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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222526/numerical-value-biases-sound-localization
#1
Edward J Golob, Jörg Lewald, Stephan Getzmann, Jeffrey R Mock
Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9)...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220324/performance-of-optimized-prosthetic-ankle-designs-that-are-based-on-a-hydraulic-variable-displacement-actuator-vda
#2
James Gardiner, Abu Zeeshan Bari, Laurence Kenney, Martin Twiste, David Moser, Saeed Zahedi, David Howard
Current energy storage and return prosthetic feet only marginally reduce the cost of amputee locomotion compared with basic solid ankle cushioned heel feet, possibly due to their lack of push-off at the end of stance. To the best of our knowledge, a prosthetic ankle that utilizes a hydraulic variable displacement actuator (VDA) to improve push-off performance has not previously been proposed. Therefore, here we report a design optimization and simulation feasibility study for a VDA-based prosthetic ankle. The proposed device stores the eccentric ankle work done from heel strike to maximum dorsiflexion in a hydraulic accumulator and then returns the stored energy to power push-off...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220207/mr-imaging-of-muscle-trauma-anatomy-biomechanics-pathophysiology-and-imaging-appearance
#3
Dyan V Flores, Catalina Mejía Gómez, Mauricio Estrada-Castrillón, Edward Smitaman, Mini N Pathria
Muscle is an important component of the muscle-tendon-bone unit, driving skeletal motion through contractions that alter the length of the muscle. The muscle and myotendinous junction (MTJ) are most commonly injured in the young adult, as a result of indirect mechanisms such as overuse or stretching, direct impact (penetrating or nonpenetrating), or dysfunction of the supporting connective tissues. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is widely used for assessment of muscle injuries. This review illustrates the MR imaging appearance of a broad spectrum of acute, subacute, and chronic traumatic lesions of muscle, highlighting the pathophysiology, biomechanics, and anatomic considerations underlying these lesions...
December 8, 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216288/adaptations-in-antagonist-co-activation-role-in-the-repeated-bout-effect
#4
Robert E Hight, Travis W Beck, Debra A Bemben, Christopher D Black
Eccentric exercise results in an adaptation which attenuates muscle damage from subsequent exercise-termed the "repeated-bout effect (RBE)." PURPOSE: Study examined antagonist co-activation and motor-unit recruitment strategy, assessed via dEMG, concomitant to the RBE. METHODS: Nine participants performed 5 sub-maximal isometric trapezoid (ramp-up, hold, ramp-down) contractions at force levels corresponding to 50% and 80% of maximal isometric strength (MVC). Surface EMG signals of the biceps brachii were decomposed into individual motor-unit action potential trains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215198/inflammatory-signalling-regulates-eccentric-contraction-induced-protein-synthesis-in-cachectic-skeletal-muscle
#5
Justin P Hardee, Brittany R Counts, Song Gao, Brandon N VanderVeen, Dennis K Fix, Ho-Jin Koh, James A Carson
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle responds to eccentric contractions (ECC) with an anabolic response that involves the induction of protein synthesis through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. While we have reported that repeated ECC bouts after cachexia initiation attenuated muscle mass loss and inflammatory signalling, cachectic muscle's capacity to induce protein synthesis in response to ECC has not been determined. Therefore, we examined cachectic muscle's ability to induce mechano-sensitive pathways and protein synthesis in response to an anabolic stimulus involving ECC and determined the role of muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signalling on ECC-induced anabolic signalling...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214778/supplementary-diagnostic-landmarks-of-left-ventricular-non-compaction-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#6
Marko Boban, Vladimir Pesa, Natko Beck, Sime Manola, Marinko Zulj, Ante Rotim, Aleksandar Vcev
PURPOSE: Diagnostic criteria for left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) are still a matter of dispute. The aim of our present study was to test the diagnostic value of two novel diagnostic cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters: proof of non-compact (NC) myocardium blood flow using T2 sequences and changes in geometry of the left ventricle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included cases with LVNC and controls, from a data base formed in a period of 3.5 years (n=1890 exams), in which CMR protocol included T2 sequences...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213209/creep-and-cracking-of-concrete-hinges-insight-from-centric-and-eccentric-compression-experiments
#7
Thomas Schlappal, Michael Schweigler, Susanne Gmainer, Martin Peyerl, Bernhard Pichler
Existing design guidelines for concrete hinges consider bending-induced tensile cracking, but the structural behavior is oversimplified to be time-independent. This is the motivation to study creep and bending-induced tensile cracking of initially monolithic concrete hinges systematically. Material tests on plain concrete specimens and structural tests on marginally reinforced concrete hinges are performed. The experiments characterize material and structural creep under centric compression as well as bending-induced tensile cracking and the interaction between creep and cracking of concrete hinges...
2017: Materials and Structures
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212849/trim63-murf-1-gene-polymorphism-is-associated-with-biomarkers-of-exercise-induced-muscle-damage
#8
Philipp Baumert, Mark J Lake, Barry Drust, Claire Stewart, Robert M Erskine
Unaccustomed strenuous exercise can lead to muscle strength loss, inflammation and delayed onset muscle soreness, which may be influenced by genetic variation. We investigated if a missense single nucleotide polymorphism (A>G, rs2275950) within the TRIM63 gene (encoding MuRF-1 and potentially affecting titin mechanical properties) was associated with the variable response to unaccustomed eccentric exercise. Sixty-five untrained, healthy participants (genotyped for rs2275950: AA, AG and GG) performed 120 maximal eccentric knee extensions (ECC) to induce muscle damage...
December 6, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212004/investigating-focal-adhesion-substructures-by-localization-microscopy
#9
Hendrik Deschout, Ilia Platzman, Daniel Sage, Lely Feletti, Joachim P Spatz, Aleksandra Radenovic
Cells rely on focal adhesions (FAs) to carry out a variety of important tasks, including motion, environmental sensing, and adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Although attaining a fundamental characterization of FAs is a compelling goal, their extensive complexity and small size, which can be below the diffraction limit, have hindered a full understanding. In this study we have used single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM) to investigate integrin β3 and paxillin in rat embryonic fibroblasts growing on two different extracellular matrix-representing substrates (i...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209154/effects-of-two-pre-workout-supplements-on-concentric-and-eccentric-force-production-during-lower-body-resistance-exercise-in-males-and-females-a-counterbalanced-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Grant M Tinsley, Matthew A Hamm, Amy K Hurtado, Austin G Cross, Jose G Pineda, Austin Y Martin, Victor A Uribe, Ty B Palmer
Background: Pre-workout supplements purportedly enhance feelings of energy, reduce fatigue and improve exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance effects of caffeinated and non-caffeinated multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements. Methods: In a counterbalanced, double-blind, placebo-controlled design, eccentric and concentric force production during lower body resistance exercise on a mechanized squat device were assessed after supplement ingestion...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207943/auxiliary-diagnostic-potential-of-ventricle-geometry-and-late-gadolinium-enhancement-in-left-ventricular-non-compaction-non-randomized-case-control-study
#11
Marko Boban, Vladimir Pesa, Ivo Darko Gabric, Sime Manola, Viktor Persic, Helena Antic-Kauzlaric, Marinko Zulj, Aleksandar Vcev
BACKGROUND: There are still ambiguities existing in regard to left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) diagnostic imaging. The aim of our study was to analyze diagnostic potential of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and ventricle geometry in patients with LVNC and controls. METHODS: Data on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) studies for LVNC were reassessed from the hospital's database (3.75 years; n=1975 exams). Matching sample of controls included cases with no structural heart disease, hypertrophic or dilative cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia or subacute myocarditis...
December 6, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206782/muscle-fiber-and-performance-changes-after-fast-eccentric-complex-training
#12
Gregory C Bogdanis, Athanasios Tsoukos, Lee E Brown, Elisavet Selima, Panagiotis Veligekas, Konstantinos Spengos, Gerasimos Terzis
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a short-term fast eccentric and ballistic complex training program on muscle power, rate of force development (RFD), muscle fiber composition and cross-sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Sixteen male physical education students were randomly assigned to either a training group (TG, n=8) or a control group (C, n=8). The TG followed a 6-week low volume training program, including fast eccentric squat training with an individually optimized load of 74±7% of maximal half-squat strength (1RM) twice per week and a ballistic training session with loaded (30% 1RM) and unloaded jump squats, once per week, all combined with unloaded plyometric jumps...
December 2, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206755/the-oasis-mp-1-substudy-characterization-of-the-effect-of-ocriplasmin-on-microperimetry-parameters
#13
SriniVas R Sadda, Pravin U Dugel, Victor H Gonzalez, Esmeralda Meunier, Petra Kozma
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of ocriplasmin and symptomatic vitreomacular adhesion resolution on visual fixation and macular sensitivity using microperimetry. METHODS: MP-1 parameters were analyzed from 3 OASIS sites after the use of standardized instruments and testing procedures over 24 months. RESULTS: A total of 27 patients (19 ocriplasmin, 8 sham) were evaluated. Mean distance of the preferred fixation locus to the anatomical center was farther in the sham group at baseline and farther in the sham versus ocriplasmin group throughout the study...
December 4, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204647/the-preferred-retinal-locus-used-to-watch-videos
#14
Francisco M Costela, Sidika Kajtezovic, Russell L Woods
Purpose: Eccentric viewing is a common strategy used by people with central vision loss (CVL) to direct the eye such that the image falls onto functioning peripheral retina, known as the preferred retinal locus (PRL). It has been long acknowledged that we do not know whether the PRL used in a fixation test is also used when performing tasks. We present an innovative method to determine whether the same PRL observed during a fixation task was used to watch videos and whether poor resolution affects gaze location...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203826/blink-associated-resetting-eye-movements-barms-are-functionally-complementary-to-microsaccades-in-correcting-for-fixation-errors
#15
Mohammad Farhan Khazali, Joern K Pomper, Peter Thier
Blinks do not only protect the eye, but they do also correct for torsional eye position deviations by blink-associated resetting eye movements (BARMs). Although BARMs are functionally distinct from other eye movements in the torsional dimension, it has remained open if BARMs observed in the horizontal and vertical dimensions (fixational BARMs) are not simply microsaccades coinciding with blinks. We show here that fixational BARMs are functionally distinct and complementary to microsaccades in the following way: First, they compensate for large fixational error more efficiently than microsaccades, secondly, their probability to be executed in eccentric eye positions is higher, and thirdly, they reset the eyes into a position zone that is broader as compared to microsaccades...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201821/effects-of-early-combined-eccentric-concentric-versus-concentric-resistance-training-following-total-knee-arthroplasty
#16
Min Ji Suh, Bo Ryun Kim, Sang Rim Kim, Eun Young Han, So Young Lee
Objective: To investigate the effects of early combined eccentric-concentric (ECC-CON) or concentric (CON) resistance training following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Methods: Patients who underwent a primary TKA were randomly assigned to an ECC-CON group (n=16) or a CON group (n=18). All patients received early, progressive resistance training with five sessions per week for 2 weeks starting 2 weeks after TKA. Isometric knee flexor and extensor strength of the surgical and non-surgical knees, instrumental gait analysis for spatiotemporal parameters, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), Timed Stair Climbing Test (SCT) were used to evaluate performance-based physical function...
October 2017: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199785/acute-effect-of-moderate-intensity-concentric-and-eccentric-exercise-on-cardiac-effort-perceived-exertion-and-interleukin-6-level-in-physically-inactive-males
#17
Mayank Agarwal, Shraddha Singh, Priyanka Sharma, Rahul Saini
BACKGROUND: Muscle-derived interleukin-6 (IL-6) not only enhances glucose and fat metabolism but also has an anti-inflammatory effect that can prevent the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome. Dynamic resistance exercise comprises a muscle shortening and a lengthening phase known as concentric and eccentric contraction respectively. We compared an acute bout of concentric exercise (CE) with eccentric exercise (EE) for the serum IL-6 concentration, myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE)...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199523/functional-shoulder-ratios-with-high-velocities-of-shoulder-internal-rotation-are-most-sensitive-to-determine-shoulder-rotation-torque-imbalance-a-cross-sectional-study-with-elite-handball-players-and-controls
#18
Marcelo Peduzzi de Castro, Pedro Fonseca, Sara Tribuzi Morais, Márcio Borgonovo-Santos, Eduardo Filipe Cruz Coelho, Daniel Cury Ribeiro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
The aim of the present study was to determine which approach to calculating shoulder ratios is the most sensitive for determining shoulder torque imbalance in handball players. Twenty-six participants (handball athletes, n = 13; healthy controls, n = 13) performed isokinetic concentric and eccentric shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) assessment at 60, 180 and 300°/s. We used eight approaches to calculating shoulder ratios: four concentric (i.e. concentric ER torque divided by concentric IR torque), and four functional (i...
December 4, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199471/outcomes-of-triceps-rupture-in-the-us-military-minimum-2-year-follow-up
#19
John C Dunn, Nicholas Kusnezov, Austin Fares, Kelly Kilcoyne, E'stephan Garcia, Justin D Orr, Brian R Waterman
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to examine the subjective and objective midterm functional clinical outcomes of surgically repaired triceps injuries in a moderate- to high-demand population. METHODS: The US Military Health System was queried to identify all surgically treated triceps tendon ruptures between 2008 and 2013. Primary endpoints included rates of rerupture, perioperative complications, or significant persistent elbow dysfunction; Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, Mayo Elbow score, and ability to do push-ups were also extracted...
December 1, 2017: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196948/fracture-behavior-of-all-ceramic-implant-supported-and-tooth-implant-supported-fixed-dental-prostheses
#20
Abdul Rahman Alkharrat, Marc Schmitter, Stefan Rues, Peter Rammelsberg
OBJECTIVES: In vitro investigation of the effects of fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) support and loading conditions on the fracture behavior of all-ceramic, zirconia-based FDP veneered with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-manufactured lithium disilicate ceramic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Based on a model for a 3-unit FDP in the molar region (tooth in region 15, implant in region 17), 16 identical zirconia frameworks were fabricated and veneered with milled lithium disilicate ceramic...
December 2, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
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