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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936197/functional-role-of-gonadotrope-plasticity-and-network-organization
#1
REVIEW
Brian S Edwards, Colin M Clay, Buffy S Ellsworth, Amy M Navratil
Gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary are characterized by their ability to mount a cyclical pattern of gonadotropin secretion to regulate gonadal function and fertility. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that gonadotropes exhibit dramatic remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton following gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) exposure. GnRH engagement of actin is critical for gonadotrope function on multiple levels. First, GnRH-induced cell movements lead to spatial repositioning of the in vivo gonadotrope network toward vascular endothelium, presumably to access the bloodstream for effective hormone release...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926761/the-cortisol-awakening-response-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-function-in-maltreated-depressed-versus-non-maltreated-depressed-youth
#2
Karina Quevedo, Jennifer Doty, Leslie Roos, Justin J Anker
Symptomatology of depression among children who have (vs. have not) experienced maltreatment is greater in severity, more resistant to conventional treatment, and associated with elevated risk for suicide. Recent evidence implicates perturbations in stress regulatory systems and heightened negative self-appraisals as factors that increase the severity of psychopathology experienced by depressed maltreated (vs. non-maltreated) youth. Likely explanatory mechanisms for these differences are disturbances in the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) and persistent negative self-referential biases supported by prefrontal cortex function including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC)...
September 5, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919299/the-retrotransposon-gag-domain-containing-protein-rgag4-is-an-ikaros-target-in-the-pituitary
#3
Zhongyi Shen, Sylvia L Asa, Shereen Ezzat
Previous studies have established the common and critical involvement of the zinc finger protein Ikaros in lymphoid and pituitary cell development and expansion. Key to the assembly of several transcriptional networks, we have demonstrated up-regulation of Ikaros and its interacting partner the C-terminal Binding Protein (CtBP) in response to hypoxia. This prompted us to explore common transcriptional targets using a chromatin immunoprecipitate (ChIP) screen of DNA from pituitary corticotroph cells. This strategy yielded a finite list of targets common to both transcription factors that included the metalloprotease ADAMTS10...
September 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917091/recovery-from-diabetes-insipidus-and-preservation-of-thyroid-function-after-craniopharyngioma-removal-and-pituitary-stalk-sectioning
#4
Yoshikazu Ogawa, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Teiji Tominaga
OBJECTIVES: Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor, but long-term tumor control with maintenance of quality of life is sometimes very difficult to achieve, and hypothalamic disturbance should be strictly avoided in the treatment. However, management of the pituitary gland and/or pituitary stalk varies among surgeons and institutions. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective review identified 44 patients, 24 males and 20 females with craniopharyngiomas who were initially treated by surgery through the extended transsphenoidal approach with pituitary stalk sectioning at a single institute...
September 9, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915118/delayed-diagnosis-of-proopiomelanocortin-pomc-deficiency-with-type-1-diabetes-in-a-9-year-old-girl-and-her-infant-sibling
#5
Elif Ozsu, Allison Bahm
BACKGROUND: Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) protein, encoded by the POMC gene, is the precursor of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) that is released from the anterior pituitary gland. Homozygous mutations in the POMC gene is associated with hyperphagia, severe and early-onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, hypopigmentation of the skin and red hair. CASE PRESENTATION: A 9-year-old girl from a consanguineous family of Iraqi origin was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912278/pituitary-macroadenoma-and-visual-impairment-postoperative-outcome-prediction-with-contrast-enhanced-fiesta
#6
S Hisanaga, S Kakeda, J Yamamoto, K Watanabe, J Moriya, T Nagata, Y Fujino, H Kondo, S Nishizawa, Y Korogi
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Contrast-enhanced FIESTA can depict anterior optic pathways in patients with large suprasellar tumors. We assessed whether the degree of kink in the optic nerve at the optic canal orifice on contrast-enhanced FIESTA correlates with the postoperative improvement of visual impairment in patients with pituitary macroadenoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with pituitary macroadenoma who underwent preoperative MR imaging and an operation were evaluated...
September 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910547/diurnal-opposite-variation-between-angiotensinase-activities-in-photo-neuro-endocrine-tissues-of-rats
#7
Germán Domínguez-Vías, Garbiñe Aretxaga-Maza, Isabel Prieto, Juan de Dios Luna, Marc De Gasparo, Manuel Ramírez-Sánchez
Central and peripheral renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) act in a coordinated manner for the physiologic functions regulated by neuroendocrine events. However, whereas the diurnal rhythm of peripheral circulatory and tissue RASs is well known, the circadian behaviour of their components in central photo-neuro-endocrine structures, key elements for the control of circadian rhythms, has been barely studied. In the present study, we analysed the aspartyl- (AspAP) and glutamyl-aminopeptidase (GluAP) (aminopeptidase A) activities, the angiotensinases responsible for the metabolism of Ang I to Ang 2-10 and Ang II to Ang III, respectively, in the retina, anterior hypothalamus and pituitary at different light and dark time-points of a 12:12 h light:dark cycle (7-19 h light), using arylamide derivatives as substrates...
September 14, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894751/peripheral-inhibitor-of-ache-neostigmine-prevents-the-inflammatory-dependent-suppression-of-gnrh-lh-secretion-during-the-follicular-phase-of-the-estrous-cycle
#8
Andrzej P Herman, Janina Skipor, Agata Krawczyńska, Joanna Bochenek, Karolina Wojtulewicz, Hanna Antushevich, Anna Herman, Kamila Paczesna, Katarzyna Romanowicz, Dorota Tomaszewska-Zaremba
The study was designed to test the hypothesis that the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity at the periphery by Neostigmine (0.5 mg/animal) will be sufficient to prevent inflammatory dependent suppression of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinising hormone (LH) secretion in ewes in the follicular phase of the estrous cycle, and this effect will be comparable with the systemic AChE inhibitor, Donepezil (2.5 mg/animal). An immune/inflammatory challenge was induced by peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 400 ng/kg)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887281/cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-rhinorrhea-after-systemic-erlotinib-chemotherapy-for-metastatic-lung-cancer-a-familiar-problem-from-an-unfamiliar-culprit
#9
Blake Priddy, Douglas A Hardesty, André Beer-Furlan, Bradley Otto, Daniel M Prevedello
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea after medical therapy for pituitary prolactinoma is a rare but well-described phenomenon. To our knowledge, no CSF leaks have been reported after targeted medical treatment of pituitary or anterior skull base metastases. We report this unusual case to raise awareness of spontaneous CSF leaks in the setting of skull base metastatic disease. CASE PRESENTATION: A 66-year-old woman presented with EGFR-mutant Stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung...
September 5, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881494/pituitary-and-skull-base-lesions-and-the-litigious-patient
#10
Alan C Wang, Spencer Darlin, Wanda Lai, Peter F Svider, Jeffrey T Jacob, James K Liu, Jean Anderson Eloy, Adam J Folbe
BACKGROUND: The objective of this research was to evaluate litigation relating to the diagnosis and management of pituitary and ventral skull base lesions and delineate allegations involved in the decision to pursue medicolegal proceedings. METHODS: Publically available federal and court records were accessed via the Westlaw Next database. Jury verdict and settlement reports relevant to pituitary and anterior skull-base lesions were accessed, and litigation was reviewed for alleged injuries, defendant specialty, patient demographics, and other factors raised in proceedings...
September 7, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874765/identification-of-neuromedin-u-precursor-related-peptide-and-its-possible-role-in-the-regulation-of-prolactin-release
#11
Kenji Mori, Takanori Ida, Mami Fudetani, Miwa Mori, Hiroyuki Kaiya, Jun Hino, Keiko Nakahara, Noboru Murakami, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
The discovery of neuropeptides provides insights into the regulation of physiological processes. The precursor for the neuropeptide neuromedin U contains multiple consensus sequences for proteolytic processing, suggesting that this precursor might generate additional peptides. We performed immunoaffinity chromatography of rat brain extracts and consequently identified such a product, which we designated neuromedin U precursor-related peptide (NURP). In rat brain, NURP was present as two mature peptides of 33 and 36 residues...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874095/seasonal-rhythms-the-role-of-thyrotropin-and-thyroid-hormones
#12
Tomoya Nakayama, Takashi Yoshimura
Seasonal changes in various physiological events have been reported in humans including metabolism, immune function, and mood. However, the molecular and endocrine basis of the seasonal changes remain unclear. Animals that breed seasonally such as, the Japanese quail and Siberian hamster have sophisticated seasonal mechanisms and provide excellent opportunities to understand the underlying processes. Functional genomic analysis of the quail uncovered the photoperiodic signal transduction pathway, which regulates avian seasonal reproduction: Long day stimulus induces secretion of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pars tuberalis (PT) of the anterior pituitary gland...
September 6, 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871060/hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-hsd1l-is-localised-to-the-pituitary-gonadal-axis-of-primates
#13
A Daniel Bird, Spencer Greatorex, David Reser, Gareth G Lavery, Timothy J Cole
Steroid hormones play clinically important and specific regulatory roles in the development, growth, metabolism, reproduction and brain function in human. The type 1 and 2 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzymes (11β-HSD1 and 2) have key roles in the pre-receptor modification of glucocorticoids allowing aldosterone regulation of blood pressure, control of systemic fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and modulation of integrated metabolism and brain function. Although the activity and function of 11β-HSDs is thought to be understood, there exists an open reading frame for a distinct 11βHSD-like gene; HSD11B1L, which is present in human, non-human primate, sheep, pig and many other higher organisms, whereas an orthologue is absent in the genomes of mouse, rat and rabbit...
October 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865461/multihormonal-pituitary-adenoma-concomitant-with-pit-1-and-tpit-lineage-cells-causing-acromegaly-associated-with-subclinical-cushing-s-disease-a-case-report
#14
Tomoko Takiguchi, Hisashi Koide, Hidekazu Nagano, Akitoshi Nakayama, Masanori Fujimoto, Ai Tamura, Eri Komai, Akina Shiga, Takashi Kono, Seiichiro Higuchi, Ikki Sakuma, Naoko Hashimoto, Sawako Suzuki, Yui Miyabayashi, Norio Ishiwatari, Kentaro Horiguchi, Yukio Nakatani, Koutaro Yokote, Tomoaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: A functional pituitary adenoma can produce multiple anterior-pituitary hormones, such as growth hormone (GH) -producing adenomas (GHoma) with prolactin or thyrotropin stimulating hormone production in the same lineage. However, it is very rare that acromegaly shows subclinical Cushing's disease (SCD) beyond the lineage. Here we describe the involvement of intratumoral coexistence with 2 types of hormone-producing cells associated with different lineage in acromegaly concomitant with SCD...
September 2, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859712/long-term-olfactory-outcome-after-nasoseptal-flap-reconstructions-in-midline-skull-base-surgery
#15
Michael B Soyka, Carlo Serra, Luca Regli, Eva Meier, David Holzmann
BACKGROUND: The nasoseptal flap (NSF) is a universally used surgical technique to cover defects of the skull base after extended sinonasal surgery. Long-term follow-up of complications, sequelae, and smell function is largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study was to investigate monorhinal olfaction after transsphenoidal skull base surgery. METHODS: Patients who underwent skull base surgery for midline lesions (craniopharyngioma and pituitary tumors) by using a NSF, also referred to as the Haddad flap, were assessed for their long-term outcome...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855316/stem-progenitor-cells-in-pituitary-organ-homeostasis-and-tumorigenesis
#16
Scott Haston, Saba Manshaei, Juan Pedro Martinez-Barbera
Evidence for the presence of pituitary gland stem cells has been provided over the last decade using a combination of approaches including in vitro clonogenicity assays, flow cytometric side population analysis, immunohistochemical analysis and genetic approaches. These cells have been demonstrated to be able to self-renew and undergo multipotent differentiation to give rise to all hormonal lineages of the anterior pituitary. Furthermore, evidence exists for their contribution to regeneration of the organ and plastic responses to changing physiological demand...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845039/preoperative-and-postoperative-pituitary-function-in-patients-with-tuberculum-sellae-meningioma-based-on-pituitary-provocation-tests
#17
Shingo Fujio, Hirofumi Hirano, Mami Yamashita, Satoshi Usui, Yasuyuki Kinoshita, Atsushi Tominaga, Tomoko Hanada, Hitoshi Yamahata, Hiroshi Tokimura, Ryosuke Hanaya, Kaoru Kurisu, Kazunori Arita
Given the anatomical proximity of tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) to the hypothalamo-pituitary system, pituitary function impairments are of great concern. We retrospectively investigated pituitary function changes following surgery in patients with TSM using pituitary provocation tests (PPTs). Thirty-one patients (27 females and 4 males) with TSM underwent initial transcranial surgery (29 patients) or transsphenoidal surgery (two patients); surgeries were performed carefully to avoid injuring the pituitary stalk...
August 25, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841120/endoscopic-extradural-supraorbital-approach-to-the-temporal-pole-and-adjacent-area-technical-note
#18
Fuminari Komatsu, Masaaki Imai, Hideaki Shigematsu, Rie Aoki, Shinri Oda, Masami Shimoda, Mitsunori Matsumae
The authors' initial experience with the endoscopic extradural supraorbital approach to the temporal pole and adjacent area is reported. Fully endoscopic surgery using the extradural space via a supraorbital keyhole was performed for tumors in or around the temporal pole, including temporal pole cavernous angioma, sphenoid ridge meningioma, and cavernous sinus pituitary adenoma, mainly using 4-mm, 0° and 30° endoscopes and single-shaft instruments. After making a supraorbital keyhole, a 4-mm, 30° endoscope was advanced into the extradural space of the anterior cranial fossa during lifting of the dura mater...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835591/rasd1-is-an-estrogen-responsive-immediate-early-gene-and-modulates-expression-of-late-genes-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#19
Linghong Wang, Tetsuo Mitsui, Maho Ishida, Michi Izawa, Jun Arita
Dexamethasone-induced Ras-related protein 1 (Rasd1) is a member of the Ras superfamily of monomeric G proteins that have a regulatory function in signal transduction. Here we investigated the role of Rasd1 in regulating estrogen-induced gene expression in primary cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells. Rasd1 mRNA expression in anterior pituitary cells decreased after treatment with forskolin or serum and increased after treatment with 17β-estradiol (E2). Increases in Rasd1 mRNA expression occurred as early as 0...
August 23, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835258/acute-hypopituitarism-associated-with-periorbital-swelling-and-cardiac-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-pituitary-tumor-apoplexy-a-case-report
#20
Nobumasa Ohara, Yuichiro Yoneoka, Yasuhiro Seki, Katsuhiko Akiyama, Masataka Arita, Kazumasa Ohashi, Kazuo Suzuki, Toshinori Takada
BACKGROUND: Pituitary tumor apoplexy is a rare clinical syndrome caused by acute hemorrhage or infarction in a preexisting pituitary adenoma. It typically manifests as an acute episode of headache, visual disturbance, mental status changes, cranial nerve palsy, and endocrine pituitary dysfunction. However, not all patients present with classical symptoms, so it is pertinent to appreciate the clinical spectrum of pituitary tumor apoplexy presentation. We report an unusual case of a patient with pituitary tumor apoplexy who presented with periorbital edema associated with hypopituitarism...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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