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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719840/environmental-and-human-health-challenges-of-industrial-livestock-and-poultry-farming-in-china-and-their-mitigation
#1
REVIEW
Yuanan Hu, Hefa Cheng, Shu Tao
Driven by the growing demand for food products of animal origin, industrial livestock and poultry production has become increasingly popular and is on the track of becoming an important source of environmental pollution in China. Although concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have higher production efficiency and profitability with less resource consumption compared to the traditional family-based and "free range" farming, they bring significant environmental pollution concerns and pose public health risks...
July 15, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532478/study-protocol-a-double-blind-randomised-control-trial-of-high-volume-image-guided-injections-in-achilles-and-patellar-tendinopathy-in-a-young-active-population
#2
Robert M Barker-Davies, Alastair Nicol, I McCurdie, James Watson, Polly Baker, Patrick Wheeler, Daniel Fong, Mark Lewis, Alexander N Bennett
BACKGROUND: Chronic tendinopathy is a significant problem particularly in active populations limiting sporting and occupational performance. The prevalence of patellar tendinopathy in some sports is near 50% and the incidence of lower limb tendinopathy is 1.4% p.a. in the UK Military. Management includes isometric, eccentric, heavy slow resistance exercises and extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT). Often these treatments are inadequate yet there is no good evidence for injection therapies and success rates from surgery can be as low as 50%...
May 22, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480592/slow-myofiber-commitment-by-semaphorin-3a-secreted-from-myogenic-stem-cells
#3
Ryuichi Tatsumi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Yuki Ohya, Judy E Anderson, Ayumi Shibata, Mai Kawaguchi, Shunpei Ohya, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Wataru Mizunoya, Shoko Sawano, Yusuke Komiya, Riho Ichitsubo, Koichi Ojima, Shin-Ichiro Nishimatsu, Tsutomu Nohno, Yutaka Ohsawa, Yoshihide Sunada, Mako Nakamura, Mitsuhiro Furuse, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Takanori Nishimura, Takeshi Yagi, Ronald E Allen
Recently, we found that resident myogenic stem satellite cells upregulate a multi-functional secreted protein, semaphorin 3A (Sema3A), exclusively at the early-differentiation phase in response to muscle injury; however, its physiological significance is still unknown. Here we show that Sema3A impacts slow-twitch fiber generation through a signaling pathway, cell-membrane receptor (neuropilin2-plexinA3) → myogenin-myocyte enhancer factor 2D → slow myosin heavy chain. This novel axis was found by small interfering RNA-transfection experiments in myoblast cultures, which also revealed an additional element that Sema3A-neuropilin1/plexinA1, A2 may enhance slow-fiber formation by activating signals that inhibit fast-myosin expression...
May 7, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409282/motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-resistance-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#4
REVIEW
Jik Nijssen, Laura H Comley, Eva Hedlund
In the fatal disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-upper (corticospinal) motor neurons (MNs) and lower somatic MNs, which innervate voluntary muscles, degenerate. Importantly, certain lower MN subgroups are relatively resistant to degeneration, even though pathogenic proteins are typically ubiquitously expressed. Ocular MNs (OMNs), including the oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nuclei (CNIII, IV and VI), which regulate eye movement, persist throughout the disease. Consequently, eye-tracking devices are used to enable paralysed ALS patients (who can no longer speak) to communicate...
June 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237604/resistance-training-performed-at-distinct-angular-velocities-elicits-velocity-specific-alterations-in-muscle-strength-and-mobility-status-in-older-adults
#5
Davis A Englund, Rick L Sharp, Joshua T Selsby, Shanthi S Ganesan, Warren D Franke
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high and low velocity knee extension training on changes in muscle strength and mobility status in high-functioning older adults. METHODS: Twenty-six (16 female, 10 male) older adults (mean age of 65) were randomized to either 6weeks of low velocity resistance training (LVRT) performed at 75°/s or high velocity resistance training (HVRT) performed at 240°/s. Both groups performed 3 sets of knee extension exercises at maximal effort, 3 times a week...
May 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050266/from-slow-to-fast-hypogravity-induced-remodeling-of-muscle-fiber-myosin-phenotype
#6
B S Shenkman
Skeletal muscle consists of different fiber types arranged in a mosaic pattern. These fiber types are characterized by specific functional properties. Slow-type fibers demonstrate a high level of fatigue resistance and prolonged contraction duration, but decreased maximum contraction force and velocity. Fast-type fibers demonstrate high contraction force and velocity, but profound fatigability. During the last decades, it has been discovered that all these properties are determined by the predominance of slow or fast myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoforms...
October 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891518/size-and-proportions-of-slow-twitch-and-fast-twitch-muscle-fibers-in-human-costal-diaphragm
#7
Marija Meznaric, Erika Cvetko
Smaller diaphragmatic motor unit potentials (MUPs) compared to MUPs of limb muscles lead to the hypothesis that diaphragmatic muscle fibers, being the generators of MUPs, might be also smaller. We compared autopsy samples of costal diaphragm and vastus lateralis of healthy men with respect to fibers' size and expression of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (MyHC-1) and fast 2A isoform (MyHC-2A). Diaphragmatic fibers were smaller than fibers in vastus lateralis with regard to the mean minimal fiber diameter of slow-twitch (46...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845503/is-the-heavy-slow-resistance-program-effective-for-all-patients-with-tendinopathy-and-effective-for-all-its-sites
#8
Dimitrios Stasinopoulos, Peter Malliaras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843312/formulation-characterization-and-tissue-distribution-of-a-novel-ph-sensitive-long-circulating-liposome-based-theranostic-suitable-for-molecular-imaging-and-drug-delivery
#9
Yin Duan, Lihui Wei, Julia Petryk, Terrence D Ruddy
PURPOSE: When designing liposome formulas for treatment and diagnostic purposes, two of the most common challenges are 1) the lack of a specific release mechanism for the encapsulated contents and 2) a short circulation time due to poor resistance to biological fluids. This study aimed to create a liposome formula with prolonged in vivo longevity and pH-sensitivity for cytoplasmic drug delivery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Liposomal particles were generated using hydrogenated soy (HS) phosphatidylcholine, cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEM), polyethylene glycol (PEG) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-modified phosphatidylethanolamine with film hydration and extrusion methods...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539495/contractile-properties-of-motor-units-and-expression-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-in-rat-fast-type-muscle-after-volitional-weight-lifting-training
#10
Dawid Łochyński, Dominik Kaczmarek, Włodzimierz Mrówczyński, Wojciech Warchoł, Joanna Majerczak, Janusz Karasiński, Michał Korostyński, Jerzy A Zoladz, Jan Celichowski
Dynamic resistance training increases the force and speed of muscle contraction, but little is known about modifications to the contractile properties of the main physiological types of motor units (MUs) that contribute to these muscle adaptations. Although the contractile profile of MU muscle fibers is tightly coupled to myosin heavy chain (MyHC) protein expression, it is not well understood if MyHC transition is a prerequisite for modifications to the contractile characteristics of MUs. In this study, we examined MU contractile properties, the mRNA expression of MyHC, parvalbumin, and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump isoforms, as well as the MyHC protein content after 5 wk of volitional progressive weight-lifting training in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in rats...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27417667/fast-to-slow-shift-of-muscle-fiber-type-composition-by-dietary-apple-polyphenols-in-rats-impact-of-the-low-dose-supplementation
#11
Wataru Mizunoya, Shinpei Okamoto, Hideo Miyahara, Mariko Akahoshi, Takahiro Suzuki, Mai-Khoi Q Do, Hideaki Ohtsubo, Yusuke Komiya, Mulan Qahar, Toshiaki Waga, Koichi Nakazato, Yoshihide Ikeuchi, Judy E Anderson, Ryuichi Tatsumi
Our previous studies demonstrated that an 8-week intake of 5% (w/w) apple polyphenol (APP) in the diet improves muscle endurance of young-adult rats. In order to identify a lower limit of the dietary contribution of APP to the effect, the experiments were designed for lower-dose supplementation (8-week feeding of 0.5% APP in AIN-93G diet) to 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Results clearly showed that the 0.5% APP diet significantly up-regulates slower myosin-heavy-chain (MyHC) isoform ratios (IIx and IIa relative to total MyHC) and myoglobin expression in lower hind-limb muscles examined (P < 0...
March 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27199166/skeletal-muscle-fiber-type-using-insights-from-muscle-developmental-biology-to-dissect-targets-for-susceptibility-and-resistance-to-muscle-disease
#12
REVIEW
Jared Talbot, Lisa Maves
Skeletal muscle fibers are classified into fiber types, in particular, slow twitch versus fast twitch. Muscle fiber types are generally defined by the particular myosin heavy chain isoforms that they express, but many other components contribute to a fiber's physiological characteristics. Skeletal muscle fiber type can have a profound impact on muscle diseases, including certain muscular dystrophies and sarcopenia, the aging-induced loss of muscle mass and strength. These findings suggest that some muscle diseases may be treated by shifting fiber type characteristics either from slow to fast, or fast to slow phenotypes, depending on the disease...
July 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973542/muscle-specific-myosin-heavy-chain-shifts-in-response-to-a-long-term-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-and-resveratrol-treatment-in-nonhuman-primates
#13
Jon-Philippe K Hyatt, Lisa Nguyen, Allison E Hall, Ashley M Huber, Jessica C Kocan, Julie A Mattison, Rafael de Cabo, Jeannine R LaRocque, Robert J Talmadge
Shifts in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression within skeletal muscle can be induced by a host of stimuli including, but not limited to, physical activity, alterations in neural activity, aging, and diet or obesity. Here, we hypothesized that both age and a long-term (2 year) high fat/high sugar diet (HFS) would induce a slow to fast MHC shift within the plantaris, soleus, and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, we tested whether supplementation with resveratrol, a naturally occurring compound that has been attributed with augmenting aerobic potential through mitochondrial proliferation, would counteract any diet-induced MHC changes by promoting a fast to slow isoform switch...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26903975/the-lysobacter-capsici-az78-genome-has-a-gene-pool-enabling-it-to-interact-successfully-with-phytopathogenic-microorganisms-and-environmental-factors
#14
Gerardo Puopolo, Selena Tomada, Paolo Sonego, Marco Moretto, Kristof Engelen, Michele Perazzolli, Ilaria Pertot
Lysobacter capsici AZ78 has considerable potential for biocontrol of phytopathogenic microorganisms. However, lack of information about genetic cues regarding its biological characteristics may slow down its exploitation as a biofungicide. In order to obtain a comprehensive overview of genetic features, the L. capsici AZ78 genome was sequenced, annotated and compared with the phylogenetically related pathogens Stenotrophomonas malthophilia K729a and Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris ATCC 33913. Whole genome comparison, supported by functional analysis, indicated that L...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26676053/myosin-content-of-individual-human-muscle-fibers-isolated-by-laser-capture-microdissection
#15
Charles A Stuart, William L Stone, Mary E A Howell, Marianne F Brannon, H Kenton Hall, Andrew L Gibson, Michael H Stone
Muscle fiber composition correlates with insulin resistance, and exercise training can increase slow-twitch (type I) fibers and, thereby, mitigate diabetes risk. Human skeletal muscle is made up of three distinct fiber types, but muscle contains many more isoforms of myosin heavy and light chains, which are coded by 15 and 11 different genes, respectively. Laser capture microdissection techniques allow assessment of mRNA and protein content in individual fibers. We found that specific human fiber types contain different mixtures of myosin heavy and light chains...
March 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26107816/autophagy-associated-atrophy-and-metabolic-remodeling-of-the-mouse-diaphragm-after-short-term-intermittent-hypoxia
#16
Christian Giordano, Christian Lemaire, Tong Li, R John Kimoff, Basil J Petrof
BACKGROUND: Short-term intermittent hypoxia (IH) is common in patients with acute respiratory disorders. Although prolonged exposure to hypoxia induces atrophy and increased fatigability of skeletal muscle, the response to short-term IH is less well known. We hypothesized that the diaphragm and limb muscles would adapt differently to short-term IH given that hypoxia stimulates ventilation and triggers a superimposed exercise stimulus in the diaphragm. METHODS: We determined the structural, metabolic, and contractile properties of the mouse diaphragm after 4 days of IH (8 hours per day, 30 episodes per hour to a FiO2 nadir=6%), and compared responses in the diaphragm to a commonly studied reference limb muscle, the tibialis anterior...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26069013/determination-of-muscle-fiber-type-in-rodents
#17
Bernadett Kalmar, Gonzalo Blanco, Linda Greensmith
Skeletal muscles consist of muscle fibers that can differ in both composition and functional characteristics. These three types of muscle fibers, broadly categorized as slow, fast IIa, and fast IIb muscle fibers, express characteristic myosin heavy chain proteins and have different metabolic and enzymatic activities, which can be used as surrogate markers to identify the different fiber types. Pathological changes affecting the muscle, such as denervation, muscle disuse, and atrophy not only manifest on a functional level, but also as marked changes in the composition of muscle fiber type of individual muscles...
2012: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26018970/heavy-slow-resistance-versus-eccentric-training-as-treatment-for-achilles-tendinopathy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Rikke Beyer, Mads Kongsgaard, Birgitte Hougs Kjær, Tommy Øhlenschlæger, Michael Kjær, S Peter Magnusson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that eccentric training has a positive effect on Achilles tendinopathy, but few randomized controlled trials have compared it with other loading-based treatment regimens. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of eccentric training (ECC) and heavy slow resistance training (HSR) among patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 58 patients with chronic (>3 months) midportion Achilles tendinopathy were randomized to ECC or HSR for 12 weeks...
July 2015: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25857846/role-of-contraction-duration-in-inducing-fast-to-slow-contractile-and-metabolic-protein-and-functional-changes-in-engineered-muscle
#19
Alastair Khodabukus, Leslie M Baehr, Sue C Bodine, Keith Baar
The role of factors such as frequency, contraction duration and active time in the adaptation to chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation (CLFS) is widely disputed. In this study we explore the ability of contraction duration (0.6, 6, 60, and 600 sec) to induce a fast-to-slow shift in engineered muscle while using a stimulation frequency of 10 Hz and keeping active time constant at 60%. We found that all contraction durations induced similar slowing of time-to-peak tension. Despite similar increases in total myosin heavy (MHC) levels with stimulation, increasing contraction duration resulted in progressive decreases in total fast myosin...
October 2015: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25758255/the-addition-of-beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate-and-isomaltulose-to-whey-protein-improves-recovery-from-highly-demanding-resistance-exercise
#20
William J Kraemer, David R Hooper, Tunde K Szivak, Brian R Kupchak, Courtenay Dunn-Lewis, Brett A Comstock, Shawn D Flanagan, David P Looney, Adam J Sterczala, William H DuPont, J Luke Pryor, Hiu-Ying Luk, Jesse Maladoungdock, Danielle McDermott, Jeff S Volek, Carl M Maresh
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated whether a combination of whey protein (WP), calcium beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), and carbohydrate exert additive effects on recovery from highly demanding resistance exercise. METHODS: Thirteen resistance-trained men (age: 22.6 ± 3.9 years; height: 175.3 ± 12.2 cm; weight: 86.2 ± 9.8 kg) completed a double-blinded, counterbalanced, within-group study. Subjects ingested EAS Recovery Protein (RP; EAS Sports Nutrition/Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) or WP twice daily for 2 weeks prior to, during, and for 2 days following 3 consecutive days of intense resistance exercise...
2015: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
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