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Anterior pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444954/clinical-presentation-and-outcome-of-children-with-central-diabetes-insipidus-associated-with-a-self-limited-or-transient-pituitary-stalk-thickening-diagnosed-as-infundibuloneurohypophysitis
#1
J Schaefers, M Cools, K De Waele, I Gies, V Beauloye, P Lysy, I Francois, D Beckers, J De Schepper
OBJECTIVE: Despite lymphocytic or autoimmune infundibuloneurohypophysitis (INH) is an increasingly recognized etiology in children with central diabetes insipidus, clinical data on epidemiology (clinical evolution, predisposing factors, complications), diagnosis and management of this entity are limited and mostly based on published case reports. The aim of this study was to gain a broader insight in the natural history of this disease by analyzing the clinical presentation, radiological pituitary stalk changes, associated autoimmunity and hormonal deficiencies in children with CDI and a self-limiting or transient stalk thickening (ST), diagnosed as autoimmune INH, during the last 15 years in four Belgian university hospitals...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442638/deep-sequencing-of-the-transcriptome-in-the-anterior-pituitary-of-heifers-before-and-after-ovulation
#2
Kiran Pandey, Yoichi Mizukami, Kenji Watanabe, Syuiti Sakaguti, Hiroya Kadokawa
We aimed to determine gene expression patterns in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers before and after ovulation via deep sequencing of the transcriptome (RNA-seq) to identify new genes and clarify important pathways. Heifers were slaughtered on the estrus day (pre-ovulation; n=5) or 3 days after ovulation (post-ovulation; n=5) for AP collection. We randomly selected 4 pre-ovulation and 4 post-ovulation APs, and the ribosomal RNA-depleted poly (A)+RNA were prepared to assemble next-generation sequencing libraries...
April 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442470/late-outcomes-in-children-with-langerhans-cell-histiocytosis
#3
Tin Wai Chow, Wing Kwan Leung, Frankie Wai Tsoi Cheng, Shekhar Medhukar Kumta, Winnie Chiu Wing Chu, Vincent Lee, Matthew Ming Kong Shing, Chi Kong Li
INTRODUCTION: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a rare disease with diverse clinical courses. Despite improvement in survival outcomes in the recent decades, sequelae of the disease remain a concern. This study aimed to provide information on the long-term outcomes in patients with LCH, particularly on the sequelae and any associated factors. METHOD: Medical records of patients with diagnosis of LCH and being managed in our centre were retrospectively reviewed...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442349/perinatal-programming-of-the-orexinergic-hypocretinergic-system-in-hypothalamus-and-anterior-pituitary-by-testosterone
#4
Natalia I Cataldi, Victoria A Lux-Lantos, Carlos Libertun
Orexins A/B derived from hypothalamic prepro-orexin (PPO) are agonists for orexin receptors 1 (OX1) and 2 (OX2). Previously, we showed clear sex differences in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal orexinergic system in adult rodents. Here, we studied the effect of sexual brain differentiation on the orexinergic system in neuroendocrine structures regulating reproduction. We evaluated: a: proestrous and neonatally androgenized female rats; b: adult males, untreated or gonadectomized in adulthood and injected with oil or estradiol and progesterone (E2/P4); c: control and demasculinized males (perinatally treated with flutamide and later castration) injected either with oil or E2/P4 in adulthood...
April 22, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433845/clinical-outcome-after-extended-endoscopic-endonasal-resection-of-craniopharyngiomas-two-institution-experience
#5
Hye Ran Park, Varun R Kshettry, Christopher J Farrell, Jae Meen Lee, Yong Hwy Kim, Tae Bin Won, Doo Hee Han, Hyunwoo Do, Gurston Nyguist, Marc Rosen, Dong Gyu Kim, James J Evans, Sun Ha Paek
BACKGROUND: The extended endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) to the anterior cranial base is used for the resection of craniopharyngiomas. OBJECTIVE: We present clinical experience and outcomes utilizing EEA for craniopharyngiomas. METHODS: A total of 116 patients in two remote institutions were enrolled in this retrospective study. Surgical, endocrinological and ophthalmological outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 35 months (range, 1-115)...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433506/heifers-express-g-protein-coupled-receptor-61-in-anterior-pituitary-gonadotrophs-in-stage-dependent-manner
#6
Kiran Pandey, Onalenna Kereilwe, Vitaliano Borromeo, Hiroya Kadokawa
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptors (GnRHRs) colocalize with insulin and glucocorticoid receptors in lipid rafts of the gonadotroph plasma membrane, where they facilitate downstream signaling. We recently found that orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)61 is expressed in the anterior pituitary (AP) of heifers, leading us to speculate that GPR61 colocalizes with GnRHR in the plasma membrane of gonadotroph and is expressed at specific times of the reproductive cycle. To test this hypothesis, we examined the coexpression of GnRHR, GPR61, and either luteinizing hormone (LH) β subunit or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β subunit in AP tissue and cultured AP cells by immunofluorescence microscopy...
April 4, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428227/mechanisms-in-endocrinology-the-multiple-facets-of-gh-lessons-from-lifetime-untreated-isolated-gh-deficiency-due-to-ghrh-receptor-mutation
#7
Manuel Aguiar-Oliveira, Anita Ho Souza, Carla R Oliveira, Viviane C Campos, Luiz A Oliveira-Neto, Roberto Salvatori
Twenty years ago, we described a kindred of 105 individuals with isolated GH deficiency (IGHD) in Itabaianinha County, in Brazilian northeast, due to a homozygous mutation in the GH-releasing hormone receptor gene. These subjects exhibit markedly reduced GH responsiveness to stimulatory tests, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia. Serum concentrations of IGF-I, IGF binding protein type 3, and the acid-labile subunit are markedly reduced, with a lesser reduction of IGF-II. The most striking physical findings of these IGHD individuals are the proportionate short stature, doll facies, high-pitched voice, and visceral obesity with reduced fat free mass...
April 20, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425631/restraint-stress-increases-prolactin-mediated-phosphorylation-of-signal-transducer-and-activator-of-transcription-5-in-the-hypothalamus-and-adrenal-cortex-in-the-male-mouse
#8
S E Kirk, T Y Xie, F J Steyn, D R Grattan, S J Bunn
Prolactin is a pleiotropic peptide hormone produced by the lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary. Its rate of secretion is primarily regulated by a negative feedback mechanism whereby prolactin stimulates the activity of the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons, increasing their release of dopamine which accesses the pituitary via the median eminence to suppress further prolactin secretion. In addition to its well established role in lactation, circulating prolactin is secreted in response to stress, although the mechanism by which this is achieved or its cellular targets are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425105/the-incidence-of-anterior-pituitary-hormone-deficiencies-in-patients-with-microprolactinoma-and-idiopathic-hyperprolactinaemia
#9
L A Behan, P Moyles, M Cuesta, B Rogers, R K Crowley, J Ryan, P Brennan, D Smith, W Tormey, M Sherlock, C J Thompson
INTRODUCTION: Patients with microprolactinoma and idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia are not generally considered to be at risk of hypopituitarism and are therefore not routinely screened for this abnormality. In our clinical practice we have observed a number of patients with non-macroadenomatous hyperprolactinaemia to have anterior pituitary hormone deficits. AIMS: We aimed to establish the frequency and clinical significance of anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies, comparing patients with radiologically proven microprolactinomas and patients with idiopathic hyperprolactinaemia...
April 20, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423475/primary-lymphocytic-hypophysitis-clinical-characteristics-and-treatment-of-50-cases-in-a-single-centre-in-china-over-18-years
#10
Shuchang Wang, Linjie Wang, Yong Yao, Feng Feng, Hongbo Yang, Zhiyong Liang, Kan Deng, Hui You, Jian Sun, Bing Xing, Zimeng Jin, Renzhi Wang, Hui Pan, Huijuan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: Primary lymphocytic hypophysitis (LYH) is rare and it is often evaluated in a small case series. This study aimed to describe the diagnosis and treatment of primary LYH in a larger cohort. DESIGN: A retrospective study of the diagnosis and treatment of primary LYH was conducted at Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1999 to 2016. PATIENTS: Fifty patients (28 histologically-diagnosed and 22 clinically-diagnosed) were eligible for inclusion...
April 19, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420716/a-men1-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumour-mouse-model-under-temporal-control
#11
Kate E Lines, Roeland P Vas Nunes, Morten Frost, Christopher J Yates, Mark Stevenson, Rajesh Thakker
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by occurrence of parathyroid tumours, and neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the pancreatic islets and anterior pituitary. The MEN1 gene, encoding menin, is a tumour suppressor, but its precise role in initiating in vivo tumourigenesis remains to be elucidated. The availability of a temporally controlled conditional MEN1 mouse model would greatly facilitate the study of such early tumourigenic events, and overcome the limitations of other MEN1 knockout models, in which menin is lost from conception, or tumour development occurs asynchronously...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418929/plurihormonal-cells-of-normal-anterior-pituitary-facts-and-conclusions
#12
Lubov B Mitrofanova, Petr V Konovalov, Julia S Krylova, Victoria O Polyakova, Igor M Kvetnoy
INTRODUCTION: plurihormonality of pituitary adenomas is an ability of adenoma cells to produce more than one hormone. After the immunohistochemical analysis had become a routine part of the morphological study, a great number of adenomas appeared to be multihormonal in actual practice. We hypothesize that the same cells of a normal pituitary gland releases several hormones simultaneously. OBJECTIVE: To analyse a possible co-expression of hormones by the cells of the normal anterior pituitary of adult humans in autopsy material...
March 23, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413862/a-simple-strategy-for-culturing-morphologically-conserved-rat-hypothalamic-tanycytes
#13
Pablo Nicolás De Francesco, Daniel Castrogiovanni, Maia Uriarte, Victoria Frassa, Francina Agosti, Jesica Raingo, Mario Perello
Hypothalamic tanycytes are specialized bipolar ependymal cells that line the floor of the third ventricle. Given their strategic location, tanycytes are believed to play several key functions including being a selective barrier and controlling the amount of hypothalamic-derived factors reaching the anterior pituitary. The in vitro culture of these cells has proved to be difficult. Here, we report an improved method for the generation of primary cultures of rat hypothalamic tanycytes. Ependymal cultures were derived from tissue dissected out of the median eminence region of 10-day-old rats and cultured in a chemically defined medium containing DMEM:F12, serum albumin, insulin, transferrin and the antibiotic gentamycin...
April 17, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413529/an-evaluation-of-neuroendocrine-dysfunction-following-acute-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-prospective-study
#14
Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Subhash Yadav, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Anant Mehrotra, Sanjay Behari, Ashok Kumar Mahapatra
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate the incidence and pattern of neuroendocrine changes in cases of acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Endocrine assessment was performed in 100 consecutive cases of acute aneurysmal SAH presenting within 7 days of ictus. The gonadotropic, somatotrophic, thyrotropic, and corticotrophic axes were evaluated for their possible dysfunction. RESULTS: A total of 100 cases (38 males, 62 females; age range - 17-76 years; mean age - 43...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412879/quantitative-analysis-of-transnasal-anterior-skull-base-approach-report-of-technology-for-intraoperative-assessment-of-instrument-motion
#15
Angelique M Berens, Richard Alex Harbison, Yangming Li, Randall A Bly, Nava Aghdasi, Manuel Ferreira, Blake Hannaford, Kris S Moe
OBJECTIVE: To develop a method to measure intraoperative surgical instrument motion. This model will be applicable to the study of surgical instrument kinematics including surgical training, skill verification, and the development of surgical warning systems that detect aberrant instrument motion that may result in patient injury. DESIGN: We developed an algorithm to automate derivation of surgical instrument kinematics in an endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery model...
April 1, 2017: Surgical Innovation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409722/complete-endoscopic-resection-of-a-pituitary-stalk-epidermoid-cyst-using-a-combined-infrasellar-interpituitary-and-suprasellar-endonasal-approach-case-report
#16
Ana C I Nakassa, Joseph D Chabot, Carl H Snyderman, Eric W Wang, Paul A Gardner, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
Intracranial epidermoid cysts are benign lesions of epithelial origin that most frequently present with symptoms of mass effect. Although they are often associated with a high rate of residual tumor and recurrence, maximal safe resection usually leads to good outcomes. The authors report a complete resection of an uncommon pituitary stalk epidermoid cyst with intrasellar extension using a combined suprasellar and infrasellar interpituitary, endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. The patient, a 54-year-old woman, presented with headache, visual disturbance, and diabetes insipidus...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403130/primary-ectopic-ethmoidal-craniopharyngioma
#17
Andrea Preti, Apostolos Karligkiotis, Carla Facco, Giorgia Ottini, Luca Volpi, Paolo Castelnuovo
Craniopharyngiomas are benign but aggressive epithelial tumors usually originating in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland from squamous remnants of an incompletely involuted craniopharingeal duct developing from the Rathke pouch. To the authors' knowledge only 1 patient of a primary isolated ethmoidal craniopharyngioma has been reported in the literature.The authors report the case of a 17-year-old boy with a primary extracranial ethmoidal craniopharyngioma. An endoscopic endonasal approach was employed to resect the tumor...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402530/mutations-in-the-human-robo1-gene-in-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome
#18
Anu Bashamboo, Joelle Bignon-Topalovic, Nasser Moussi, Ken McElreavey, Raja Brauner
Context: Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS) is characterised by a thin or absent pituitary stalk usually in association with an ectopic posterior pituitary and hypoplasia/aplasia of the anterior pituitary. Associated phenotypes include varied ocular anomalies, hypoglycemia, micropenis/cryptorchidism, growth failure or combined pituitary hormone deficiencies. Although genetic causes have been identified, they explain only around 5% of PSIS cases. Objective: To identify genetic causes of PSIS by exome sequencing...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402262/roles-of-differential-expression-of-microrna-21-3p-and-microrna-433-in-fsh-regulation-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#19
Dong-Xu Han, Xu-Lei Sun, Ming-Qiang Xu, Cheng-Zhen Chen, Hao Jiang, Yan Gao, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secreted by adenohypophyseal cells plays an important role in the regulation of reproduction, but whether microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the secretion of FSH remains unclear. In the present study, we predicted and screened miRNAs that might act on the follicle-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (FSHb) gene of rats using the TargetScan program and luciferase reporter assays, and the results identified two miRNAs, miR-21-3p and miR-433. We then transfected these miRNAs into rat anterior adenohypophyseal cells and assessed the FSHb expression levels in and FSH secretion by the transfected cells through quantitative PCR and ELISA...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392548/effect-of-retinoic-acid-on-midkine-gene-expression-in-rat-anterior-pituitary-cells
#20
Rita Maliza, Ken Fujiwara, Morio Azuma, Motoshi Kikuchi, Takashi Yashiro
Retinoic acid (RA) is converted from retinal by retinaldehyde dehydrogenases (RALDHs) and is an essential signaling molecule in embryonic and adult tissue. We previously reported that RALDH1 was produced in the rat anterior pituitary gland and hypothesized that RA was generated in the gland. Midkine (MK) is an RA-inducible growth factor, and MK production in the rat anterior pituitary gland was recently reported. However, the mechanism that regulates gene expression of MK in the pituitary gland has not been determined...
April 7, 2017: Endocrine Journal
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