-ct-images-using-a-hybrid-approach-of-parametric-profile-representation-and-local-adaptive-thresholds-accuracy-results
#8
Oleg Museyko, Bastian Gerner, Klaus Engelke
MOTIVATION: Cortical bone is an important contributor to bone strength and is pivotal to understand the etiology of osteoporotic fractures and the specific mechanisms of antiosteoporotic treatment regimen. 3D computed tomography (CT) can be used to measure cortical thickness, density, and mass in the proximal femur, lumbar vertebrae, and distal forearm. However, the spatial resolution of clinical whole body CT scanners is limited by radiation exposure; partial volume artefacts severely impair the accurate assessment of cortical parameters, in particular in locations where the cortex is thin such as in the lumbar vertebral bodies or in the femoral neck...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105805/should-body-image-programs-be-inclusive-a-focus-group-study-of-college-students
#9
Anna C Ciao, Olivia C Ohls, Kevin D Pringle
OBJECTIVE: Most evidence-based body image programs for college students (e.g., the Body Project) are designed for female-only audiences, although body dissatisfaction is not limited to female-identified individuals. Furthermore, programs do not explicitly discuss diversity, although individuals with marginalized gender, racial, and sexual identities may be particularly vulnerable to body image disturbances. Making programs more inclusive may increase their disseminability. METHOD: This qualitative study examined the feasibility of adapting the Body Project for universal and inclusive use with college students...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103810/subjective-behavioral-and-physiological-responses-to-the-rubber-hand-illusion-do-not-vary-with-age-in-the-adult-phase
#10
Priscila Palomo, Adrián Borrego, Ausiàs Cebolla, Roberto Llorens, Marcelo Demarzo, Rosa M Baños
The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) is a perceptual illusion that enables integration of artificial limbs into the body representation through combined multisensory integration. Most previous studies investigating the RHI have involved young healthy adults within a very narrow age range (typically 20-30 years old). The purpose of this paper was to determine the influence of age on the RHI. The RHI was performed on 93 healthy adults classified into three groups of age (20-35 years old, N = 41; 36-60 years old, N = 28; and 61-80 years old, N = 24), and its effects were measured with subjective (Embodiment of Rubber Hand Questionnaire), behavioral (proprioceptive drift), and physiological (changes in skin temperature and conductance) measures...
November 3, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103483/mathematical-modelling-of-radiation-induced-cancer-risk-from-breast-screening-by-mammography
#11
Raed M K M Ali, Andrew England, Claire Mercer, Andrew Tootell, Lucy Walton, Wouter Schaake, Peter Hogg
OBJECTIVES: Establish a method to determine and convey lifetime radiation risk from FFDM screening. METHODS: Radiation risk from screening mammography was quantified using effective risk (number of radiation-induced cancer cases/million). For effective risk calculations, organ doses and examined breast MGD were used. Screening mammography was simulated by exposing a breast phantom for cranio-caudal and medio-lateral oblique for each breast using 16 FFDM machines...
November 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098315/peripersonal-space-boundaries-around-the-lower-limbs
#12
K D Stone, M Kandula, A Keizer, H C Dijkerman
Neurophysiological investigations in non-human primates have shown that bi- and tri-modal fronto-parietal neurons exist that respond to touch on the body and visual (and/or auditory) stimuli near the body. The receptive fields of these neurons extend into space around the body, producing a zone wherein multisensory information is readily integrated. This space around the body, known as peripersonal space (PPS), has also been investigated behaviourally in humans. Some studies have focused on how far into depth the spatial boundaries of PPS extend...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096469/toward-chemical-accuracy-in-the-description-of-ion-water-interactions-through-many-body-representations-alkali-water-dimer-potential-energy-surfaces
#13
Marc Riera, Narbe Mardirossian, Pushp Bajaj, Andreas W Götz, Francesco Paesani
This study presents the extension of the MB-nrg (Many-Body energy) theoretical/computational framework of transferable potential energy functions (PEFs) for molecular simulations of alkali metal ion-water systems. The MB-nrg PEFs are built upon the many-body expansion of the total energy and include the explicit treatment of one-body, two-body, and three-body interactions, with all higher-order contributions described by classical induction. This study focuses on the MB-nrg two-body terms describing the full-dimensional potential energy surfaces of the M(+)(H2O) dimers, where M(+) = Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096327/early-visual-deprivation-prompts-the-use-of-body-centered-frames-of-reference-for-auditory-localization
#14
Tiziana Vercillo, Alessia Tonelli, Monica Gori
The effects of early visual deprivation on auditory spatial processing are controversial. Results from recent psychophysical studies show that people who were born blind have a spatial impairment in localizing sound sources within specific auditory settings, while previous psychophysical studies revealed enhanced auditory spatial abilities in early blind compared to sighted individuals. An explanation of why an auditory spatial deficit is sometimes observed within blind populations and its task-dependency remains to be clarified...
October 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091967/motor-based-bodily-self-is-selectively-impaired-in-eating-disorders
#15
Giovanna Cristina Campione, Gianluigi Mansi, Alessandra Fumagalli, Beatrice Fumagalli, Simona Sottocornola, Massimo Molteni, Nadia Micali
BACKGROUND: Body representation disturbances in body schema (i.e. unconscious sensorimotor body representations for action) have been frequently reported in eating disorders. Recently, it has been proposed that body schema relies on adequate functioning of the motor system, which is strongly implicated in discriminating between one's own and someone else's body. The present study aimed to investigate the motor-based bodily self in eating disorders and controls, in order to examine the role of the motor system in body representation disturbances at the body schema level...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090187/multimorbidity-constellations-of-conditions-across-subgroups-of-midlife-and-older-individuals-and-related-medicare-expenditures
#16
Siran M Koroukian, Nicholas K Schiltz, David F Warner, Jiayang Sun, Kurt C Stange, Charles W Given, Avi Dor
INTRODUCTION: The Department of Health and Human Services' 2010 Strategic Framework on Multiple Chronic Conditions called for the identification of common constellations of conditions in older adults. OBJECTIVES: To analyze patterns of conditions constituting multimorbidity (CCMM) and expenditures in a US representative sample of midlife and older adults (50-64 and ≥65 years of age, respectively). DESIGN: A cross-sectional study of the 2010 Health and Retirement Study (HRS; n=17,912)...
2017: J Comorb
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081317/evaluation-of-a-low-fidelity-ear-surgery-simulator-in-a-low-resource-setting
#17
K Luu, L Straatman, D Nakku, B Westerberg, N Carter, M Clark
OBJECTIVE: The provision of healthcare education in developing countries is a complex problem that simulation has the potential to help. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a low-cost ear surgery simulator, the Ear Trainer. METHODS: The Ear Trainer was assessed in two low-resource environments in Cambodia and Uganda. Participants were video-recorded performing four specific middle-ear procedures, and blindly scored using a validated measurement tool...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078339/evolutionary-cascades-induced-by-large-frugivores
#18
Jedediah F Brodie
Large, fruit-eating vertebrates have been lost from many of the world's ecosystems. The ecological consequences of this defaunation can be severe, but the evolutionary consequences are nearly unknown because it remains unclear whether frugivores exert strong selection on fruit traits. I assessed the macroevolution of fruit traits in response to variation in the diversity and size of seed-dispersing vertebrates. Across the Indo-Malay Archipelago, many of the same plant lineages have been exposed to very different assemblages of seed-dispersing vertebrates...
October 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076380/body-size-and-shape-misperception-and-visual-adaptation-an-overview-of-an-emerging-research-paradigm
#19
Kirsten L Challinor, Jonathan Mond, Ian D Stephen, Deborah Mitchison, Richard J Stevenson, Phillipa Hay, Kevin R Brooks
Although body size and shape misperception (BSSM) is a common feature of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and muscle dysmorphia, little is known about its underlying neural mechanisms. Recently, a new approach has emerged, based on the long-established non-invasive technique of perceptual adaptation, which allows for inferences about the structure of the neural apparatus responsible for alterations in visual appearance. Here, we describe several recent experimental examples of BSSM, wherein exposure to "extreme" body stimuli causes visual aftereffects of biased perception...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074112/identifying-content-gaps-in-health-status-measures-for-intermittent-claudication-using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health
#20
David S Kauvar, Candice L Osborne
OBJECTIVE: The Walking Impairment Questionnaire (WIQ) and Intermittent Claudication Questionnaire (ICQ) are commonly used patient-reported functional outcome measures for intermittent claudication, but their functional representation has not been characterized. The World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework comprehensively describes health-related function and has been used to evaluate health status and quality of life (QOL) measures...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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