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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921427/-growth-hormone-axis-gh-igf1-and-glucose-metabolism
#1
Michal Kršek
Growth hormone is a hormone of anterior lobe of pituitary gland which possesses besides its growth promoting effects also many other various physiological effects including its regulatory influences on metabolism with glucose metabolism belonging to most important ones. The present article summarizes basic information about metabolic consequences of disturbed growth hormone secretion and their importance for clinical presentation and management.Key words: acromegaly - glucose - growth hormone - growth hormone deficiency - IGF1 - metabolism...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920872/anterior-and-posterior-suprasellar-extensions-of-a-symmetrical-trilobed-nonfunctional-giant-pituitary-adenoma-in-the-sagittal-plane-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#2
Rushabh M Vakharia, Roman Kremen, Ajit Vakharia, Obed Adarkwah, Gordon Anderson
INTRODUCTION: To the best of our knowledge, the presence of a trilobed nonfunctional giant pituitary adenoma has never been described before in the literature. These tumors present unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Tumors of this etiology can be managed with pharmacologic treatment or aggressive surgical intervention. The following case illustrates an unique visual presentation of a giant pituitary adenoma. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Hispanic man who presented with new onset seizures...
December 2016: Radiology case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914036/prolactin-regulatory-element-binding-protein-is-involved-in-suppression-of-the-adiponectin-gene-in-vivo
#3
X Z Zhang, H Imachi, J Y Lyu, K Fukunaga, S Sato, T Ibata, T Kobayashi, T Yoshimoto, F Kikuchi, T Dong, K Murao
PURPOSE: Prolactin regulatory element-binding protein (PREB), a member of the WD-repeat protein family, has been recognized as a transcriptional factor that regulates prolactin promoter activity in the anterior pituitary of rats. PREB is expressed not only in the pituitary but also in various other tissues, including the adipose tissue. Previous studies have shown that PREB acts as a transcriptional regulator and suppresses the expression of the adiponectin gene in cultured 3T3L1 preadipocytes...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901351/biosynthesis-of-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-and-gnrh-receptor-gnrhr-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-unit-of-anoestrous-and-cyclic-ewes
#4
M O Ciechanowska, M Łapot, K Mateusiak, E Paruszewska, T Malewski, F Przekop
This study was performed to explain how the molecular processes governing the biosynthesis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the hypothalamic-pituitary unit are reflected by luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in sheep during anoestrous period and during luteal and follicular phases of the oestrous cycle. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analyzed the levels of GnRH and GnRHR in preoptic area (POA), anterior (AH) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VM), stalk-median eminence (SME), and GnRHR in the anterior pituitary gland (AP)...
November 30, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891281/septooptic-dysplasia-with-an-associated-arachnoid-cyst
#5
Skyler V McLaurin-Jiang, Julie K Wood, David F Crudo
A 4-week-old male infant presented with hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. His medical history was remarkable for hydrocephalus secondary to an arachnoid cyst, intermittent hypoglycemia, hypothermia, and poor feeding requiring nasogastric tube for nutrition. Physical exam revealed retrognathia, mild hypotonia, micropenis, and clinodactyly. Ophthalmologic exam demonstrated bilateral optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH). Laboratory data confirmed inadequate cortisol and growth hormone response to hypoglycemia, a low thyroxine level, and direct hyperbilirubinemia...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890190/imaging-of-the-sella-and-parasellar-region
#6
REVIEW
John L Go, Anandh G Rajamohan
The sella and parasellar region, found between the anterior and central skull base, represents the central aspect of the skull base. Given the location of the pituitary gland in this location, small lesions in this location may have major physiologic effects on the human body. This article reviews the anatomy, development, and pathologic processes that may involve this region.
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887910/assessment-of-serum-level-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-in-primary-nocturnal-enuresis
#7
Ayat A Motawie, Amany M Abd Al-Aziz, Hanan M Hamed, Amany A A Fatouh, Mona A M Awad, Amany Abd El-Ghany
INTRODUCTION: Primary nocturnal enuresis is one of the sleep related phenomena characterized by disruption in the relationship between arousal and urination. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neurohormone released from the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus into the median eminence to elicit release of adrenocorticotrophin from the anterior pituitary. It may act to modulate autonomic function and behavior in concert with the endocrine effects. Conflicting animal studies about the role of CRF in micturition, either facilitating or inhibiting, have been raised...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885957/visual-pathway-impairment-by-pituitary-adenomas-quantitative-diagnostics-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#8
Ylva Lilja, Oscar Gustafsson, Maria Ljungberg, Göran Starck, Bertil Lindblom, Thomas Skoglund, Henrik Bergquist, Karl-Erik Jakobsson, Daniel Nilsson
OBJECTIVE Despite ample experience in surgical treatment of pituitary adenomas, little is known about objective indices that may reveal risk of visual impairment caused by tumor growth that leads to compression of the anterior visual pathways. This study aimed to explore diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as a means for objective assessment of injury to the anterior visual pathways caused by pituitary adenomas. METHODS Twenty-three patients with pituitary adenomas, scheduled for transsphenoidal tumor resection, and 20 healthy control subjects were included in the study...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884532/morphometric-analysis-of-the-folliculostellate-cells-and-luteinizing-hormone-gonadotropic-cells-of-the-anterior-pituitary-of-the-men-during-the-aging-process
#9
Jovana Čukuranović Kokoris, Ivan Jovanović, Vukica Pantović, Miljan Krstić, Milica Stanojković, Verica Milošević, Slađana Ugrenović, Vesna Stojanović
The aim of this research was to quantify the changes in the morphology and density of the anterior pituitary folliculostellate (FS) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells. Material was tissue of the pituitary gland of the 14 male cadavers. Tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal anti-LH antibody and polyclonal anti-S100 antibody for the detection of LH and FS cells, respectively. Digital images of the stained slices were afterwards morphometrically analyzed by ImageJ. Results of the morphometric analysis showed significant increase of the FS cells volume density in cases older than 70 years...
November 17, 2016: Tissue & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875509/osseous-repair-in-minimally-invasive-reconstruction-of-anterior-skull-base-defects
#10
Vijay R Ramakrishnan, Adam M Terella, Seerat Poonia, Alexander G Chiu, James N Palmer
Management of anterior skull base defects is an area of continued innovation for skull base surgeons. Various grafting materials have been advocated for the repair of skull base defects depending on needs, availability, harvest site morbidity, and surgeon preference. Spontaneous bony closure of small skull defects is known to occur in animal models without bone grafts, but this phenomenon has been unexplored in the human skull base. The objective of this study was to evaluate osseous skull base closure in patients undergoing endoscopic repair of skull base defects...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869423/-progressive-moderate-mitral-regurgitation-in-a-children-with-axenfeld-rieger-syndrome-the-importance-of-cardiologic-follow-up
#11
Francisco Sánchez Ferrer, María D Grima Murcia
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a congenital disease with an estimated prevalence of one in 200,000 individuals. This is an ophthalmic disorder related to anterior segment dysgenesis, which may be present from the neonatal period. It is associated with extraocular affectations such as cranial dimorphism, maxillofacial or dental anomalies. Cardiological or pituitary manifestations are less common. The congenital heart disease in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome has been described in very few cases in the literature. We report a 7-year-old patient with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and mild mitral insufficiency since the age of 3 years, which is progressing to moderate mitral regurgitation at the present time...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868174/-acromegaly-recognition-of-a-rare-disease-in-psychiatric-practice
#12
A J de Kort, D Postulart, G A A M Wetzer, S H P P Roerink
Acromegaly is a rare disease which is caused by a tumour in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. The tumour stimulates excessive production of the growth hormone. As a result, all the organs and tissues in the body are induced to grow. This growth is responsible for a wide range of symptoms, some of which can be neuro-psychiatric.<br/> AIM: To promote the early detection of acromegaly so that treatment can be started as soon as possible and further damage can be prevented.<br/> METHOD: We searched PubMed for articles relating to quality of life and cognitive, psychological and psychiatric symptoms and personality changes associated with acromegaly...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845884/central-diabetes-insipidus-clinical-profile-that-suggests-organicity-in-peruvian-children-lima-peru-2001-2013
#13
Miguel Angel De Los Santos, Carlos Manuel Del Águila, Maria Isabel Rojas, Juan Manuel Falen, Oswaldo Nuñez, Eliana Manuela Chávez, Oscar Antonio Espinoza, Paola Marianella Pinto, Martha Rosario Calagua
BACKGROUND: Central diabetes insipidus (CDI) is a heterogeneous disease caused by arginine vasopressin deficiency; its management implies a profound understanding of the pathophysiology and the clinical spectrum. The aim of the study was to describe the clinical characteristics that indicate organicity in children and adolescents with central diabetes insipidus treated at the Department of Endocrinology from The Child Health's Institute during 2001 to 2013. METHODS: Cross-sectional, retrospective study...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843654/anterior-pituitary-aplasia-in-an-infant-with-ring-chromosome-18p-deletion
#14
Edward J Bellfield, Jacqueline Chan, Sarah Durrin, Valerie Lindgren, Zohra Shad, Claudia Boucher-Berry
We present the first reported case of an infant with 18p deletion syndrome with anterior pituitary aplasia secondary to a ring chromosome. Endocrine workup soon after birth was reassuring; however, repeat testing months later confirmed central hypopituitarism. While MRI reading initially indicated no midline defects, subsequent review of the images confirmed anterior pituitary aplasia with ectopic posterior pituitary. This case demonstrates how deletion of genetic material, even if resulting in a chromosomal ring, still results in a severe syndromic phenotype...
2016: Case Reports in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833409/preoperative-coiling-of-coexisting-intracranial-aneurysm-and-subsequent-brain-tumor-surgery
#15
Keun Young Park, Byung Moon Kim, Dong Joon Kim
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have investigated treatment strategies for brain tumor with a coexisting unruptured intracranial aneurysm (cUIA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative coiling for cUIA, and subsequent brain tumor surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 19 patients (mean age, 55.2 years; M:F = 4:15) underwent preoperative coiling for 23 cUIAs and subsequent brain tumor surgery. Primary brain tumors were meningiomas (n = 7, 36...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825409/clinical-features-of-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome-in-114-cases
#16
Bai-Yu Han, Qian Zhang, Le-Le Li, Qing-Hua Guo, Cheng-Zhi Wang, Li Cang, Nan Jin, Fang Chen, Ling Zhao, Jia Cui, Xiu-Lian Gu, Fang-Ling Ma, Sai-Chun Zhang, Yi-Ming Mu, Jing-Tao Dou
Objective To analyze the clinical characteristics of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome(PSIS). Methods The clinical data including clinical manifestations,laboratory tests,and imaging findings of 114 PSIS patients in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Of these 114 PSIS patients,102 cases (89.4%) were male. The average age was 21.1?6.1 years. A history of breech delivery was documented in 91 cases (91.9%). Short stature was found in 89 cases (71.8%) and bone age delayed (6.1?5.1) years. Secondary sex characteristics were poor or undeveloped in most patients...
October 10, 2016: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822880/tracing-of-zinc-nanocrystals-in-the-anterior-pituitary-of-zinc-deficient-wistar-rats
#17
Anjana Kuldeep, Neena Nair, Ranveer Singh Bedwal
The aim of this study was to trace zinc nanocrystals in the anterior pituitary of zinc-deficient Wistar rats by using autometallographic technique. Male Wistar rats (30-40 days of age, pre-pubertal period) of 40-50 g body weight were divided into the following: the ZC (zinc control) group-fed with 100 ppm zinc in diet, the ZD (zinc-deficient) group-fed with zinc-deficient (1.00 ppm) diet and the PF (pair-fed) group-received 100 ppm zinc in diet. The experiments were set for 2 and 4 weeks. Pituitary was removed and processed for the autometallographic technique...
November 7, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812776/critical-review-of-igg4-related-hypophysitis
#18
Junpei Shikuma, Kenshi Kan, Rokuro Ito, Kazuo Hara, Hiroyuki Sakai, Takashi Miwa, Akira Kanazawa, Masato Odawara
PURPOSE: IgG4-related hypophysitis is a rare disease, with only 34 cases published in English (2015). Available short reviews may not present complete details of IgG4-related hypophysitis. We aimed to survey case reports of IgG4-related hypophysitis, including abstracts of scientific meetings, in English and Japanese. METHODS: We searched for information about IgG4-related hypophysitis in PubMed and Igakuchuozasshi (Japan Medical Abstracts Society). Among 104 case reports found, we reviewed 84 fulfilling Leporati's diagnostic criteria...
November 3, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805784/role-of-isotocin-in-regulation-of-the-hypophysiotropic-dopamine-neurons-in-the-preoptic-area-of-the-catfish-clarias-batrachus
#19
Omprakash Singh, Santosh Kumar, Uday Singh, Yogesh Bhute, Praful S Singru
Dopamine (DA) has emerged as the potent inhibitory neuromodulator of LH secretion and reproduction in teleosts. The DA neurons located in the anterior subdivision of nucleus preopticus periventricularis (NPPa) in the preoptic area (POA) innervate the pituitary gland and regulate the LH cells. Although reduction in the inhibitory DAergic tone is crucial for stimulatory action of GnRH on LH cells, the role of other hypothalamic factors is suggested but not fully understood. Nonapeptide, isotocin (IST) has emerged as a likely candidate that may also influence the LH cell function...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801962/distribution-of-corticotropin-releasing-factor-type-1-receptor-like-immunoreactivity-in-the-rat-pituitary
#20
Asuka Mano-Otagiri, Takahiro Nemoto, Naoko Yamauchi, Yoshihiko Kakinuma, Tamotsu Shibasaki
Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress through its type 1 receptor (CRF1 ) in the corticotrophs of the anterior pituitary. Although CRF1 mRNA expression has been confirmed in the rat pituitary, the distribution pattern of CRF1 protein in the pituitary has not been reported. Therefore, we generated an antiserum against the amino acid fragment corresponding to the 177-188 sequence of the first extracellular loop of the rat CRF1 . By using the antiserum, CRF1 -like immunoreactivity (CRF1 -LI) was detected in the anterior lobe cells of the rat pituitary where some of them expressed intense signals...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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