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Anterior pituitary

Hiroto Nishihara, Saishu Yoshida, Naoko Kanno, Naoto Nishimura, Hiroki Ueharu, Jun Ohgane, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
PROP1 is a pituitary specific transcription factor that plays a crucial role in pituitary organogenesis. The Prop1 shows varied expression patterns that promptly emerge and then fade during the early embryonic period. However, the regulatory mechanisms governing Prop1 expression remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether Prop1 was under epigenetic regulation by DNA methylation. Bisulfite sequencing was performed on DNA obtained from the pituitary glands and livers of rats on embryonic days (E) 13.5 and E14...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Timothy J Marquis, Masumi Nozaki, Wayne Fagerberg, Stacia A Sower
In the adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) of all gnathostomes, there are six tropic cell types: corticotropes, melanotropes, somatotropes, lactotropes, gonadotropes and thyrotropes; each cell type produces specific tropic hormones. In contrast, we report in this study that there are only four tropic cell types in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) adenohypophysis. We specifically focused on the cell types that produce the glycoprotein hormones (GpHs). The gnathostome adenohypophyseal GpHs are follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyrostimulin...
October 22, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Kotaro Horiguchi, Takashi Nakakura, Saishu Yoshida, Takehiro Tsukada, Naoko Kanno, Rumi Hasegawa, Shu Takigami, Shunji Ohsako, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
Contact-dependent (juxtacrine) signaling is important for local cell-to-cell interaction and has received attention in recent years regarding its role in pituitary function, differentiation, and development. This study investigated one of the juxtacrine-related molecules, thymocyte differentiation antigen 1 (THY1), in the anterior lobe of the rat pituitary gland. Western blot analysis revealed expression of the THY1 protein in the adult rat anterior lobe. We also found that the THY1 ligand, integrin-β2 (ITGB2), is also expressed in the pituitary gland...
October 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Zhen Huo, Tao Lu, Zhiyong Liang, Fan Ping, Jie Shen, Jingjing Lu, Wenbing Ma, Dachun Zhao, Dingrong Zhong
BACKGROUND: Isolated hypothalamic-pituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (HPLCH) is very rare. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, endocrine function changes, BRAF(V600E) mutations and treatments of isolated HPLCH. METHODS: We identified seven patients with isolated HPLCH by reviewing the clinical and pathological files in our hospital from 2007 to 2015. The clinical characteristics of the seven patients were retrospectively reviewed, especially the endocrine function changes...
October 19, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
Riikka S K Takala, Riku Kiviranta, Klaus T Olkkola, Tero Vahlberg, Dan Laukka, Anna Kotkansalo, Melissa Rahi, Matti Sankinen, Jussi Posti, Ari Katila, Jaakko Rinne
PURPOSE: The aim was to assess anterior pituitary hormone levels during the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and analyze the possible association with the clinical condition and outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty patients with aSAH whose aneurysm was secured by endovascular coiling were enrolled. Basal secretions of cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured up to 14 days after the incident...
October 18, 2016: Endocrine Research
June Yowtak, Suash Sharma, Scott E Forseen, Cargill H Alleyne
BACKGROUND: Mixed tumors of adenomatous and neuronal cells in the sellar region are an uncommon finding. The origins of these heterogeneous tumors are unknown and management of these lesions still debated. We report a very rare case of anterior gray matter pituicytic heterotopia with monomorphic anterior pituitary cells that likely represents a variant of non-secreting pituitary adenoma - neuronal choristoma (PANCH) without any ganglion cells. We also review the current literature for the different clinical presentations of PANCH...
October 12, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Francisca Caimari, Márta Korbonits
Recently, a number of novel genetic alterations have been identified that predispose individuals to pituitary adenomas. Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are relatively common, present in 0.1% of the general population. They are mostly benign monoclonal neoplasms that arise from any of the five hormone-secreting cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and cause disease due to hormonal alterations and local space-occupying effects. The pathomechanism of pituitary adenomas includes alterations in cell-cycle regulation and growth factor signaling, which are mostly due to epigenetic changes; somatic and especially germline mutations occur more rarely...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Rosario Pivonello, Marlijn Waaijers, Johan M Kros, Claudia Pivonello, Cristina de Angelis, Alessia Cozzolino, Annamaria Colao, Steven W J Lamberts, Leo J Hofland
The dopamine D2 receptor is the main dopamine receptor expressed in the human normal pituitary gland. The aim of the current study was to evaluate dopamine D2 receptor expression in the corticotroph cell populations of the anterior lobe and pars intermedia, as well as posterior lobe of the human normal pituitary gland by immunohistochemistry. Human normal pituitary gland samples obtained from routine autopsies were used for the study. In all cases, histology together with immunostaining for adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, prolactin, and neurofilaments were performed and compared to the immunostaining for D2 receptor...
October 13, 2016: Endocrine
Mustafa Özçetin, Mehmet Karacı, Ertuğ Toroslu, Nurullah Edebali
Pituitary adenomas usually arise from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and are manifested with hormonal disorders or mass effect. Mass effect usually occurs in nonfunctional tumors. Pituitary adenomas may be manifested with visual field defects or rarely in the form of total oculomotor palsy. Visual field defect is most frequently in the form of bitemporal hemianopsia and superior temporal defect. Sudden loss of vision, papilledema and ophthalmoplegia may be observed. Pituitary apoplexy is defined as an acute clinical syndrome characterized with headache, vomiting, loss of vision, ophthalmoplegia and clouding of consciousness...
September 2016: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Giuseppe Minniti, Mattia Falchetto Osti, Maximillian Niyazi
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) delivered as either single-fraction or multi-fraction SRS (2-5 fractions) is frequently employed in patients with residual or recurrent pituitary adenoma. The most common delivery systems used for SRS include the cobalt-60 system Gamma Knife, the CyberKnife (CK) robotic radiosurgery system, or a modified conventional radiotherapy machine (linear accelerator, LINAC). Tumor control and normalization of hormone hypersecretion have been reported in 75-100 % and 25-80 % of patients, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Radiation Oncology
Nidan Qiao, Zhao Ye, Xuefei Shou, Yongfei Wang, Shiqi Li, Min Wang, Yao Zhao
OBJECTIVE: The relationship between functional and structural measurements is of fundamental importance in monitoring treatment and progression in patients with pituitary adenoma. In the present study, we examined the association between longitudinal changes in standard automated perimetry (SAP), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness and multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) amplitude after transsphenoidal surgery. METHODS: Thirty patients with pituitary adenoma were recruited from Huashan Hospital between September 2010 and January 2014...
September 6, 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Rafael Carvalho Torres, Nathalia Santos Magalhães, Patrícia M R E Silva, Marco A Martins, Vinicius F Carvalho
Increased hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity in diabetes is strongly associated with several morbidities noted in patients with the disease. We previously demonstrated that hyperactivity of HPA axis under diabetic conditions is associated with up-regulation of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) receptors (MC2R) in adrenal and down-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors (GR and MR) in pituitary. This study investigates the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ in HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats...
October 8, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Y-X Kang, Y-J Wang, Q Zhang, X-H Pang, W Gu
Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) is a disorder caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA. Here, we report an unusual case of Kearns-Sayre syndrome accompanied by hypopituitarism (deficiencies in reproductive and growth hormones). A 20-year-old male presented with growth retardation for the last 8 years, as well as the following findings: short stature, delayed puberty, myasthenia, an extraocular movement deficit, drooping eyelids, pectus carinatum and scoliosis. Cerebral enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed dysplasias of the pituitary, white matter and cerebellum...
October 6, 2016: Andrologia
Mohamed Said Abbas, Mohammad Najm AlBerawi, Issam Al Bozom, Nissar F Shaikh, Khalid Yacout Salem
BACKGROUND Pituitary macroadenoma is a common benign tumor that usually presents with visual field defects or hormonal abnormalities. Cerebral infarction can be a complication of a large pituitary adenoma. We report a rare case of bilateral anterior cerebral arteries infarcts by a large pituitary macroadenoma with apoplexy. CASE REPORT A 48-year-old male patient presented with altered conscious level and sudden loss of vision for one-day duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large seller and suprasellar hemorrhagic mass of pituitary origin, with associated bilateral areas of diffusion restriction in the frontal parasagittal regions, consistent with infarctions...
October 6, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
V Gellner, W Koele, A Wolf, C Gerstenberger, M Mokry, H Stammberger, P V Tomazic
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 3, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Lu Gao, Xiaopeng Guo, Rui Tian, Qiang Wang, Ming Feng, Xinjie Bao, Kan Deng, Yong Yao, Wei Lian, Renzhi Wang, Bing Xing
PURPOSE: Pituitary abscess (PA) is rare and commonly described in case reports or small case series. This study aimed to better determine salient clinical manifestations related to the diagnosis and appropriate treatment of PA using by far the largest case series of this disease. METHODS: A total of 6361 consecutive patients underwent surgery for pituitary diseases in Peking Union Medical College Hospital between January 1991 and December 2013. Among this cohort, sixty-six patients were diagnosed with PA based on both intraoperative findings and postoperative histopathological evidence...
September 30, 2016: Pituitary
Kotaro Horiguchi, Hideji Yako, Saishu Yoshida, Ken Fujiwara, Takehiro Tsukada, Naoko Kanno, Hiroki Ueharu, Hiroto Nishihara, Takako Kato, Takashi Yashiro, Yukio Kato
The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland develop through invagination of the oral ectoderm and as they are endocrine tissues, they participate in the maintenance of vital functions via the synthesis and secretion of numerous hormones. We recently observed that several extrapituitary cells invade the anterior lobe of the developing pituitary gland. This raised the question of the origin(s) of these S100β-positive cells, which are not classic endocrine cells but instead comprise a heterogeneous cell population with plural roles, especially as stem/progenitor cells...
2016: PloS One
Amanda H Mortensen, Sally A Camper
Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in the brain, endocrine and neuroendocrine systems and secreted into the serum. It is thought to play a role in regulation of hypothalamic pituitary functions. Here we report a spatial and temporal analysis of Cart expression in the pituitaries of adult and developing normal and mutant mice with hypopituitarism. We found that Prop1 is not necessary for initiation of Cart expression in the fetal pituitary at e14.5, but it is required indirectly for maintenance of Cart expression in the postnatal anterior pituitary gland...
2016: PloS One
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tomomi Hara, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and gonadotropins are indispensable hormones for maintaining female reproductive functions. In a similar manner to other endocrine hormones, GnRH and gonadotropins are controlled by their principle regulators. Although it has been previously established that GnRH regulates the synthesis and secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-both gonadotropins-from pituitary gonadotrophs, it has recently become clear that hypothalamic GnRH is under the control of hypothalamic kisspeptin...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
F M Gur, S Timurkaan
Androgens exert their effects through androgen receptors (AR) in tissues. We investigated the distribution of AR in female mole rat tissues. Tissues were excised, fixed with 10% formalin and embedded in paraffin. Sections were stained after microwave antigen retrieval for immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining of AR immunostaining was detected in the nucleus or cytoplasm of the cells in the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, anterior pituitary, lung, liver, uterus and skin. Granulosa and some thecal cells in the ovary, cardiac muscle cells and adipose cells exhibited a nuclear reaction for AR...
October 2016: Biotechnic & Histochemistry: Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission
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