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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333688/infant-brain-responses-to-felt-and-observed-touch-of-hands-and-feet-an-meg-study
#1
Andrew N Meltzoff, Rey R Ramírez, Joni N Saby, Eric Larson, Samu Taulu, Peter J Marshall
There is growing interest concerning the ways in which the human body, both one's own and that of others, is represented in the developing human brain. In two experiments with 7-month-old infants, we employed advances in infant magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging to address novel questions concerning body representations in early development. Experiment 1 evaluated the spatiotemporal organization of infants' brain responses to being touched. A punctate touch to infants' hands and feet produced significant activation in the hand and foot areas of contralateral primary somatosensory cortex as well as in other parietal and frontal areas...
January 14, 2018: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333592/3d-models-of-female-pelvis-structures-reconstructed-and-represented-in-combination-with-anatomical-and-radiological-sections
#2
L Asensio Romero, M Asensio Gómez, A Prats-Galino, J A Juanes Méndez
We present a computer program designed to visualize and interact with three-dimensional models of the main anatomical structures of the female pelvis. They are reconstructed from serial sections of corpse, from the Visible Human project of the Medical Library of the United States and from serial sections of high-resolution magnetic resonance. It is possible to represent these three-dimensional structures in any spatial orientation, together with sectional images of corpse and magnetic resonance imaging, in the three planes of space (axial, coronal and sagittal) that facilitates the anatomical understanding and the identification of the set of visceral structures of this body region...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327430/knowledge-attitudes-representations-and-declared-practices-of-nurses-and-physicians-about-obesity-in-a-university-hospital-training-is-essential
#3
S Bucher Della Torre, D S Courvoisier, A Saldarriaga, X E Martin, N J Farpour-Lambert
In the context of a worldwide obesity epidemic, healthcare providers play a key role in obesity management. Knowledge of current guidelines and attitudes to prevent stigmatization are especially important. This study aimed to assess knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, perception of opportunity for intervention, declared practices and need for training and material of nurses and physicians about obesity in a Swiss University Hospital. A total of 834 physicians and nurses filled an online survey. The questionnaire was based on literature, exploratory interviews and expert committee review...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327266/social-targets-improve-body-based-and-environment-based-strategies-during-spatial-navigation
#4
Esther Kuehn, Xiaoli Chen, Pia Geise, Jan Oltmer, Thomas Wolbers
Encoding the position of another person in space is vital for everyday life. Nevertheless, little is known about the specific navigational strategies associated with encoding the position of another person in the wider spatial environment. We asked two groups of participants to learn the location of a target (person or object) during active navigation, while optic flow information, a landmark, or both optic flow information and a landmark were available in a virtual environment. Whereas optic flow information is used for body-based encoding, such as the simulation of motor movements, landmarks are used to form an abstract, disembodied representation of the environment...
January 11, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322244/metacontrol-and-body-ownership-divergent-thinking-increases-the-virtual-hand-illusion
#5
Ke Ma, Bernhard Hommel
The virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm demonstrates that people tend to perceive agency and bodily ownership for a virtual hand that moves in synchrony with their own movements. Given that this kind of effect can be taken to reflect self-other integration (i.e., the integration of some external, novel event into the representation of oneself), and given that self-other integration has been previously shown to be affected by metacontrol states (biases of information processing towards persistence/selectivity or flexibility/integration), we tested whether the VHI varies in size depending on the metacontrol bias...
January 10, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317355/identification-of-candidate-serum-biomarkers-of-childhood-onset-growth-hormone-deficiency-using-swath-ms-and-feature-selection
#6
Ignacio Ortea, Isabel Ruíz, Ramón Cañete, Javier Caballero-Villarraso, María Dolores Cañete
A typical clinical manifestation of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a short stature resulting from delayed growth, but GHD affects bone health, cardiovascular function and metabolic profile and therefore quality of life. Although early GH treatment during childhood has been shown to improve outcomes, no single biochemical parameter is currently available for the accurate diagnosis of GHD in children. There is hence a need for non-invasive biomarkers. In this study, the relative abundance of serum proteins from GHD children and healthy controls was measured by next-generation proteomics SWATH-MS technology...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311009/cortical-inhibitory-function-in-cervical-dystonia
#7
Christos Ganos, Elisa R Ferrè, Angela Marotta, Panagiotis Kassavetis, John Rothwell, Kailash P Bhatia, Patrick Haggard
OBJECTIVE: To assess the specificity of cortical inhibitory deficits in cervical dystonia patients. METHODS: A systematic test battery was developed to assess spatial and temporal aspects of cortical inhibition, in motor and somatosensory systems of the hand. We tested 17 cervical dystonia (CD) patients and 19 controls assessing somatosensory spatial inhibition (grating orientation test, interdigital feedforward subliminal inhibition), somatosensory temporal inhibition (temporal discrimination threshold, feedforward subliminal inhibition), motor spatial inhibition (surround inhibition), and motor temporal inhibition (short interval intracortical inhibition)...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289126/temperature-dependent-vibrational-spectra-and-structure-of-liquid-water-from-classical-and-quantum-simulations-with-the-mb-pol-potential-energy-function
#8
Sandeep K Reddy, Daniel R Moberg, Shelby C Straight, Francesco Paesani
The structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is investigated through the modeling of infrared and Raman spectra along with structural order parameters calculated from classical and quantum molecular dynamics simulations with the MB-pol many-body potential energy function. The magnitude of nuclear quantum effects is also monitored by comparing the vibrational spectra obtained from classical and centroid molecular dynamics, both in intensities and peak positions. The observed changes in spectral activities are shown to reflect changes in the underlying structure of the hydrogen-bond network and are found to be particularly sensitive to many-body effects in the representation of the electrostatic interactions...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285773/functional-architecture-of-the-somatosensory-homunculus-detected-by-electrostimulation
#9
Franck-Emmanuel Roux, Imène Djidjeli, Jean-Baptiste Durand
In this prospective electrostimulation study, based on 50 operated patients with no sensory deficit and no brain lesion in the postcentral gyrus, we acquired coordinates in the standard MNI space of the functional areas of the somatosensory homunculus. The 3D brain volume of each patient was normalized to that space to obtain the MNI coordinates of the stimulation site locations. For 647 sites stimulated on Brodmann Area 1 (and 1025 in gyri nearby), 258 positive points for somatosensory response (40%) were found in the postcentral gyrus...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284501/nucleoli-cytomorphology-in-cutaneous-melanoma-cells-a-new-prognostic-approach-to-an-old-concept
#10
Piotr Donizy, Przemyslaw Biecek, Agnieszka Halon, Adam Maciejczyk, Rafal Matkowski
BACKGROUND: The nucleolus is an organelle that is an ultrastructural element of the cell nucleus observed in H&E staining as a roundish body stained with eosin due to its high protein content. Changes in the nucleoli cytomorphology were one of the first histopathological characteristics of malignant tumors. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between the cytomorphological characteristics of nucleoli and detailed clinicopathological parameters of melanoma patients. Moreover, we analyzed the correlation between cytomorphological parameters of nucleoli and immunoreactivity of selected proteins responsible for, among others, regulation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (SPARC, N-cadherin), cell adhesion and motility (ALCAM, ADAM-10), mitotic divisions (PLK1), cellular survival (FOXP1) and the functioning of Golgi apparatus (GOLPH3, GP73)...
December 29, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281736/characterizing-first-and-third-person-viewpoints-and-their-alternation-for-embodied-interaction-in-virtual-reality
#11
Henrique Galvan Debarba, Sidney Bovet, Roy Salomon, Olaf Blanke, Bruno Herbelin, Ronan Boulic
Empirical research on the bodily self has shown that the body representation is malleable, and prone to manipulation when conflicting sensory stimuli are presented. Using Virtual Reality (VR) we assessed the effects of manipulating multisensory feedback (full body control and visuo-tactile congruence) and visual perspective (first and third person perspective) on the sense of embodying a virtual body that was exposed to a virtual threat. We also investigated how subjects behave when the possibility of alternating between first and third person perspective at will was presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276173/nutrimetry-bmi-assessment-as-a-function-of-development
#12
Jorge Enrique Selem-Solís, Alberto Alcocer-Gamboa, Mónica Hattori-Hara, Jonathan Esteve-Lanao, Eneko Larumbe-Zabala
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate nutritional assessment is required to fight malnutrition (undernutrition and overfeeding) in children and adolescents. For this, joint interpretation of certain indicators (body mass index [BMI], height, weight, etc.) is recommended. This is done clinically, but not epidemiologically. The aim of this paper is to present "nutrimetry", a simple method that crosses anthropometric information allowing for bivariate interpretation at both levels (clinical and epidemiological)...
December 21, 2017: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275004/handling-or-being-the-concept-an-fmri-study-on-metonymy-representations-in-coverbal-gestures
#13
Gina Joue, Linda Boven, Klaus Willmes, Vito Evola, Liliana R Demenescu, Julius Hassemer, Irene Mittelberg, Klaus Mathiak, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
In "Two heads are better than one," "head" stands for people and focuses the message on the intelligence of people. This is an example of figurative language through metonymy, where substituting a whole entity by one of its parts focuses attention on a specific aspect of the entity. Whereas metaphors, another figurative language device, are substitutions based on similarity, metonymy involves substitutions based on associations. Both are figures of speech but are also expressed in coverbal gestures during multimodal communication...
December 21, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259545/neuromodulation-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-non-human-primates-by-dopaminergic-receptors-during-rule-guided-flexible-behavior-and-cognitive-control
#14
REVIEW
Susheel Vijayraghavan, Alex J Major, Stefan Everling
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is indispensable for several higher-order cognitive and executive capacities of primates, including representation of salient stimuli in working memory (WM), maintenance of cognitive task set, inhibition of inappropriate responses and rule-guided flexible behavior. PFC networks are subject to robust neuromodulation from ascending catecholaminergic systems. Disruption of these systems in PFC has been implicated in cognitive deficits associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258849/the-good-the-bad-and-the-suffering-transient-emotional-episodes-modulate-the-neural-circuits-of-pain-and-empathy
#15
Emilie Qiao-Tasserit, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Patrik Vuilleumier
People's sensitivity to first-hand pain is affected by their ongoing emotions, with positive states (joy, amusement) exerting analgesic-like effects, and negative states (sadness, fear) often enhancing the subjective experience. It is however less clear how empathetic responses to others' pain are affected by one's own emotional state. Following embodied accounts that posit a shared representational code between self and others' states, it is plausible that pain empathy might be influenced by emotions in the same way as first-hand pain...
December 16, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250129/gays-vs-russia-media-representations-vulnerable-bodies-and-the-construction-of-a-post-modern-west
#16
M Katharina Wiedlack
This essay analyses the recent focus on Russian human rights violations in Anglophone media, scrutinising the ideological agenda of the visual politics which strategically foreground victimised bodies of Russian dissidents. Notwithstanding the importance of a critique on human rights violations, the article points to the unwanted but very real side effects the current mediatisations of violence have, from structural victimisation and the creation of 'gay martyrs' to the resignification of the West as progressive and 'gay' and Russia as backward and heterosexual...
2017: European Journal of English Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250012/the-effectiveness-of-a-body-affective-mindfulness-intervention-for-multiple-sclerosis-patients-with-depressive-symptoms-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Sara Carletto, Valentina Tesio, Martina Borghi, Diana Francone, Francesco Scavelli, Gabriella Bertino, Simona Malucchi, Antonio Bertolotto, Francesco Oliva, Riccardo Torta, Luca Ostacoli
Purpose: Mindfulness interventions have been shown to treat depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in patients with several chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis, but to date most evaluation of the effectiveness of mindfulness interventions in multiple sclerosis have used patients receiving standard care as the control group. Hence we decided to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based body-affective mindfulness intervention by comparing it with a psycho-educational intervention, by means of a randomized controlled clinical trial...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249999/audio-spatial-representation-around-the-body
#18
Elena Aggius-Vella, Claudio Campus, Sara Finocchietti, Monica Gori
Studies have found that portions of space around our body are differently coded by our brain. Numerous works have investigated visual and auditory spatial representation, focusing mostly on the spatial representation of stimuli presented at head level, especially in the frontal space. Only few studies have investigated spatial representation around the entire body and its relationship with motor activity. Moreover, it is still not clear whether the space surrounding us is represented as a unitary dimension or whether it is split up into different portions, differently shaped by our senses and motor activity...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244638/memory-contextualization-the-role-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-functional-integration-across-item-and-context-representational-regions
#19
Wei Zhang, Vanessa A van Ast, Floris Klumpers, Karin Roelofs, Erno J Hermans
Memory recall is facilitated when retrieval occurs in the original encoding context. This context dependency effect likely results from the automatic binding of central elements of an experience with contextual features (i.e., memory "contextualization") during encoding. However, despite a vast body of research investigating the neural correlates of explicit associative memory, the neural interactions during encoding that predict implicit context-dependent memory remain unknown. Twenty-six participants underwent fMRI during encoding of salient stimuli (faces), which were overlaid onto unique background images (contexts)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243136/recalibration-of-hand-position-sense-during-unconscious-active-and-passive-movement
#20
Zakaryah Abdulkarim, H Henrik Ehrsson
Precise knowledge of one's limbs' position in space is fundamental for goal-directed action. The brain's representation of the body in space is thought to be generated through a process of multisensory integration of visual, tactile and proprioceptive signals. In this study, we devised a setup that allowed us to displace participants' right hand without their subjective awareness. We accomplished this task by instructing the participants to view a live video feed of their hand from the first-person perspective...
December 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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