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Anterior pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151078/therapeutic-effect-of-exogenous-ghrelin-in-the-healing-of-gingival-ulcers-is-mediated-by-the-release-of-endogenous-growth-hormone-and-insulin-like-growth-factor-1
#1
J Cieszkowski, Z Warzecha, P Ceranowicz, D Ceranowicz, B Kusnierz-Cabala, M Pedziwiatr, M Dembinski, T Ambrozy, T Kaczmarzyk, M Pihut, M Wieckiewicz, R Olszanecki, A Dembinski
Ghrelin, an acylated 28-amino acid polypeptide, was primary isolated from the stomach, and the stomach is a main source of circulating ghrelin. Ghrelin strongly and dose-dependently stimulates release of growth hormone from the anterior pituitary, as well as increases food intake and fat deposition. Previous studies showed that ghrelin exhibits protective and therapeutic effect in different parts of the gastrointestinal system, including the oral cavity. The aim of present study was to examine the role of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the healing of gingival ulcers...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146098/characterization-of-polymorphism-in-the-fsh-receptor-gene-and-its-impact-on-some-reproductive-indices-in-dairy-cows
#2
Hassan Sharifiyazdi, Abdolah Mirzaei, Zahra Ghanaatian
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is released from the anterior pituitary gland and has an important role in female fertility. As FSH is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone which cannot pass through the cell membrane, its influence on target cells must be mediated by the FSH receptor (FSHR). Accordingly, any kind of mutation in FSHR can affect reproduction in dairy cows. In this study, the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used for recognition of a point mutation (A/G: position -278) located in the FSHR gene in Iranian dairy cows...
November 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140989/joint-approach-based-on-clinical-and-imaging-features-to-distinguish-non-neoplastic-from-neoplastic-pituitary-stalk-lesions
#3
Ji Ye Lee, Ji Eun Park, Woo Hyun Shim, Seung Chai Jung, Choong Gon Choi, Sang Joon Kim, Jeong Hoon Kim, Ho Sung Kim
PURPOSE: Distinguishing non-neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (non-NPSLs) from neoplastic pituitary stalk lesions (NPSLs) is a major concern in guiding treatment for a thickened pituitary stalk. Our study aimed to aid provide preoperative diagnostic assistance by combining clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings to distinguish non-NPSLs from NPSLs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 158 patients with thickened pituitary stalk lesions visible on MRI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135804/surgical-management-of-tumors-involving-meckel-s-cave-and-cavernous-sinus-role-of-an-extended-middle-fossa-and-lateral-sphenoidectomy-approach
#4
Daniel Q Sun, Arnold H Menezes, Matthew A Howard, Bruce J Gantz, David M Hasan, Marlan R Hansen
OBJECTIVE: To study the indications and outcomes of lateral sphenoidectomy as part of a combined skull base approach in the treatment of tumors involving Meckel's cave (MC) and cavernous sinus (CS). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient series. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Twenty-two consecutive patients (mean age: 45 yr, range: 16-76) who underwent transzygomatic, extended middle fossa approaches for tumors involving MC and CS...
November 13, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130118/sox10-positive-cells-emerge-in-the-rat-pituitary-gland-during-late-embryogenesis-and-start-to-express-s100%C3%AE
#5
Hiroki Ueharu, Saishu Yoshida, Naoko Kanno, Kotaro Horiguchi, Naoto Nishimura, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
In the pituitary gland, S100β-positive cells localize in the neurohypophysis and adenohypophysis but the lineage of the two groups remains obscure. S100β is often observed in many neural crest-derived cell types. Therefore, in this study, we investigate the origin of pituitary S100β-positive cells by immunohistochemistry for SOX10, a potent neural crest cell marker, using S100β-green fluorescence protein-transgenic rats. On embryonic day 21.5, a SOX10-positive cell population, which was also positive for the stem/progenitor cell marker SOX2, emerged in the pituitary stalk and posterior lobe and subsequently expanded to create a rostral-caudal gradient on postnatal day 3 (P3)...
November 13, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125446/suprasellar-and-recurrent-pediatric-craniopharyngiomas-expanding-indications-for-the-extended-endoscopic-transsphenoidal-approach
#6
Andrew F Alalade, Elizabeth Ogando-Rivas, Jerome Boatey, Mark M Souweidane, Vijay K Anand, Jeffrey P Greenfield, Theodore H Schwartz
OBJECTIVE The expanded endonasal endoscopic transsphenoidal approach has become increasingly used for craniopharyngioma surgery in the pediatric population, but questions still persist regarding its utility in younger children, in recurrent and irradiated tumors, and in masses primarily located in the suprasellar region. The narrow corridor, incomplete pneumatization, and fear of hypothalamic injury have traditionally relegated this approach to application in older children with mostly cystic craniopharyngiomas centered in the sella...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117664/pituitary-abscess-with-unusual-clinical-course
#7
Milica Medić Stojanoska, Duško Kozić, Mladen Bjelan, Petar Vuleković, Nada Vučković, Bojan Vuković, Branka Kovačev Zavišić
The aim is to present unusual clinical course and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of pituitary abscess. A 59-year-old man presented with fever, polyuria, polydipsia and marked weight loss within the last two months. Basic endocrinology tests revealed the presence of anterior pituitary dysfunction, associated with central diabetes insipidus and increased levels of inflammatory markers. The presence of expansile sellar lesion, showing restricted diffusion signal pattern compatible with acute pituitary pyogenic abscess was found on MRI...
December 2016: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108816/obestatin-stimulates-the-somatotrophic-axis-activity-in-sheep
#8
Anna Wójcik-Gładysz, Michał Szlis, Anna Misztal, Bartosz Jarosław Przybył, Jolanta Polkowska
The effects of obestatin (an anorexigenic peripheral peptide) on somatotrophic axis activity in ruminants have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequence of intracerebroventricular infusions of obestatin on the activity of the somatotrophic axis in peripubertal female sheep. Animals were randomly divided into two groups: control group received intracerebroventricular infusions of the vehicle, and the obestatin group was infused with obestatin (25 µg/120 µL h(-1)). The series of four hourly infusions on three consecutive days were performed...
November 3, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107713/the-enduring-impact-of-neurulation-stage-alcohol-exposure-a-combined-behavioral-and-structural-neuroimaging-study-in-adult-male-and-female-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
E W Fish, L A Wieczorek, A Rumple, M Suttie, S S Moy, P Hammond, S E Parnell
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can cause behavioral and brain alterations over the lifespan. In animal models, these effects can occur following PAE confined to critical developmental periods, equivalent to the third and fourth weeks of human gestation, before pregnancy is usually recognized. The current study focuses on PAE during early neurulation and examines the behavioral and brain structural consequences that appear in adulthood. On gestational day 8 C57BL/6J dams received two alcohol (2.8g/kg, i.p), or vehicle, administrations, four hours apart...
October 28, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106072/regulation-of-continuous-but-complex-expression-pattern-of-six1-during-early-sensory-development
#10
Shigeru Sato, Yasuhide Furuta, Kiyoshi Kawakami
BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, cranial sensory placodes give rise to neurosensory and endocrine structures such as the olfactory epithelium, inner ear and anterior pituitary. We report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of Six1-21, a major placodal enhancer of the homeobox gene Six1. RESULTS: In the new Cre-expressing line, mSix1-21-NLSCre, the earliest Cre-mediated recombination was induced at embryonic day 8...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102564/gonadotropin-regulation-by-pulsatile-gnrh-signaling-and-gene-expression
#11
REVIEW
George A Stamatiades, Ursula B Kaiser
The precise orchestration of hormonal regulation at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is essential for normal reproductive function and fertility. The pulsatile secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the synthesis and release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) by pituitary gonadotropes. GnRH acts by binding to its high affinity seven-transmembrane receptor (GnRHR) on the cell surface of anterior pituitary gonadotropes. Different signaling cascades and transcriptional mechanisms are activated, depending on the variation in GnRH pulse frequency, to stimulate the synthesis and release of FSH and LH...
November 2, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076466/-a-supraorbital-trans-eyebrow-approach-in-surgery-of-chiasmatic-sellar-and-anterior-cranial-fossa-tumors
#12
A G Alekseev, A A Pichugin, V I Danilov
OBJECTIVE: to analyze 31 resections of chiasmatic-sellar region (CSR) and anterior cranial fossa (ACF) tumors using the supraorbital trans-eyebrow approach (STA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed medical histories of 31 patients who underwent tumor resection using STA in the period between October 2013 and April 2017. We analyzed the age and gender of patients, size and location of the tumor, presence of a neurological deficit, vision and olfactory functions before and after surgery, surgery duration, amount of intraoperative blood loss, rate of frontal sinus trephination and nasal liquorrhea, hemorrhagic and ischemic complications after surgery, Simpson grade of tumor resection, patient's condition before and after surgery (Glasgow Outcome Scale and Karnofsky Scale), and degree of patient satisfaction with the cosmetic result of surgery...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070772/coexisting-thymic-and-pulmonary-carcinoid-tumors-associated-with-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type1
#13
Makoto Motoishi, Kanna Horimoto, Kazuki Hayashi, Satoru Sawai, Koki Moriyoshi
An anterior mediastinal tumor was detected in a 45-year-old female during a medical checkup. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed the anterior mediastinal tumor and a pulmonary tumor in the right lower lobe. Furthermore, tumors of the parathyroid gland, pancreas, and pituitary gland were also detected. She was clinically diagnosed with multiple endocrine neoplasia type1 (MEN1). The patient underwent extended thymectomy combined with mediastinal lymph node dissection and wedge resection of the lung including the right pulmonary lesion via a median sternotomy...
October 26, 2017: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065048/primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-of-optic-chiasma-endoscopic-endonasal-treatment
#14
Evin Singar Ozdemir, Ali Erdem Yildirim, Aslihan Yavas Can
BACKGROUND: Isolated primary central nervous system lymphoma arising from anterior visual pathway is very rare. PATIENT PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old immunocompetent previously healthy man presented bilateral decreased visual acuity in 1 month. Pituitary magnetic resonans imaging (MRI) showed a lobulated mass with homogeneous enhancement after gadolinium administration that arising from optic chiasm suggested that inflammatory disease or an optic glioma. The patient underwent an extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064038/hypofractionated-high-energy-proton-beam-irradiation-is-an-alternative-treatment-for-who-grade-i-meningiomas
#15
Pavlos Vlachogiannis, Olafur Gudjonsson, Anders Montelius, Erik Grusell, Ulf Isacsson, Kristina Nilsson, Erik Blomquist
BACKGROUND: Radiation treatment is commonly employed in the treatment of meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of hypofractionated high-energy proton therapy as adjuvant or primary treatment for WHO grade I meningiomas. METHOD: A total of 170 patients who received irradiation with protons for grade I meningiomas between 1994 and 2007 were included in the study. The majority of the tumours were located at the skull base (n = 155)...
October 24, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056567/molecular-forms-of-c-type-natriuretic-peptide-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-reflect-differential-processing-in-brain-and-pituitary-tissues
#16
Michele O Wilson, Graham K Barrell, Timothy C R Prickett, Eric A Espiner
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a paracrine growth factor widely expressed within tissues of the central nervous system. Consistent with this is the high concentration of CNP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), exceeding levels in the systemic circulation. CNP abundance is high in hypothalamus and especially enriched in pituitary tissue where - in contrast to hypothalamus - processing to CNP-22 is minimal. Recently we have shown that dexamethasone acutely raises CNP peptides throughout the brain as well as in CSF and plasma...
October 19, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055223/pituitary-apoplexy-a-single-center-retrospective-study-from-the-neurosurgical-perspective-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Agnieszka Grzywotz, Bernadette Kleist, Lars C Möller, Volkmar H Hans, Sophia Göricke, Ulrich Sure, Oliver Müller, Ilonka Kreitschmann-Andermahr
OBJECTIVE: Thunderclap headache and visual disturbances are typical clinical features of pituitary apoplexy (PA). Because of the acute symptomatology, many patients are referred to a neurosurgical department without prior endocrinological assessment. It is the aim of the present study to analyze initial presenting symptoms, outcome and associated endocrine disturbances in a cohort of patients with pituitary apoplexy primarily seen by neurosurgeons. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective single-center study in a neurosurgical department...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040698/clinical-outcome-after-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-tuberculum-sella-meningiomas
#18
Khaled Elshazly, Varun R Kshettry, Christopher J Farrell, Gurston Nyquist, Marc Rosen, James J Evans
BACKGROUND: In select cases, the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) has distinct advantages for resection of tuberculum sella meningiomas (TSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the extent of resection (EOR), complication rates, and outcomes in a large series of TSM treated by the EEA. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive TSM cases treated by EEA from 2008 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient history, imaging, volumetric EOR, complications, and outcomes are presented...
October 10, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031543/down-regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-rii-expression-is-correlated-with-tumor-growth-and-invasion-in-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas
#19
Ying-Hao Gu, Yu-Gong Feng
The two types of TGF-β receptors play a crucial role in TGF-β signaling. It has been reported that TGF-β signaling activity may be associated with the development and invasion of NFPAs. However, the role of TGF-β receptor signaling in NFPAs has not been fully explored. In this study, the expression of TGF-β RI and TGF-β RII in normal anterior pituitaries, invasive NFPAs and non-invasive NFPAs was analyzed by qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. We found that TGF-β RII protein and mRNA levels gradually decreased from normal anterior pituitaries, noninvasive NFPAs to invasive NFPAs...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030125/prolactin-gene-expression-in-the-pituitary-of-rats-subjected-to-vaginocervical-stimulation-requires-erk-1-2-signaling
#20
Patricia Reuquen, Emanuel Guajardo-Correa, María L Oróstica, Constanza Curotto, Alexis Parada-Bustamante, Hugo Cardenas, Pedro A Orihuela
Vaginocervical stimulation (VCS) induces twice-daily prolactin (PRL) surges resulting in pseudopregnancy in the rat. Furthermore, activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (Erk-1/2) is involved in the effect of estradiol (E2) on the Prl gene expression in pituitary cells. Herein, we investigated whether Erk-1/2 signaling is involved in the control of Prl expression in the pituitary of VCS rats and whether VCS regulates the effect of E2 on Erk-1/2 and Prl in the pituitary. Estrous rats were assigned as control or VCS groups and 0, 6, 12 or 24h later the levels and localization of phosphorylated Erk-1/2 (p-Erk-1/2) were analyzed in the pituitary...
October 10, 2017: Reproductive Biology
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