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Anterior pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202853/structures-showing-negative-correlations-of-signal-intensity-with-postnatal-age-on-t1-weighted-imaging-of-the-brain-of-newborns-and-infants
#1
Saeka Hori, Toshiaki Taoka, Tomoko Ochi, Toshiteru Miyasaka, Masahiko Sakamoto, Katsutoshi Takayama, Takeshi Wada, Kaoru Myochin, Yukihiro Takahashi, Kimihiko Kichikawa
PURPOSE: Although the neonatal and infantile brain typically shows sequential T1 shortening according to gestational age as a result of myelination, several structures do not follow this rule. We evaluated the relationship between the signal intensity of various structures in the neonatal and infantile brain on T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and either postnatal or gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined magnetic resonance images from 120 newborns and infants without any abnormalities in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202381/sphenoid-sinus-carcinoid-tumour-causing-ectopic-acth-syndrome
#2
Sanjaya Perera, Ahmad Taha
A thirty-eight year old patient presented with a gradual increase in weight and Cushingoid facies of two years duration. He also had orbital congestion, with puffy eyelids and corkscrew conjunctival vessels, associated with painful eye movements. An endocrine evaluation revealed raised cortisol and ACTH. Head imaging was performed which showed an enhancing tumour arising from the sphenoid sinus, with osseous erosion of the sphenoid sinus, extending to the nasopharynx, sellar and a small amount extending intracranially...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197193/chinese-herbal-medicine-yougui-pill-reduces-exogenous-glucocorticoid-induced-apoptosis-in-anterior-pituitary-cells
#3
Yong-Zhi Ji, Long Geng, Hong-Bo Zhou, Hua-Chen Wei, Hong-Duo Chen
Long-term glucocorticoid use may result in sustained suppression of one or more secreted components from the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, and often results in apoptosis. Yougui Pill (YGP), a 10-component traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been shown to be clinically effective for glucocorticoid-induced suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, the pharmacological and molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesized that YGP would exert an anti-apoptosis effect on dexamethasone-treated anterior pituitary cells...
December 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187108/complicated-case-presentation-management-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-in-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-1
#4
Claire K Mulvey, Katherine Van Loon, Emily K Bergsland, Umesh Masharani, Eric K Nakakura
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an inherited predisposition to tumors of the parathyroid glands, anterior pituitary, and pancreatic islet cells. In this review, we discuss the clinical case of a 45-year-old woman with MEN1 that was presented at the 2015 North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society Symposium. In our review of this patient's complicated clinical course and subsequent operative management, we highlight controversies in the diagnosis and management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors in MEN1...
March 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153577/molecular-characterization-and-functional-analysis-of-pituitary-gnrh-receptor-in-a-commercial-scombroid-fish-chub-mackerel-scomber-japonicus
#5
Sanny David Pacheco Lumayno, Hirofumi Ohga, Sethu Selvaraj, Mitsuo Nyuji, Akihiko Yamaguchi, Michiya Matsuyama
The gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is essential during pubertal onset, for its regulation of the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins. Its action is mediated by GnRH receptors (GnRHRs) in the pituitary gonadotrophs. Our previous study demonstrated that the chub mackerel brain expresses three GnRH forms (gnrh1, gnrh2, and gnrh3), and that only GnRH1 neurons innervate anterior pituitary regions. Furthermore, chub mackerel gnrh1 mRNA exhibited a significant increase at pubertal onset. The present study aimed to isolate the functional GnRHR form involved in chub mackerel puberty...
January 30, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145492/hypocretin-orexin-peptides-excite-rat-neuroendocrine-dopamine-neurons-through-orexin-2-receptor-mediated-activation-of-a-mixed-cation-current
#6
David J Lyons, Arash Hellysaz, Rachida Ammari, Christian Broberger
Hypocretin/Orexin (H/O) neurons of the lateral hypothalamus are compelling modulator candidates for the chronobiology of neuroendocrine output and, as a consequence, hormone release from the anterior pituitary. Here we investigate the effects of H/O peptides upon tuberoinfundibular dopamine (TIDA) neurons - cells which control, via inhibition, the pituitary secretion of prolactin. In whole cell recordings performed in male rat hypothalamic slices, application of H/O-A, as well as H/O-B, excited oscillating TIDA neurons, inducing a reversible depolarising switch from phasic to tonic discharge...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137650/functional-evidence-that-the-nucleus-of-the-hippocampal-commissure-shows-an-earlier-activation-from-a-stressor-than-the-paraventricular-nucleus-implication-of-an-additional-structural-component-of-the-avian-hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#7
Gurueswar Nagarajan, Seong W Kang, Wayne J Kuenzel
Despite extensive data addressing the regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in vertebrates, the neuroendocrine regulation of stress in birds remains incomplete. The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contains the key neuropeptides, corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasotocin (AVT), containing neurons. However, another population of CRH neurons was recently identified in a septal nucleus called the nucleus of the hippocampal commissure (NHpC). Therefore, the current study investigated changes in gene expression of CRH and AVT in the PVN and CRH in the NHpC, as well as changes in plasma corticosterone concentrations following a stressor, food deprivation...
January 27, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131616/how-is-gnrh-regulated-in-gnrh-producing-neurons-studies-using-gt1-7-cells-as-a-gnrh-producing-cell-model
#8
REVIEW
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Aki Oride, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been established as a principle pathway for initiating and integrating female reproductive function. GnRH stimulates the release of two gonadotropins-luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone-from the anterior pituitary, which eventually stimulate the synthesis of sex steroids in association with follicular growth and ovulation. This reproductive control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis also mediates gonadal feedback mechanisms...
January 25, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130617/prolactin-has-a-pathogenic-role-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#9
Luis J Jara, Gabriela Medina, Miguel A Saavedra, Olga Vera-Lastra, Honorio Torres-Aguilar, Carmen Navarro, Monica Vazquez Del Mercado, Luis R Espinoza
Prolactin, a 23-kDa peptide hormone, is produced by the anterior pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites including the immune cells. Prolactin (PRL) participates in innate and adaptive immune response. PRL stimulates the immune cells by binding to receptor (PRL-R). Binding of PRL to its receptor activates the Janus kinase-signal transducer (JAK-STAT). Activation of these cascades results in endpoints such as immunoestimulator and immunosupressor action. Prolactin belongs to the network of immune-neuroendocrine interaction...
January 28, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130091/nitric-oxide-no-mediated-mitochondrial-damage-plays-a-critical-role-in-t-2-toxin-induced-apoptosis-and-growth-hormone-deficiency-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-gh3-cells
#10
Xianglian Liu, Pu Guo, Aimei Liu, Qinghua Wu, Xijuan Xue, Menghong Dai, Haihong Hao, Wei Qu, Shuyu Xie, Xu Wang, Zonghui Yuan
T-2 toxin, a major compound of trichothecenes, induces cell apoptosis and growth hormone (GH) deficiency and causes considerable growth retardation in animals and human cells. However, the mechanism underlying its growth suppression still remains unclear. Recent studies have suggested that ROS induced cell apoptosis and animal feed intake reduction, but there are limited reports on the role of RNS in T-2 toxin-mediated mitochondrial damage, cell apoptosis and growth retardation. Herein, T-2 toxin-induced GH3 cell damage and apoptosis were tested by MTT assay, LDH leakage and flow cytometry, respectively...
January 24, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129900/-atypical-and-rare-cardiac-revelation-about-sheehan-s-syndrome-a-report-of-three-cases
#11
N Bouznad, G El Mghari, M El Hattaoui, N El Ansari
Sheehan syndrome is a potentially serious complication in the postpartum period corresponding to ischemic necrosis of the anterior pituitary related to postpartum haemorrhage. We report three original observations showing an unusual mode of revelation of this syndrome. The first observation is that of a 46-year-old patient admitted initially to resuscitation for a recovered cardiorespiratory arrest, severe hypoglycemia and profound hyponatremia. The second is that of a 45-year-old patient, admitted for recurrent cardiac tamponade after pericardial and pleural puncture and pericardial drainage; clinical survey found signs of slight panhypopituitarism...
January 24, 2017: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127105/fibromodulin-expression-in-folliculostellate-cells-and-pericytes-is-promoted-by-tgf%C3%AE-signaling-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-gland
#12
Rahimi Syaidah, Takehiro Tsukada, Morio Azuma, Kotaro Horiguchi, Ken Fujiwara, Motoshi Kikuchi, Takashi Yashiro
Fibromodulin belongs to the family of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs), an active component of extracellular matrix. It directly binds collagens to promote fibrillogenesis and also binds transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) to antagonize its actions. Our previous studies of rat anterior pituitary gland revealed that fibromodulin is expressed in folliculostellate cells and pericytes. Although our recent study showed that TGFβ2 secreted from folliculostellate cells induces collagen synthesis in pericytes, the involvement of fibromodulin in TGFβ2-mediated collagen regulation has not been studied...
December 28, 2016: Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120110/identification-of-m2-macrophages-in-anterior-pituitary-glands-of-normal-rats-and-rats-with-estrogen-induced-prolactinoma
#13
Ken Fujiwara, Megumi Yatabe, Alimuddin Tofrizal, Depicha Jindatip, Takashi Yashiro, Ryozo Nagai
Macrophages are present throughout the anterior pituitary gland. However, the features and function of macrophages in the gland are poorly understood. Recent studies have indicated that there are two main macrophage classes: M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). In this study, we examine whether both M1 and M2 macrophages are present in the anterior pituitary gland of rats. Our findings indicate that macrophages that are positive for CD68 (a pan-macrophage marker) were localized near capillaries in rat anterior pituitary gland...
January 24, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092730/serum-agr2-as-a-useful-biomarker-for-pituitary-adenomas
#14
Mamatemin Tohti, Junyang Li, Chao Tang, Guodao Wen, Abdukeyum Abdujilil, Parhat Yizim, Chiyuan Ma
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate whether the serum Anterior Gradient-2 (AGR2) can be used as a potential biomarker screening in the diagnosis of Pituitary adenomas(PAs). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The serum AGR2 protein levels were preoperatively measured in 163 PA patients, 43 patients with other sellar lesions excluding PAs, 7 patients with prostate cancer as a positive control and 20 normal people(10 female and 10 male) using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA)...
January 9, 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088468/hypothalamic-effects-of-thyroid-hormone
#15
Zhi Zhang, Anita Boelen, Peter H Bisschop, Andries Kalsbeek, Eric Fliers
Thyroid hormone (TH) is a key driver of metabolism in mammals. Plasma concentrations of TH are kept within a narrow range by negative feedback regulation in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Plasma TH concentrations are an important determinant of metabolic processes in liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In addition to endocrine effects of TH derived from the circulation, recent studies have demonstrated additional neural routes for intrahypothalamic thyroid hormone to regulate metabolism in liver and BAT via the sympathetic and parasympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system (ANS)...
January 11, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070828/hypofractionated-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-pituitary-metastases
#16
Haemin Chon, KyoungJun Yoon, Do Hoon Kwon, Chang Jin Kim, Min-Seon Kim, Young Hyun Cho
Pituitary metastases (PMs) are uncommon, representing only 1% of pituitary lesions. The diagnosis of PMs can be challenging and an optimal management remains to be determined. Here, we present a pilot clinical study on the efficacy and safety of hypofractionated stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) with an optimized dosimetric plan in treating PMs. Between June 2013 and December 2014, seven consecutive patients (4 men and 3 women; median age 62 years) had been diagnosed with PMs based on their characteristic clinical and radiological features and subsequently treated using hypofractionated SRS...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057594/significant-improvement-in-chronic-persistent-headaches-caused-by-small-rathke-cleft-cysts-after-transsphenoidal-surgery
#17
Issei Fukui, Yasuhiko Hayashi, Daisuke Kita, Yasuo Sasagawa, Masahiro Oishi, Osamu Tachibana, Mitsutoshi Nakada
PURPOSE: Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) are usually asymptomatic and can be observed using conservative methods. However, some patients with RCCs have severe headaches even if they are small enough to be confined to the sella, and these small RCCs have seldom been discussed. This study presents an investigation into clinical characteristics of small RCCs associated with severe headaches, demonstrating efficacy and safety of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) to relieve headaches. METHODS: In this study, 13 patients with small RCCs (maximum diameter < 10mm) who presented with headaches and were treated by ETSS at our institute from 2009 to 2014 were recruited...
January 2, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049999/overlap-of-post-obstructive-diuresis-and-unmasked-diabetes-insipidus-in-a-case-of-igg4-related-retroperitoneal-fibrosis-and-tuberoinfundibular-hypophysitis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Midori Sasaki Yatabe, Kimio Watanabe, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Junichi Yatabe, Satoshi Morimoto, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Masaaki Nakayama, Tsuyoshi Watanabe
The clinical picture of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is diverse because various organs can be affected. We describe the case of a 56-year-old man with acute renal failure and tuberoinfundibular hypophysitis due to IgG4-RD. Steroid therapy lowered the serum IgG4 level and ameliorated renal dysfunction, bilateral hydronephrosis and retroperitoneal fibrosis. However, polyuria from post-obstructive diuresis and unmasked central diabetes insipidus ensued. The patient's polyuria continued despite the administration of a therapeutic dose of glucocorticoid; the patient's pituitary swelling and anterior pituitary dysfunction were partially ameliorated...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034815/transsphenoidal-posterior-pituitary-lobe-biopsy-in-patients-with-neurohypophysial-lesions
#19
Yasuyuki Kinoshita, Fumiyuki Yamasaki, Atsushi Tominaga, Satoshi Usui, Kazunori Arita, Tetsuhiko Sakoguchi, Kazuhiko Sugiyama, Kaoru Kurisu
OBJECTIVE: The differential diagnosis of neurohypophysial lesions is difficult and surgical biopsies are indispensable in the histological diagnosis of some patients. Although pituitary stalk biopsies are uniformly performed, there is a considerable risk that they will result in impaired hormonal secretion. We attempt to clarify the usefulness and safety of posterior pituitary lobe biopsy by transsphenoidal surgery (TSS). METHODS: The cases of 11 consecutive patients who underwent posterior pituitary lobe biopsies by TSS were retrospectively studied...
December 27, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026856/gene-tracing-analysis-reveals-the-contribution-of-neural-crest-derived-cells-in-pituitary-development
#20
Hiroki Ueharu, Saishu Yoshida, Takako Kikkawa, Naoko Kanno, Masashi Higuchi, Takako Kato, Noriko Osumi, Yukio Kato
The anterior pituitary originates from the adenohypophyseal placode. Both the preplacode region and neural crest (NC) derive from subdivision of the neural border region, and further individualization of the placode domain is established by a reciprocal interaction between placodal precursors and NC cells (NCCs). It has long been known that NCCs are present in the adenohypophysis as interstitial cells. A recent report demonstrated that NCCs also contribute to the formation of pericytes in the developing pituitary...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Anatomy
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