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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326538/integrating-lipid-storage-into-general-representations-of-fish-energetics
#1
Benjamin T Martin, Ron Heintz, Eric M Danner, Roger M Nisbet
1.Fish, even of the same species, can exhibit substantial variation in energy density (energy per unit wet weight). Most of this variation is due to differences in the amount of storage lipids. In addition to their importance as energy reserves for reproduction and for survival during unfavorable conditions, the accumulation of lipids represents a large energetic flux for many species, so figuring out how this energy flux is integrated with other major energy fluxes (growth, reproduction) is critical for any general theory of organismal energetics...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326030/expansion-of-perceptual-body-maps-near-but-not-across-the-wrist
#2
Matthew R Longo
Perceiving the external spatial location of touch requires that tactile information about the stimulus location on the skin be integrated with proprioceptive information about the location of the body in external space, a process called tactile spatial remapping. Recent results have suggested that this process relies on a distorted representation of the hand. Here, I investigated whether similar distortions are also found on the forearm and how they are affected by the presence of the wrist joint, which forms a categorical, segmental boundary between the hand and the arm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323166/neural-foundations-of-overt-and-covert-actions
#3
Panagiotis G Simos, Eleftherios Kavroulakis, Thomas Maris, Efrosini Papadaki, Themistoklis Boursianis, Giorgos Kalaitzakis, Helen E Savaki
We used fMRI to assess the human brain areas activated for execution, observation and 1(st) person motor imagery of a visually guided tracing task with the index finger. Voxel-level conjunction analysis revealed several cortical areas activated in common across all three motor conditions, namely, the upper limb representation of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices, the dorsal and ventral premotor, the superior and inferior parietal cortices as well as the posterior part of the superior and middle temporal gyrus including the temporo-parietal junction (TPj) and the extrastriate body area (EBA)...
March 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321312/preserved-glucagon-like-peptide-1-responses-to-oral-glucose-but-reduced-incretin-effect-insulin-secretion-and-sensitivity-in-young-asians-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#4
Toh Peng Yeow, Giovanni Pacini, Andrea Tura, Chee Peng Hor, Shueh Lin Lim, Florence Hui Sieng Tan, Chin Voon Tong, Janet Yeow Hua Hong, Fuziah Md Zain, Jens Juul Holst, Wan Nazaimoon Wan Mohamud
OBJECTIVE: Youth onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (YT2DM) is a globally rising phenomenon with substantial Asians representation. The understanding of its pathophysiology is derived largely from studies in the obese African-American and Caucasian populations, while studies on incretin effect are scarce. We examined the insulin resistance, β-cell function (BC), glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 hormone and incretin effect in Asian YT2DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This case-control study recruited 25 Asian YT2DM and 15 healthy controls, matched for gender, ethnicity and body mass index...
2017: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320636/the-significance-of-equivocal-exercise-treadmill-ecg-for-intermediate-risk-chest-pain-assessment-insight-from-coronary-ct-angiography-data
#5
Gary T E Lau, Henry Wei, Jo Wickham, Andrew C Y To
BACKGROUND: Exercise treadmill test (ETT) is commonly the first-line investigation in troponin-negative chest pain patients. Inconclusive results are common and often lead to repeated functional testings. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has excellent negative predictive value for coronary artery disease detection and may play an important role in their diagnostic workup. We aim to analyse ETT and CCTA findings to understand their modern roles in intermediate risk chest pain population with inconclusive ETT...
March 1, 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319608/cerebellar-granule-cells-acquire-a-widespread-predictive-feedback-signal-during-motor-learning
#6
Andrea Giovannucci, Aleksandra Badura, Ben Deverett, Farzaneh Najafi, Talmo D Pereira, Zhenyu Gao, Ilker Ozden, Alexander D Kloth, Eftychios Pnevmatikakis, Liam Paninski, Chris I De Zeeuw, Javier F Medina, Samuel S-H Wang
Cerebellar granule cells, which constitute half the brain's neurons, supply Purkinje cells with contextual information necessary for motor learning, but how they encode this information is unknown. Here we show, using two-photon microscopy to track neural activity over multiple days of cerebellum-dependent eyeblink conditioning in mice, that granule cell populations acquire a dense representation of the anticipatory eyelid movement. Initially, granule cells responded to neutral visual and somatosensory stimuli as well as periorbital airpuffs used for training...
March 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319191/overt-orienting-of-spatial-attention-and-corticospinal-excitability-during-action-observation-are-unrelated
#7
Sonia Betti, Umberto Castiello, Silvia Guerra, Luisa Sartori
Observing moving body parts can automatically activate topographically corresponding motor representations in the primary motor cortex (M1), the so-called direct matching. Novel neurophysiological findings from social contexts are nonetheless proving that this process is not automatic as previously thought. The motor system can flexibly shift from imitative to incongruent motor preparation, when requested by a social gesture. In the present study we aim to bring an increase in the literature by assessing whether and how diverting overt spatial attention might affect motor preparation in contexts requiring interactive responses from the onlooker...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314184/how-does-the-body-representation-system-develop-in-the-human-brain
#8
Aurelie Fontan, Fabien Cignetti, Bruno Nazarian, Jean-Luc Anton, Marianne Vaugoyeau, Christine Assaiante
Exploration of the body representation system (BRS) from kinaesthetic illusions in fMRI has revealed a complex network composed of sensorimotor and frontoparietal components. Here, we evaluated the degree of maturity of this network in children aged 7-11 years, and the extent to which structural factors account for network differences with adults. Brain activation following tendon vibration at 100Hz ('illusion') and 30Hz ('no illusion') were analysed using the two-stage random effects model, with or without white and grey matter covariates...
February 28, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293693/changing-hands-persistent-alterations-to-body-image-following-brief-exposure-to-multisensory-distortions
#9
A Treshi-Marie Perera, Roger Newport, Kirsten J McKenzie
The dynamic flexibility of body representation has been highlighted through numerous lines of research that range from clinical studies reporting disorders of body ownership, to experimentally induced somatic illusions that have provided evidence for the embodiment of manipulated representations and even fake limbs. While most studies have reported that enlargement of body parts alters somatic perception, and that these can be more readily embodied, shrunken body parts have not been found to consistently alter somatic experiences, perhaps due to reduced feelings of ownership over smaller body parts...
March 14, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291516/a-practical-solution-to-reduce-soft-tissue-artifact-error-at-the-knee-using-adaptive-kinematic-constraints
#10
Brigitte M Potvin, Mohammad S Shourijeh, Kenneth B Smale, Daniel L Benoit
Musculoskeletal modeling and simulations have vast potential in clinical and research fields, but face various challenges in representing the complexities of the human body. Soft tissue artifact from skin-mounted markers may lead to non-physiological representation of joint motions being used as inputs to models in simulations. To address this, we have developed adaptive joint constraints on five of the six degree of freedom of the knee joint based on in vivo tibiofemoral joint motions recorded during walking, hopping and cutting motions from subjects instrumented with intra-cortical pins inserted into their tibia and femur...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289397/are-older-adults-less-embodied-a-review-of-age-effects-through-the-lens-of-embodied-cognition
#11
REVIEW
Matthew C Costello, Emily K Bloesch
Embodied cognition is a theoretical framework which posits that cognitive function is intimately intertwined with the body and physical actions. Although the field of psychology is increasingly accepting embodied cognition as a viable theory, it has rarely been employed in the gerontological literature. However, embodied cognition would appear to have explanatory power for aging research given that older adults typically manifest concurrent physical and mental changes, and that research has indicated a correlative relationship between such changes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287602/creating-virtual-hand-and-virtual-face-illusions-to-investigate-self-representation
#12
Ke Ma, Dominique P Lippelt, Bernhard Hommel
Studies investigating how people represent themselves and their own body often use variants of "ownership illusions", such as the traditional rubber-hand illusion or the more recently discovered enfacement illusion. However, these examples require rather artificial experimental setups, in which the artificial effector needs to be stroked in synchrony with the participants' real hand or face-a situation in which participants have no control over the stroking or the movements of their real or artificial effector...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287028/technique-analysis-in-elite-athletes-using-principal-component-analysis
#13
Øyvind Gløersen, Håvard Myklebust, Jostein Hallén, Peter Federolf
The aim of this study was to advance current movement analysis methodology to enable a technique analysis in sports facilitating (1) concurrent comparison of the techniques between several athletes; (2) identification of potentially beneficial technique modifications and (3) a visual representation of the findings for feedback to the athletes. Six elite cross-country skiers, three world cup winners and three national elite, roller ski skated using the V2 technique on a treadmill while their movement patterns were recorded using 41 reflective markers...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284238/applying-current-concepts-in-pain-related-brain-science-to-dance-rehabilitation
#14
Sarah B Wallwork, Valeria Bellan, G Lorimer Moseley
Dance involves exemplary sensory-motor control, which is subserved by sophisticated neural processing at the spinal cord and brain level. Such neural processing is altered in the presence of nociception and pain, and the adaptations within the central nervous system that are known to occur with persistent nociception or pain have clear implications for movement and, indeed, risk of further injury. Recent rapid advances in our understanding of the brain's representation of the body and the role of cortical representations, or "neurotags," in bodily protection and regulation have given rise to new strategies that are gaining traction in sports medicine...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284109/distorted-body-representations-in-anorexia-nervosa
#15
REVIEW
Stephen Gadsby
In this paper, I discuss empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients' distorted body representations. I fit this evidence into a broader framework for understanding how the spatial content of the body is tracked and represented. This framework is motivated by O'Shaughnessy's (1980) long-term body image hypothesis. This hypothesis posits a representation that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this content to other body representations. I argue that a similar kind of body representation might exist and, in the case of anorexia, be distorted...
March 8, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283886/protein-characterization-of-extracellular-microvesicles-exosomes-released-from-cytotoxin-challenged-rat-cerebrocortical-mixed-culture-and-mouse-n2a-cells
#16
Dhwani Kumar, Rachna Manek, Vijaya Raghavan, Kevin K Wang
A number of neuronal and glial proteins were previously found to be released in free-standing soluble form from cultured brain cells into cell-conditioned media. Here, we sought to examine if similar proteins are also contained in neural and astroglial cell-released extracellular microvesicles/exosomes (MV/E). In this study, MV/E were isolated from cell-conditioned media from control and cytotoxin-challenged rat cerebrocortical mixed culture (CTX) and mouse neuroblastoma N2a cells. Cytotoxin challenges included pro-necrosis calcium ionophore A23187, pro-apoptosis staurosporine (STS), and excitotoxin N-methyl-D-aspartate...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275650/optimizing-image-registration-and-infarct-definition-in-stroke-research
#17
George W J Harston, David Minks, Fintan Sheerin, Stephen J Payne, Michael Chappell, Peter Jezzard, Mark Jenkinson, James Kennedy
OBJECTIVE: Accurate representation of final infarct volume is essential for assessing the efficacy of stroke interventions in imaging-based studies. This study defines the impact of image registration methods used at different timepoints following stroke, and the implications for infarct definition in stroke research. METHODS: Patients presenting with acute ischemic stroke were imaged serially using magnetic resonance imaging. Infarct volume was defined manually using four metrics: 24-h b1000 imaging; 1-week and 1-month T2-weighted FLAIR; and automatically using predefined thresholds of ADC at 24 h...
March 2017: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274049/use-of-frontal-sinus-and-nasal-septum-pattern-as-an-aid-in-personal-identification-and-determination-of-gender-a-radiographic-study
#18
Kavita Verma, Prashant Nahar, Mohit Pal Singh, Hemant Mathur, S Bhuvaneshwari
INTRODUCTION: Personal identification and gender determination of unknown person has a vital importance in forensic investigation. Human skull radiography is a useful tool in human identification in natural disaster, in any accidents such as fire accident and road traffic accident where body remains become degraded or severely destroyed. AIM: Present study was performed to evaluate the measurement of frontal sinus, uniqueness of various pattern of nasal septum when combined with frontal sinus observed on posterio anterior cephalogram for sex determination as well as personal identification...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269009/fundamentals-of-left-ventricular-volume-representation
#19
Peter L Kerkhof
The volume regulation graph is meant to relate the fundamental determinants of left ventricular (LV) function, namely end-systolic volume (ESV) and end-diastolic volume (EDV). This representation permits evaluation of the LV remodeling process, convenient stratification for clinically relevant covariates, as well as inscription of iso-stroke volume (SV) and iso-ejection fraction (EF) trajectories, the latter two as linear relationships. This retrospective study discusses LV volumetric parameters obtained from 155 patients (65 females) covering a wide spectrum of heart diseases...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268460/autonomous-vision-guided-approach-for-the-analysis-and-grading-of-vertical-suspension-tests-during-hammersmith-infant-neurological-examination-hine
#20
Prasenjit Dey, Debi Prosad Dogra, Partha Pratim Roy, Harish Bhaskar
Computer vision assisted diagnostic systems are gaining popularity in different healthcare applications. This paper presents a video analysis and pattern recognition framework for the automatic grading of vertical suspension tests on infants during the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE). The proposed vision-guided pipeline applies a color-based skin region segmentation procedure followed by the localization of body parts before feature extraction and classification. After constrained localization of lower body parts, a stick-diagram representation is used for extracting novel features that correspond to the motion dynamic characteristics of the infant's leg movements during HINE...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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