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Anterior pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325954/anterior-skull-base-tumor-resection-by-transciliary-supraorbital-keyhole-craniotomy-a-single-institutional-experience
#1
Ya-Jui Lin, Ko-Ting Chen, Cheng-Chi Lee, Cheng-Hong Toh, Tai-Wei Erich Wu, Yin-Cheng Huang, Peng-Wei Hsu, Yu-Jen Lu, Chi-Cheng Chuang, Pin-Yuan Chen, Kuo-Chen Wei
BACKGROUND: The prognosis and recurrence rate following resection of an anterior skull base lesion via transciliary supraorbital keyhole craniotomy depends on residual tumor volume. The extent to which pathology and size of tumor influence the resection rate using this approach is unknown. METHODS: Sixty-two patients underwent a total of 64 operations using the supraorbital keyhole approach in this retrospective study. Meningioma was the most common tumor, followed by pituitary adenoma and craniopharyngioma...
January 8, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322554/transcription-factor-foxc1-is-involved-in-anterior-part-of-cranial-base-formation
#2
Nandar Mya, Toshiko Furutera, Shigeru Okuhara, Tsutomu Kume, Masaki Takechi, Sachiko Iseki
The cranial base is a structure mainly formed through endochondral ossification, and integrated into the craniofacial complex acting as an underlying platform for developing brain. Foxc1 is an indispensable regulator during intramembranous and endochondral ossification. In this study, we found that the spontaneous loss of Foxc1 function mouse (congenital hydrocephalous), Foxc1ch/ch , showed the anterior cranial base defects including unossified presphenoid and lack of middle part of the basisphenoid bone. Consistently, hypoplastic presphenoid primordial cartilage (basal portion of the trabecular cartilage) and lack of the middle part of basisphenoid primordial cartilage (the hypophyseal cartilage) were observed at earlier developmental stage...
January 11, 2018: Congenital Anomalies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299107/the-missing-link-a-case-of-absent-pituitary-infundibulum-and-ectopic-neurohypophysis-in-a-pediatric-patient-with-heterotaxy-syndrome
#3
Adil Omer, Dana Haddad, Leszek Pisinski, Alan V Krauthamer
We report a case of absent pituitary infundibulum and ectopic neurohypophysis in a 4-year-old patient presenting clinically with hypopituitarism as well as heterotaxy syndrome complicated by global developmental delay and growth retardation. The clinical and laboratory workup of our patient suggested underlying hypopituitarism related to either congenital or acquired pathology, necessitating MRI to distinguish between them. We explain the various structural causes of hypopituitarism and detail how to predict the MRI findings and treatment, based on a fundamental understanding of the anatomy and pathophysiology of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and distinguishing anterior versus posterior pituitary hormone derangements...
September 2017: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288685/characterization-of-neuromedin-u-nmu-neuromedin-s-nms-and-their-receptors-nmur1-nmur2-in-chickens
#4
Yiping Wan, Jiannan Zhang, Chao Fang, Junan Chen, Jing Li, Juan Li, Chenlei Wu, Yajun Wang
Neuromedin U (NMU) and its structurally-related peptide, neuromedin S (NMS), are reported to regulate many physiological processes and their actions are mediated by two NMU receptors (NMUR1, NMUR2) in mammals. However, the information regarding NMU, NMS, and their receptors is limited in birds. In this study, we examined the structure, functionality, and expression of NMS, NMU, NMUR1 and NMUR2 in chickens. The results showed that: 1) chicken (c-) NMU cDNA encodes a 181-amino acid precursor, which may generate two forms of NMU peptide with 9 (cNMU-9) and 25 amino acids (cNMU-25), respectively...
December 27, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283520/sensitivity-of-t-lymphocytes-to-hormones-of-the-anterior-pituitary-gland
#5
N V Tishevskaya, N M Gevorkyan, N I Kozlova
The review provides information about the features of the sensitivity of thymocytes, lymphoid organs' cells and T-lymphocytes of peripheral blood to the hormones secreted by anterior pituitary gland's cells: growth hormone, thyrotropin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, prolactin and β-endorphin. Some aspects of the T-lymphocytes's response to humoral signals from the hypophysis are shown in the article. Also the pituitary hormones' role in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production of T-lymphocytes in normal and pathological conditions of the organism being discussed...
January 2017: Uspekhi Fiziologicheskikh Nauk
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277704/prevention-of-chronic-immobilization-stress-induced-enhanced-expression-of-glucocorticoid-receptors-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-by-inactivation-of-basolateral-amygdala
#6
Sunil Jamuna Tripathi, Suwarna Chakraborty, B N Srikumar, T R Raju, B S Shankaranarayana Rao
Repeated exposure to stress precipitates anxiety, depression and cognitive deficits. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is modulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and basolateral amygdala (BLA). It is well established that BLA positively regulates the HPA axis and undergoes hypertrophy following chronic immobilization stress (CIS). However, it is not known whether inactivation of the BLA can modulate the stress-induced changes in the expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the PFC...
December 23, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277338/hypothalamic-abnormalities-growth-failure-due-to-defects-of-the-ghrh-receptor
#7
Manuel H Aguiar-Oliveira, Caridad Davalos, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira Neto, Cindi G Marinho, Carla R P Oliveira
Several acquired or congenital hypothalamic abnormalities may cause growth failure (GF). We described two of these congenital abnormalities. First, a case of CHARGE syndrome, an epigenetic disorder mostly caused by heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding CHD7, a chromatin remodeling protein, causing several malformations, some life-threatening, with additional secondary hypothalamus-hypophyseal dysfunction, including GF. Second, a cohort of individuals with genetic isolated severe GH deficiency (IGHD), due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptor gene described in Itabaianinha County, in northeast Brazil...
December 20, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275530/histopathological-classification-of-non-functioning-pituitary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#8
REVIEW
Emilija Manojlovic-Gacic, Britt Edén Engström, Olivera Casar-Borota
Non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do not cause endocrine symptoms related to hypersecretion of adenohypophyseal hormones and are clinically characterized by symptoms due to growing sellar tumor mass. Histopathological classification of this tumor group has always been challenging due to their heterogeneity, limited knowledge on their biology, and diverse methodological problems. We have searched PubMed database for data related to the histopathological classification of non-functioning pituitary tumors and methods for its application...
December 23, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259254/identification-of-long-non-coding-rnas-in-the-immature-and-mature-rat-anterior-pituitary
#9
Dong-Xu Han, Xu-Lei Sun, Yao Fu, Chang-Jiang Wang, Jian-Bo Liu, Hao Jiang, Yan Gao, Cheng-Zhen Chen, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang
Many long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been identified in several types of human pituitary adenomas and normal anterior pituitary, some of which are involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas. However, a systematic analysis of lncRNAs expressed at different developmental stages of normal pituitary, particularly in rats, has not been performed. Therefore, we contrasted two cDNA libraries of immature (D15) and mature (D120) anterior pituitary in rat that were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq Xten platform, and a total of 29,568,806,352 clean reads were identified...
December 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250678/mass-effect-a-plethora-of-symptoms-caused-by-an-otherwise-benign-transitional-pituitary-meningioma-case-report
#10
Elisabeta Bădilă, Alexandra Emma Weiss, Daniela Bartoş, Elena Lăcrămioara Dumitrache, Ligia Gabriela Tătăranu, Gheorghe Vasile Ciubotaru, Tiberiu Paul Neagu, Valentin Enache, Valeriu Bogdan Popa, Cristina Japie
Meningiomas are among the most commonly encountered tumors of the central nervous system, being more frequent in females. We present the case of a dyslipidemic male patient, previously diagnosed with coronary artery disease for which he previously underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with the placement of two bare metal stents on the left anterior descending artery. He was presented to the emergency department for atypical angina and a seven-day history of dizziness when switching from clino- to orthostatism, reduced visual acuity, diplopia and vomiting...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249540/a-morphometric-and-analytical-cadaver-dissection-study-of-a-tumor-simulation-balloon-model
#11
Baran Bozkurt, Evgenii Belykh, Kaan Yağmurlu, Abhishek Agrawal, Steve W Chang, Michael S Staren, Robert F Spetzler, Joseph M Zabramski, Mark C Preul
We quantified the effects on anatomical cadaver dissection of a balloon-inflation tumor model positioned in the parasellar region and approached through an orbitozygomatic (OZ) craniotomy. A modified supraorbital OZ was performed bilaterally on 5 silicon-injected cadaver heads. Ten predetermined anatomical points assigned using a frameless stereotactic device were used to measure the working area of exposure, degree of surgical freedom, and horizontal and vertical angles of attack to specific target points before and after inflation of a balloon catheter mimicking a parasellar tumor...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220526/anti-pd-l1-treatment-induced-central-diabetes-insipidus
#12
Chen Zhao, Sri Harsha Tella, Jaydira Del Rivero, Anuhya Kommalapati, Ifechukwude Ebenuwa, James Gulley, Julius Strauss, Isaac Brownell
Context: Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies, have been widely used in cancer treatment. They are known to cause immune-related adverse events (irAEs), which resemble autoimmune diseases. Anterior pituitary hypophysitis with secondary hypopituitarism is a frequently reported irAE, especially in patients receiving anti-CTLA4 treatment. In contrast, posterior pituitary involvement, such as central diabetes insipidus (DI), is relatively rare and is unreported in patients undergoing PD-1/PD-L1 blockade...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213168/pituitary-imaging-in-129-children-with-growth-hormone-deficiency-a-spectrum-of-findings
#13
Rushaid N A AlJurayyan, Nasir A M AlJurayyan, Hala G Omer, Sharifah D A Alissa, Hessah M N AlOtaibi, Reem A H AlKhalifah, Amir M I Babiker, Sarar Mohamed
Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency is the most common pituitary hormone deficiency in children. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the brain detects structural pituitary anomalies associated with GH deficiency. This retrospective hospital-based study was conducted at King Khalid University hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period (January 1995-June 2016). The available radiological, clinical and laboratory records of all children with confirmed GH deficiency by dynamic testing who had MRI brain were reviewed...
2017: Sudanese Journal of Paediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204279/sellar-plasmacytoma-presenting-with-symptoms-of-anterior-pituitary-dysfunction
#14
Ana G Ferreira, Tiago N Silva, Henrique V Luiz, Filipa D Campos, Maria C Cordeiro, Jorge R Portugal
Sellar plasmacytomas are rare and the differential diagnosis with non-functioning pituitary adenomas might be difficult because of clinical and radiological resemblance. They usually present with neurological signs and intact anterior pituitary function. Some may already have or eventually progress to multiple myeloma. We describe a case associated with extensive anterior pituitary involvement, which is a rare form of presentation. A 68-year-old man was referred to our Endocrinology outpatient clinic due to gynecomastia, reduced libido and sexual impotence...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198444/endocrine-and-metabolic-assessment-in-adults-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#15
L Montefusco, S Harari, D Elia, A Rossi, C Specchia, O Torre, G Adda, M Arosio
CONTEXT: Diabetes insipidus (DI) is one of most common complications of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) but prevalence of anterior pituitary deficiencies and metabolic alterations have not been clearly defined yet. OBJECTIVES: Evaluate prevalence of endocrine and metabolic manifestations in a cohort of patients affected by Pulmonary LCH. METHODS: Observational cross-sectional study on 18 adults (7 M/11 F, 42±12years) studied for complete basal and dynamic endocrine lab tests and glucose metabolism...
November 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181146/metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-intradural-foramen-magnum
#16
Halil Olgun Peker, Nural Cafer Celik, Ulas Cikla, Mustafa K Baskaya
Intradural metastatic tumors are rarely reported in foramen magnum (FM), including cases of melanoma, pituitary carcinoma, thyroid carcinoma, and prostate carcinoma metastases. We report a 68-year-old male who presented with right-sided headache, progressive swallowing difficulty requiring gastrostomy tube and hoarseness over the course of 1 year. Images revealed a heterogeneous, contrast-enhancing lesion in the FM that compressed the anterior aspect of the medulla and upper spinal cord. Although metastatic tumor was considered in differential diagnosis, presumptive diagnosis was FM meningioma due to lack of bone destruction or sclerosis on CT and T2W isointense and T1W hypointense appearance on MRI...
November 2017: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176324/pituitary-dysfunction-in-pediatric-patients-with-optic-nerve-hypoplasia-a-retrospective-cohort-study-1975-2014
#17
Naseem Alyahyawi, Keira Dheensaw, Nazrul Islam, Maryam Aroichane, Shazhan Amed
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The risk factors for pituitary hormone dysfunction (PHD) in children with optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH) are not well understood. This study identified the type, timing, and predictors of PHD in children with ONH. METHODS: ONH patient charts were reviewed retrospectively. The incidence rate of PHD was calculated assuming a Poisson distribution. Predictors of PHD were identified through a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Among 144 subjects with ONH, 49...
November 24, 2017: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176025/a-newborn-with-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-developing-shock-and-sludge
#18
Yasuhiro Ueda, Hayato Aoyagi, Toshihiro Tajima
A male neonate was born at 41 weeks of gestation with a birth weight of 3320 g. Artificial respiratory management was required due to respiratory disturbance 1 h after birth, and subsequently catecholamine-refractory low cardiac output-induced shock occurred. Severe combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) was considered based on the presence of his respiratory disturbance, hypoglycemia and micropenis. After hydrocortisone (HDC) administration, circulatory dynamics rapidly improved. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed aplasia of the anterior pituitary gland and ectopic posterior gland...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174487/mirnaome-mrnaome-and-degradome-analysis-of-tibetan-minipigs-anterior-pituitary
#19
Rui-Song Ye, Meng Li, Ting Chen, Qi-En Qi, Xiao Cheng, Chao-Yun Li, Qing-Yan Jiang, Qian-Yun Xi, Yong-Liang Zhang
Tibetan minipig is an important animal model for human diseases. The anterior pituitary is the master gland responsible for growth, reproduction, and metabolism and is regulated by thousands of miRNAs/mRNAs molecules. However, little is known about miRNAs and their relationships with mRNAs in Tibetan minipig anterior pituitary. Using microarray and mRNA-Sequencing, we identified 203 miRNAs and 12,040 mRNA transcripts from the anterior pituitary of Tibetan minipigs. These miRNAs were corresponding to 194 hairpin precursors, 25 miRNA clusters and 24 miRNA families...
November 23, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165578/clues-for-polygenic-inheritance-of-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-by-exome-sequencing-in-20-patients
#20
Nitash Zwaveling-Soonawala, Marielle Alders, Aldo Jongejan, Lidija Kovacic, Floor A Duijkers, Saskia M Maas, Eric Fliers, A S Paul van Trotsenburg, Raoul C Hennekam
Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) consists of a small/absent anterior pituitary lobe, interrupted/absent pituitary stalk, and an ectopic posterior pituitary lobe. Mendelian forms of PSIS are detected infrequently (< 5%), and a polygenic etiology has been suggested. GLI2 variants have been reported in a relatively high frequency in PSIS. Objective: To provide further evidence for a non-Mendelian, polygenic etiology of PSIS. Methods: Exome sequencing (trio approach) in 20 patients with isolated PSIS...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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