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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546800/hyperprolactinaemia-a-problem-in-patients-from-the-reproductive-period-to-the-menopause
#1
Sylwia Pałubska, Aneta Adamiak-Godlewska, Izabela Winkler, Katarzyna Romanek-Piva, Tomasz Rechberger, Marek Gogacz
Hyperprolactinaemia especially affects women in reproductive age (90/100,000) but also often is diagnosed in menopause age and leads to disturbances in functioning of LH-RH neurons and, as a consequence, to a decrease of FSH and LH, which causes inhibition of oestradiol production. Prolactin is a peptide hormone, phylogenetically one of the oldest, stimulating cells of various organs, which is produced and secreted mainly by lactotrophic acidophilic cells of the anterior lobe of the pituitary. It influences the increase in the mass of the mammary glands, and stimulation and maintenance of lactation after delivery...
March 2017: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542730/estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-regulates-the-tumoral-suppressor-pten-to-modulate-pituitary-cell-growth
#2
Pablo Anibal Perez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Florencia Picech, Carolina Beatriz Guido, Liliana Del Valle Sosa, Ezequiel Grondona, Jorge Humberto Mukdsi, Ana Lucia De Paul, Alicia Ines Torres, Silvina Gutierrez
In this study, we focused on ERβ regulation in the adenohypophysis under different estrogenic milieu, by analyzing whether ER modulates the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression and its subcellular localization on anterior pituitary glands from Wistar rats and GH3 lactosomatotroph cells that over-expressed ERβ. ERβ was regulated in a cyclic manner, and underwent dynamic changes throughout the estrous cycle, with decreased ERβ+ cells in estrus and under E2 treatment, but increased in ovariectomized rats...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526958/-ectopic-suprasellar-type-iia-prl-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#3
REVIEW
Heng-Jun Zhou, De-Sheng Pan, Xiao-Qun Ba, Ren-Ya Zhan, Xiu-Jue Zheng, Yue-Hui Ma
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pituitary adenomas (EPAs) are rare, and the suprasellar cistern seems to be the most common location. At this time, no detailed original classification, diagnosis, or treatment protocols for suprasellar pituitary adenomas (SPAs) have been described. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 19-year-old man showed visual disturbances and lack of libido for 3 years, he suffered a sharp decline in vision with only light perception in the last week. Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed a large suprasellar cystic lesion with a normal pituitary in the sella turcica...
May 19, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525324/in-vitro-effect-of-leptin-on-anterior-pituitary-cells-lh-secretory-activity-during-early-pregnancy-in-pig
#4
G Siawrys, A Gajewska
Leptin modulates reproductive activity but its potential influence on LH secretion from anterior pituitary (AP) cells during implantation period in pigs (days 14-16 of pregnancy) remained unexplored. This study focused on determination whether leptin affects basal and GnRH-induced LH secretion and intracellular accumulation and whether leptin receptor (OB-Rb) mRNA is expressed in the AP gland during implantation in pigs. Four individual AP glands were developed into separate primary cultures. 2×105 cells/ml were preincubated (72 h) and next, for 3...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522881/notch-signaling-and-maintenance-of-sox2-expression-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#5
Khongorzul Batchuluun, Morio Azuma, Ken Fujiwara, Takashi Yashiro, Motoshi Kikuchi
After publication of reports describing the presence of stem/progenitor cells among non-hormone-producing cells in the pituitary, the mechanism responsible for proliferation and differentiation generated considerable interest. Several studies have suggested that Notch signaling is involved. In the present study, we examined the histochemical relationship between Notch signaling molecules and the transcription factor SOX2 in rat pituitary. Combined in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry showed that Notch2 mRNA and SOX2 were co-expressed at embryonic day 14...
April 27, 2017: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522036/transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-function-in-the-reproductive-axis
#6
REVIEW
Viktoria Götz, Sen Qiao, Andreas Beck, Ulrich Boehm
Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels play important functional roles in the signal transduction machinery of hormone-secreting cells and have recently been implicated in reproductive physiology. While expression studies have demonstrated TRP channel expression at all levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (hpg) axis, functional details about TRP channel action at the level of the individual cells controlling reproduction are just beginning to emerge. Canonical TRP (TRPC) channels are prominently expressed in the reproductive center of the neuroendocrine brain, i...
May 3, 2017: Cell Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508612/the-longevity-hormone-klotho-is-a-new-player-in-the-interacion-of-the-growth-hormone-insulin-like-growth-factor-1-axis
#7
Tami Rubinek, Ido Wolf, Dalit Modan-Moses
Klotho was first discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. Mice that do not express klotho die prematurely with multiple symptoms of aging, several of which are also characteristic of decreased GH/IGF-1 axis activity. Klotho is highly expressed in the brain, the kidney, and parathyroid and pituitary glands, but can also serve as a circulating hormone by its shedding, forming soluble klotho (sKlotho) that can be detected in blood, cerebrospinal fluid and urine. Several lines of evidence suggest an association between klotho levels and activity of the GH/IHG-1 axis: The GH-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary of klotho-deficient mice are hypotrophic; klotho levels are altered in subjects with pathologies of the GH/IGF-1 axis; and accumulating data indicate that klotho is a direct regulator of GH secretion...
September 2016: Pediatric Endocrinology Reviews: PER
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500250/characterization-of-nmb-grp-and-their-receptors-brs3-nmbr-and-grpr-in-chickens
#8
Chunheng Mo, Long Huang, Lin Cui, Can Lv, Dongliang Lin, Liang Song, Guoqiang Zhu, Juan Li, Yajun Wang
The two structurally and functionally related peptides, gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and neuromedin B (NMB) play critical roles in many physiological/pathological processes in mammals. However, the information regarding the expression and functionality of avian NMB, GRP, and their receptors is limited. Here, we characterized cNMB, cGRP and their receptors (cNMBR, cGRPR, cBRS3) in chickens. Our results showed that: 1) cNMBR and cGRPR expressed in CHO cells could be potently activated by cNMB and cGRP respectively, as monitored by cell-based luciferase reporter assays, indicating that cNMBR and cGRPR are cNMB- and cGRP-specific receptors; Strikingly, BRS3 of chickens (/spotted gars), which is orthologous to mouse bombesin receptor subtype-3 (BRS3), could be potently activated by GRP and NMB, demonstrating that both peptides are the endogenous ligands for chicken(/spotted gar) BRS3; 2) Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that cGRPR is widely expressed in chicken tissues with abundant expression in the ovary, pancreas, proventriculus, spinal cord and brain, whereas cNMB, cNMBR and cBRS3 are mainly expressed in the brain and testes; 3) Interestingly, qPCR, Western blot, and immuno-staining revealed that cGRP is predominantly expressed in the anterior pituitary and mainly localized to LH-cells, suggesting that cGRP is likely a novel pituitary hormone in chickens...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490347/gh-secreting-pituitary-macroadenoma-acromegaly-associated-with-progressive-dental-malocclusion-and-refractory-cpap-treatment
#9
Jaume Miranda-Rius, Lluís Brunet-LLobet, Eduard Lahor-Soler, David de Dios-Miranda, Josep Anton Giménez-Rubio
BACKGROUND: A link between progressive dental malocclusion, the use of a continuous positive airway pressure mask and GH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma (acromegaly) has not been previously reported. The present clinicopathological analysis stresses that tooth malposition should not be seen exclusively as a local process. CASE PRESENTATION: A 62-year-old caucasian man with no relevant medical history reported difficulty chewing food and perceived voice alteration during his annual periodontal check-up...
May 10, 2017: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484553/granulomatous-hypophysitis-caused-by-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-mimicking-a-growth-hormone-secreting-pituitary-adenoma
#10
Masato Hojo, Ryota Ishibashi, Hiroshi Arai, Susumu Miyamoto
We report a case of granulomatous hypophysitis caused by Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) mimicking a growth hormone (GH)-secreting pituitary adenoma. Neuroradiological and endocrinological evaluations showed abnormal findings consistent with acromegaly: Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a pituitary mass lesion, and GH and insulin-like growth factor I levels were markedly elevated, and GH levels were not suppressed in oral glucose tolerance test. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed, but no adenomatous tissue could be detected...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472507/a-case-report-of-hypoglycemia-and-hypogammaglobulinemia-david-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-a-novel-nfkb2-mutation
#11
Rayhan A Lal, Laura K Bachrach, Andrew R Hoffman, Jingga Inlora, Shannon Rego, Michael P Snyder, David B Lewis
Context: DAVID syndrome (Deficient Anterior pituitary with Variable Immune Deficiency) is a rare disorder in which children present with symptomatic ACTH deficiency preceded by hypogammaglobulinemia from B-cell dysfunction with recurrent infections, termed common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Subsequent whole exome sequencing studies have revealed germline heterozygous C-terminal mutations of NFKB2 as either a cause of DAVID syndrome or of CVID without clinical hypopituitarism. However, to the best of our knowledge there have been no cases in which the endocrinopathy has presented in the absence of a prior clinical history of CVID...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469779/analysis-of-differentially-expressed-micrornas-in-men1-parathyroid-adenomas
#12
Ettore Luzi, Simone Ciuffi, Francesca Marini, Carmelo Mavilia, Gianna Galli, Maria Luisa Brandi
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome is a rare complex tumor-predisposing hereditary disorder, inherited in an autosomal dominant manner (OMIM 131100). MEN1 is characterized by tumors of the parathyroids, the neuroendocrine cells of the gastro-entero-pancreatic tract, and the anterior pituitary. The molecular mechanisms that control parathyroid tumorigenesis are still poorly understood. Here we studied the global microRNAs (miRNAs) expression profile in MEN1 parathyroid adenomas to understand the role of these regulatory factors in MEN1 parathyroid tumorigenesis...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462034/virtual-reconstruction-of-the-endocranial-anatomy-of-the-early-jurassic-marine-crocodylomorph-pelagosaurus-typus-thalattosuchia
#13
Stephanie E Pierce, Megan Williams, Roger B J Benson
Thalattosuchians were highly specialised aquatic archosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and represent a peak of aquatic adaptation among crocodylomorphs. Relatively little is known of their endocranial anatomy or its relevance for the evolution of sensory systems, physiology, and other aspects of biology. Nevertheless, such data have significance for two reasons: (1) thalattosuchians represent an important data point regarding adaptation to marine life in tetrapods; and (2) as early-diverging members of the crocodylian stem-lineage, thalattosuchians provide information on the evolutionary assembly of the brain and other endocranial structures in crocodylomorphs...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459037/levosulpiride-and-serum-prolactin-levels
#14
Mohammad Shafi Kuchay, Ambrish Mithal
Levosulpiride is the levorotatory enantiomer of sulpiride used in dyspeptic syndromes of various etiologies. The prokinetic effect of levosulpiride is mediated through the blockade of enteric inhibitory dopaminergic type 2 (D2) receptors. The antagonism of central D2 receptors leads to both therapeutic (e.g. antiemetic effect due to D2 receptor blockade in the chemoreceptor trigger zone) and adverse (including hyperprolactinemia) effects. Dopamine is the main endogenous inhibitor of prolactin synthesis and secretion in the anterior pituitary...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458907/hypersecretion-of-acth-and-prl-from-pituitary-adenoma-in-men1-adequately-managed-by-medical-therapy
#15
Shinsuke Uraki, Hiroyuki Ariyasu, Asako Doi, Hiroto Furuta, Masahiro Nishi, Takeshi Usui, Hiroki Yamaue, Takashi Akamizu
SUMMARY: A 54-year-old man had gastrinoma, parathyroid hyperplasia and pituitary tumor. His family history indicated that he might have multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1). MEN1 gene analysis revealed a heterozygous germline mutation (Gly156Arg). Therefore, we diagnosed him with MEN1. Endocrinological tests revealed that his serum prolactin (PRL) and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were elevated to 1699 ng/mL and 125 pg/mL respectively. Immunohistochemical analysis of the resected pancreatic tumors revealed that the tumors did not express ACTH...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453858/digenic-inheritance-of-prokr2-and-wdr11-mutations-in-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome
#16
Shana E McCormack, Dong Li, Yeon Joo Kim, Ji Young Lee, Soo-Hyun Kim, Robert Rapaport, Michael A Levine
Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS, ORPHA95496) is a congenital defect of the pituitary gland characterized by the triad of a very thin/interrupted pituitary stalk, an ectopic (or absent) posterior pituitary gland, and hypoplasia or aplasia of the anterior pituitary gland. Complex genetic patterns of inheritance of this disorder are increasingly recognized. Objective: The objective of this study was to identify a genetic etiology of PSIS in an affected child...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450560/high-contrast-pet-imaging-of-vasopressin-v1b-receptors-with-a-novel-radioligand-11-c-tasp699
#17
Kazumi Koga, Yuji Nagai, Masayuki Hanyu, Mitsukane Yoshinaga, Shigeyuki Chaki, Norikazu Ohtake, Satoshi Ozaki, Ming-Rong Zhang, Tetsuya Suhara, Makoto Higuchi
Vasopressin 1B receptors (V1BRs) are abundantly expressed in the pituitary, and in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) of V1BRs was recently enabled by our development of a specific radioligand, (11)C-TASP0434299, derivatized from pyridopyrimidin-4-one. Here, we identified a novel pyridopyrimidin-4-one analog, N-tert-butyl-2-[2-(6-(11)C-methoxypyridine-2-yl)-6-[3-(morpholin-4-yl)propoxy]-4-oxopyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-3(4H)-yl]acetamide ((11)C-TASP0410699, hereafter referred to as (11)C-TASP699), as a potent V1BR radioligand producing a higher image contrast for the target than (11)C-TASP0434299...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447256/establishment-of-a-protocol-to-extend-the-lifespan-of-human-hormone-secreting-pituitary-adenoma-cells
#18
Aurora Aiello, Maria Francesca Cassarino, Simona Nanni, Antonella Sesta, Francesco Ferraú, Claudio Grassi, Marco Losa, Francesco Trimarchi, Alfredo Pontecorvi, Salvatore Cannavò, Francesca Pecori Giraldi, Antonella Farsetti
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to generate immortalized human anterior pituitary adenoma cells. Reliable cell models for the study of human pituitary adenomas are as yet lacking and studies performed so far used repeated passaging of freshly excised adenomas, with the attendant limitations due to limited survival in culture, early senescence, and poor reproducibility. METHODS & RESULTS: We devised a technique based upon repeated co-transfections of two retroviral vectors, one carrying the catalytic subunit of human telomerase, hTERT, the other SV40 large T antigen...
April 26, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444954/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-children-with-central-diabetes-insipidus-associated-with-a-self-limited-or-transient-pituitary-stalk-thickening-diagnosed-as-infundibuloneurohypophysitis
#19
J Schaefers, M Cools, K De Waele, I Gies, V Beauloye, P Lysy, I Francois, D Beckers, J De Schepper
OBJECTIVE: Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized etiology in children with central diabetes insipidus, clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analyzing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune INH, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442638/deep-sequencing-of-the-transcriptome-in-the-anterior-pituitary-of-heifers-before-and-after-ovulation
#20
Kiran Pandey, Yoichi Mizukami, Kenji Watanabe, Syuiti Sakaguti, Hiroya Kadokawa
We aimed to determine gene expression patterns in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers before and after ovulation via deep sequencing of the transcriptome (RNA-seq) to identify new genes and clarify important pathways. Heifers were slaughtered on the estrus day (pre-ovulation; n=5) or 3 days after ovulation (post-ovulation; n=5) for AP collection. We randomly selected 4 pre-ovulation and 4 post-ovulation APs, and the ribosomal RNA-depleted poly (A)+RNA were prepared to assemble next-generation sequencing libraries...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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