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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652360/simulating-tactile-signals-from-the-whole-hand-with-millisecond-precision
#1
Hannes P Saal, Benoit P Delhaye, Brandon C Rayhaun, Sliman J Bensmaia
When we grasp and manipulate an object, populations of tactile nerve fibers become activated and convey information about the shape, size, and texture of the object and its motion across the skin. The response properties of tactile fibers have been extensively characterized in single-unit recordings, yielding important insights into how individual fibers encode tactile information. A recurring finding in this extensive body of work is that stimulus information is distributed over many fibers. However, our understanding of population-level representations remains primitive...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650804/limb-position-tolerant-pattern-recognition-for-myoelectric-prosthesis-control-with-adaptive-sparse-representations-from-extreme-learning
#2
Joseph L Betthauser, Christopher L Hunt, Luke E Osborn, Matthew R Masters, Gyorgy Levay, Rahul Reddy Kaliki, Nitish V Thakor
Myoelectric signals can be used to predict the intended movements of an amputee for prosthesis control. However, untrained effects like limb position changes influence myoelectric signal characteristics, hindering the ability of pattern recognition algorithms to discriminate among motion classes. Despite frequent and long training sessions, these deleterious conditional influences may result in poor performance and device abandonment. GOAL: We present a robust sparsity-based adaptive classification method that is significantly less sensitive to signal deviations resulting from untrained conditions...
June 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649430/predicting-growth-of-the-healthy-infant-using-a-genome-scale-metabolic-model
#3
Avlant Nilsson, Adil Mardinoglu, Jens Nielsen
An estimated 165 million children globally have stunted growth, and extensive growth data are available. Genome scale metabolic models allow the simulation of molecular flux over each metabolic enzyme, and are well adapted to analyze biological systems. We used a human genome scale metabolic model to simulate the mechanisms of growth and integrate data about breast-milk intake and composition with the infant's biomass and energy expenditure of major organs. The model predicted daily metabolic fluxes from birth to age 6 months, and accurately reproduced standard growth curves and changes in body composition...
2017: NPJ Systems Biology and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648411/visual-feedback-explains-why-propointing-is-better-than-antipointing-in-spatial-neglect
#4
Kathrin S Utz, Constanze Hesse, Annika Hintz, Daniela Grüneberger, Hartwig Kulke, Inga Roth, Thomas Klos, Vaclav Kromichal, Arthur Melms, Wilfried Schupp, Detlef Kohl, Thomas Schenk
Rossit et al. (2011) showed that neglect patients perform normally in a propointing task but not in an antipointing task which requires pointing towards the mirrored position of a target. It is assumed that antipointing relies on information from the perceptual pathway of our visual brain. Therefore, this finding supports the notion that neglect is a disorder that primarily affects perceptual spatial representations within the brain leaving spatial maps used for visuomotor guidance intact. Alternatively, performance of patients might be compromised in both tasks, but only obviously so in tasks in which online corrections are made more difficult...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644914/the-role-of-expectation-in-multisensory-body-representation-neural-evidence
#5
Francesca Ferri, Ettore Ambrosini, Paola Pinti, Arcangelo Merla, Marcello Costantini
Sensory events contribute to body ownership, the feeling that the body belongs to me. However, the encoding of sensory events is not only reactive, but also proactive in that our brain generates prediction about forthcoming stimuli. In previous studies we have shown that prediction of sensory events is a sufficient condition to induce the sense of body ownership. In this study we investigate the underlying neural mechanisms. Participants were seated with their right arm resting upon a table just below another smaller table...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642792/infection-control-measures-in-private-dental-clinics-in-lebanon
#6
Jihad Dagher, Charles Sfeir, Ahmad Abdallah, Zeina Majzoub
PURPOSE: Evaluate infection control knowledge, attitude, and practice in Lebanese private dental clinics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A survey including 46 questions related to routine safety procedures was sent to 1150 Lebanese dentists between July 1st and 2nd, 2015. The study sample was selected from the database of registered dentists based on a proportional random sampling ensuring equitable representation of the 5 geographic regions of Lebanon. A subset of 29 questions was used to generate an overall score of compliance (excellent, good, fair, and poor)...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642285/state-dependent-tms-reveals-representation-of-affective-body-movements-in-the-anterior-intraparietal-cortex
#7
Noemi Mazzoni, Christianne Jacobs, Paola Venuti, Juha Silvanto, Luigi Cattaneo
In humans, recognition of others' actions involves a cortical network that comprises, among other cortical regions, the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), where biological motion is coded and the anterior intraparietal suclus (aIPS), where movement information is elaborated in terms of meaningful goal-directed actions. This action observation system (AOS) is thought to encode neutral voluntary actions, and possibly some aspects of affective motor repertoire, but the role of the AOS' areas in processing affective kinematic information has never been examined...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641176/epilepsy-and-pregnancy-for-healthy-pregnancies-and-happy-outcomes-john-paul-leach-on-behalf-of-the-multispecialty-uk-epilepsy-mortality-group
#8
REVIEW
J P Leach, P E Smith, J Craig, M Bagary, D Cavanagh, S Duncan, A R C Kelso, A G Marson, D McCorry, L Nashef, C Nelson-Piercy, R Northridge, K Sieradzan, S Thangaratinam, M Walker, J Winterbottom, M Reuber
Between 2009 and 2012 there were 26 epilepsy-related deaths in the UK of women who were pregnant or in the first post-partum year. The number of pregnancy-related deaths in women with epilepsy (WWE) has been increasing. Expert assessment suggests that most epilepsy-related deaths in pregnancy were preventable and attributable to poor seizure control. While prevention of seizures during pregnancy is important, a balance must be struck between seizure control and the teratogenic potential of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
June 1, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638974/categorical-templates-are-more-useful-when-features-are-consistent-evidence-from-eye-movements-during-search-for-societally-important-vehicles
#9
Michael C Hout, Arryn Robbins, Hayward J Godwin, Gemma Fitzsimmons, Collin Scarince
Unlike in laboratory visual search tasks-wherein participants are typically presented with a pictorial representation of the item they are asked to seek out-in real-world searches, the observer rarely has veridical knowledge of the visual features that define their target. During categorical search, observers look for any instance of a categorically defined target (e.g., helping a family member look for their mobile phone). In these circumstances, people may not have information about noncritical features (e...
June 21, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637835/do-copd-subtypes-really-exist-copd-heterogeneity-and-clustering-in-10-independent-cohorts
#10
Peter J Castaldi, Marta Benet, Hans Petersen, Nicholas Rafaels, James Finigan, Matteo Paoletti, H Marike Boezen, Judith M Vonk, Russell Bowler, Massimo Pistolesi, Milo A Puhan, Josep Anto, Els Wauters, Diether Lambrechts, Wim Janssens, Francesca Bigazzi, Gianna Camiciottoli, Michael H Cho, Craig P Hersh, Kathleen Barnes, Stephen Rennard, Meher Preethi Boorgula, Jennifer Dy, Nadia N Hansel, James D Crapo, Yohannes Tesfaigzi, Alvar Agusti, Edwin K Silverman, Judith Garcia-Aymerich
BACKGROUND: COPD is a heterogeneous disease, but there is little consensus on specific definitions for COPD subtypes. Unsupervised clustering offers the promise of 'unbiased' data-driven assessment of COPD heterogeneity. Multiple groups have identified COPD subtypes using cluster analysis, but there has been no systematic assessment of the reproducibility of these subtypes. OBJECTIVE: We performed clustering analyses across 10 cohorts in North America and Europe in order to assess the reproducibility of (1) correlation patterns of key COPD-related clinical characteristics and (2) clustering results...
June 21, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630374/classifying-the-body-in-marlene-dumas-the-image-as-burden
#11
Anthea Gordon
Medical photography, and in particular dermatological imagery, is often assumed to provide an objective, and functional, representation of disease and that it can act as a diagnostic aid. By contrast, artistic conceptions of the images of the body tend to focus on interpretative heterogeneity and ambiguity, aiming to create or explore meaning rather than enact a particular function. In her 2015 retrospective exhibition at the Tate Modern, South African artist Marlene Dumas questions these disciplinary divides by using medical imagery (among other photographic sources) as the basis for her portraits...
June 19, 2017: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630253/cold-induced-thermogenesis-and-inflammation-associated-cold-seeking-behavior-are-represented-by-different-dorsomedial-hypothalamic-sites-a-three-dimensional-functional-topography-study-in-conscious-rats
#12
Samuel P Wanner, M Camila Almeida, Yury P Shimansky, Daniela L Oliveira, Justin R Eales, Cândido C Coimbra, Andrej A Romanovsky
In the past, we showed that large electrolytic lesions of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) promoted hypothermia in cold-exposed restrained rats, but attenuated hypothermia in rats challenged with a high dose of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a thermogradient apparatus. The goal of this study was to identify the thermoeffector mechanisms and DMH representation of the two phenomena and, hence, understand how the same lesion could produce two opposite effects on body temperature. We found that the permissive effect of large electrolytic DMH lesions on cold-induced hypothermia was due to suppressed thermogenesis...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629975/anatomical-and-functional-properties-of-the-foot-and-leg-representation-in-areas-3b-1-and-2-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-in-humans-a-7t-fmri-study
#13
Michel Akselrod, Roberto Martuzzi, Andrea Serino, Wietske van der Zwaag, Roger Gassert, Olaf Blanke
Primary somatosensory cortex (S1) processes somatosensory information and is composed of multiple subregions. In particular, tactile information from the skin is encoded in three subregions, namely Brodmann areas (BAs) 3b, 1 and 2, with each area representing a complete map of the contralateral body. Although, much is known about the somatotopic organization of the hand in human S1, less research has been carried out regarding the somatotopic maps of the foot and leg in S1. Moreover, a latero-medial S1 organization along the superior part of the postcentral gyrus has been reported when moving from hip to toes, yet to date there is no study investigating leg/foot maps within the different subregions of S1...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625347/reachability-judgement-in-optic-ataxia-effect-of-peripheral-vision-on-hand-and-target-perception-in-depth
#14
Angela Bartolo, Yves Rossetti, Patrice Revol, Christian Urquizar, Laure Pisella, Yann Coello
The concept of peripersonal space was first proposed by Rizzolatti, Scandolara, Matelli, and Gentilucci (1981), who introduced the term to highlight the close links between somatosensory and visual processing for stimuli close to the body and suggested that this near-body space could in fact be characterized as an action space (Rizzolatti, Fadiga, Fogassi, & Gallese, 1997). Supporting this idea, patients with right hemisphere lesions have been described as impaired in performing actions towards objects and in perceiving their location - but only when the objects were presented within arm's reach (Bartolo, Carlier, Hassaini, Martin, & Coello, 2014; Brain, 1941)...
May 25, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619654/representational-precision-in-visual-cortex-reveals-outcome-encoding-and-reward-modulation-during-action-preparation
#15
Henk van Steenbergen, Christopher M Warren, Simone Kühn, Sanne de Wit, Reinout W Wiers, Bernhard Hommel
According to ideomotor theory, goal-directed action involves the active perceptual anticipation of actions and their associated effects. We used multivariate analysis of fMRI data to test if preparation of an action promotes precision in the perceptual representation of the action. In addition, we tested how reward magnitude modulates this effect. Finally, we examined how expectation and uncertainty impact neural precision in the motor cortex. In line with our predictions, preparation of a hand or face action increased the precision of neural activation patterns in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and fusiform face area (FFA), respectively...
June 12, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610755/epistemological-erasure-the-subject-of-abuse-in-the-problematization-of-elder-abuse
#16
Bridget Garnham, Lia Bryant
The academic field of literature pertaining to elder abuse emerges largely from gerontology with contributions from a variety of disciplines including geriatric medicine, nursing, public health, law, psychology, sociology and social work. This paper presents a critical review of articles drawn from this literature to identify current directions leading the development of empirical research in this field. The objective measurement of prevalence, the identification and correlation of psycho-social risk factors and practice-based research oriented to intervention and prevention are identified as privileged sites for scientific investigation...
April 2017: Journal of Aging Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601369/body-representation-difficulties-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-may-be-due-to-delayed-development-of-visuo-tactile-temporal-binding
#17
Danielle Ropar, Katie Greenfield, Alastair D Smith, Mark Carey, Roger Newport
Recent research suggests visuo-tactile binding is temporally extended in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although it is not clear whether this specifically underlies altered body representation in this population. In the current study children and adolescents with ASD, and typically developing controls, placed their hand into mediated reality system (MIRAGE) and saw two identical live video images of their own right hand. One image was in the proprioceptively correct location (veridical hand) and the other was displaced to either side...
April 27, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600269/gait-recognition-based-on-normal-distance-maps
#18
Hazem El-Alfy, Ikuhisa Mitsugami, Yasushi Yagi
Gait is a commonly used biometric for human recognition. Its main advantage relies on its ability to identify people at distances at which other biometrics fail. In this paper, we develop a new approach for gait recognition that combines the distance transform with curvatures of local contours. We call our gait feature template the normal distance map. Our method encodes both body shapes and boundary curvatures into a novel feature descriptor that is more robust than existing gait representations. We evaluate our approach on the widely used and challenging USF and CASIA-B datasets...
June 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596116/mechanisms-of-neurofeedback-a-computation-theoretic-approach
#19
Eddy J Davelaar
Neurofeedback training is a form of brain training in which information about a neural measure is fed back to the trainee who is instructed to increase or decrease the value of that particular measure. This paper focuses on electroencephalography (EEG) neurofeedback in which the neural measures of interest are the brain oscillations. To date, the neural mechanisms that underlie successful neurofeedback training are still unexplained. Such an understanding would benefit researchers, funding agencies, clinicians, regulatory bodies, and insurance firms...
June 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595055/the-body-model-theory-of-somatosensory-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Michael Brecht
I outline a microcircuit theory of somatosensory cortex as a body model serving both for body representation and "body simulation." A modular model of innervated and non-innervated body parts resides in somatosensory cortical layer 4. This body model is continuously updated and compares to an avatar (an animatable puppet) rather than a mere sensory map. Superficial layers provide context and store sensory memories, whereas layer 5 provides motor output and stores motor memories. I predict that layer-6-to-layer-4 inputs initiate body simulations allowing rehearsal and risk assessment of difficult actions, such as jumps...
June 7, 2017: Neuron
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