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Gluconeogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102299/systemic-regulation-of-l-carnitine-in-nutritional-metabolism-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#1
Jia-Min Li, Ling-Yu Li, Xun Qin, Li-Jun Ning, Dong-Liang Lu, Dong-Liang Li, Mei-Ling Zhang, Xin Wang, Zhen-Yu Du
Excess fat accumulation has been observed widely in farmed fish; therefore, efficient lipid-lowering factors have obtained high attention in the current fish nutrition studies. Dietary L-carnitine can increase fatty acid β-oxidation in mammals, but has produced contradictory results in different fish species. To date, the mechanisms of metabolic regulation of L-carnitine in fish have not been fully determined. The present study used zebrafish to investigate the systemic regulation of nutrient metabolism by dietary L-carnitine supplementation...
January 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099783/ketosis-and-diabetic-ketoacidosis-in-response-to-sglt2-inhibitors-basic-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-perspectives
#2
REVIEW
Hongyu Qiu, Aleksandra Novikov, Volker Vallon
Inhibitors of the sodium-glucose cotransporter SGLT2 are a new class of anti-hyperglycemic drugs that have been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). These drugs inhibit glucose reabsorption in the proximal tubules of the kidney thereby enhancing glucosuria and lowering blood glucose levels. Additional consequences and benefits include a reduction in body weight, uric acid levels, and blood pressure. Moreover, SGLT2 inhibition can have protective effects on the kidney and cardiovascular system in patients with T2DM and high cardiovascular risk...
January 18, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089435/jejunal-gluconeogenesis-associated-with-insulin-resistance-level-and-its-evolution-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#3
Carolina Gutierrez-Repiso, Sara Garcia-Serrano, Francisco J Moreno-Ruiz, Guillermo Alcain-Martinez, Francisca Rodriguez-Pacheco, Eduardo Garcia-Fuentes
BACKGROUND: Intestinal gluconeogenesis (GNG) may play an important role in glucose homeostasis, but there is little information about the condition in humans. OBJECTIVES: To study the relationship between intestinal GNG and insulin resistance, its association with the evolution of morbidly obese patients after bariatric surgery, and the effect of insulin and or leptin. SETTING: Regional university hospital, Malaga (Spain). METHODS: Jejunal mRNA expression of genes involved in GNG was analyzed in 3 groups of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: with low insulin resistance (MO-low-IR), with high insulin resistance (MO-high-IR), and with type 2 diabetes treated with metformin (MO-metf-T2D)...
December 2, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077274/the-role-and-regulation-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-in-human-liver
#4
REVIEW
Sander Kersten, Rinke Stienstra
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver...
January 7, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069811/tgf-%C3%AE-1-smad3-pathway-targets-pp2a-ampk-foxo1-to-regulate-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#5
Hariom Yadav, Samir Devalaraja, Stephanie Chung, Sushil G Rane
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is essential for normal physiology. Deviation from normal glucose levels, in either direction, increases susceptibility to serious medical complications such as hypoglycemia or diabetes. Maintenance of glucose homeostasis is achieved via functional interactions amongst various organs, liver, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain and the endocrine pancreas. The liver is the primary site for endogenous glucose production, especially during states of prolonged fasting. However, enhanced gluconeogenesis is also a signature feature of type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054586/hepatic-mir-291b-3p-mediated-glucose-metabolism-by-directly-targeting-p65-to-upregulate-pten-expression
#6
Jun Guo, Lin Dou, Xiangyu Meng, Zhenzhen Chen, Weili Yang, Weiwei Fang, Chunxiao Yang, Xiuqing Huang, Weiqing Tang, Jichun Yang, Jian Li
Several studies have suggested an important role of miR-291b-3p in the development of embryonic stem cells. In previous study, we found that the expression of miR-291b-3p was significantly upregulated in the liver of db/db mice. However, the role of miR-291b-3p in glucose metabolism and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In the present study, we demonstrated that miR-291b-3p was abundantly expressed in the liver. Of note, hepatic miR-291b-3p expression was upregulated in HFD-fed mice and induced by fasting in C57BL/6 J normal mice...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054299/gastric-plication-improves-glycemia-partly-by-restoring-the-altered-expression-of-aquaglyceroporins-in-adipose-tissue-and-the-liver-in-obese-rats
#7
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Sara Becerril, Rafael Moncada, Víctor Valentí, Secundino Fernández, Beatriz Ramírez, Victoria Catalán, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Graça Soveral, María M Malagón, Carlos Diéguez, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck
BACKGROUND: Gastric plication is a minimally invasive bariatric surgical procedure, where the greater curvature is plicated inside the gastric lumen. Our aims were to analyze the effectiveness of gastric plication on the resolution of obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, and fatty liver in an experimental model of diet-induced obesity (DIO) and to evaluate changes in glycerol metabolism, a key substrate for adiposity and gluconeogenesis, in adipose tissue and the liver. METHODS: Male Wistar DIO rats (n = 58) were subjected to surgical (sham operation and gastric plication) or dietary interventions [fed a normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD) or pair-fed to the amount of food eaten by gastric-plicated animals]...
January 4, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053338/autophagy-in-the-liver-functions-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Takashi Ueno, Masaaki Komatsu
The concept of macroautophagy was established in 1963, soon after the discovery of lysosomes in rat liver. Over the 50 years since, studies of liver autophagy have produced many important findings. The liver is rich in lysosomes and possesses high levels of metabolic-stress-induced autophagy, which is precisely regulated by concentrations of hormones and amino acids. Liver autophagy provides starved cells with amino acids, glucose and free fatty acids for use in energy production and synthesis of new macromolecules, and also controls the quality and quantity of organelles such as mitochondria...
January 5, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049557/dynamical-modeling-of-liver-aquaporin-9-expression-and-glycerol-permeability-in-hepatic-glucose-metabolism
#9
Patrizia Gena, Nicoletta Del Buono, Marcello D'Abbicco, Maria Mastrodonato, Marco Berardi, Maria Svelto, Luciano Lopez, Giuseppe Calamita
Liver is crucial in the homeostasis of glycerol, an important metabolic intermediate. Plasma glycerol is imported by hepatocytes mainly through Aquaporin-9 (AQP9), an aquaglyceroporin channel negatively regulated by insulin in rodents. AQP9 is of critical importance in glycerol metabolism since hepatic glycerol utilization is rate-limited at the hepatocyte membrane permeation step. Glycerol kinase catalyzes the initial step for the conversion of the imported glycerol into glycerol-3-phosphate, a major substrate for de novo synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis) and/or triacyglycerols (lipogenesis)...
December 28, 2016: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041731/analysis-of-bull-bos-taurus-seminal-vesicle-fluid-proteome-in-relation-to-seminal-plasma-proteome
#10
B Westfalewicz, M A Dietrich, A Mostek, A Partyka, W Bielas, W Niżański, A Ciereszko
The existing knowledge on the bull seminal vesicle proteome, a major seminal plasma constituent, and its relationship with seminal plasma is limited. This knowledge is prerequisite for a better understanding of seminal plasma variability, which is linked to semen quality. The objective of this study was to characterize the proteomes of seminal vesicle fluid and seminal plasma and to compare them to better understand the origin of seminal plasma proteins. We collected ejaculates and seminal vesicle fluid postmortem from 6 mature Holstein Friesian bulls...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029143/troxerutin-attenuates-enhancement-of-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-by-inhibiting-nod-activation-mediated-inflammation-in-high-fat-diet-treated-mice
#11
Zifeng Zhang, Xin Wang, Guihong Zheng, Qun Shan, Jun Lu, Shaohua Fan, Chunhui Sun, Dongmei Wu, Cheng Zhang, Weitong Su, Junwen Sui, Yuanlin Zheng
Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks...
December 25, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012908/flux-balance-analysis-of-photoautotrophic-metabolism-uncovering-new-biological-details-of-subsystems-involved-in-cyanobacterial-photosynthesis
#12
Xiao Qian, Min Kyung Kim, G Kenchappa Kumaraswamy, Ananya Agarwal, Desmond S Lun, G Charles Dismukes
We have constructed and experimentally tested a comprehensive genome-scale model of photoautotrophic growth, denoted iSyp821, for the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. iSyp821 incorporates a variable biomass objective function (vBOF), in which stoichiometries of the major biomass components vary according to light intensity. The vBOF was constrained to fit the measured cellular carbohydrate/protein content under different light intensities. iSyp821 provides rigorous agreement with experimentally measured cell growth rates and inorganic carbon uptake rates as a function of light intensity...
December 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011762/idh1-deficiency-attenuates-gluconeogenesis-in-mouse-liver-by-impairing-amino-acid-utilization
#13
Jing Ye, Yu Gu, Feng Zhang, Yuanlin Zhao, Yuan Yuan, Zhenyue Hao, Yi Sheng, Wanda Y Li, Andrew Wakeham, Rob A Cairns, Tak W Mak
Although the enzymatic activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) was defined decades ago, its functions in vivo are not yet fully understood. Cytosolic IDH1 converts isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), a key metabolite regulating nitrogen homeostasis in catabolic pathways. It was thought that IDH1 might enhance lipid biosynthesis in liver or adipose tissue by generating NADPH, but we show here that lipid contents are relatively unchanged in both IDH1-null mouse liver and IDH1-deficient HepG2 cells generated using the CRISPR-Cas9 system...
December 23, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007978/the-genetic-and-transcriptional-basis-of-short-and-long-term-adaptation-across-multiple-stresses-in-escherichia-coli
#14
Violeta Zorraquino, Minseung Kim, Navneet Rai, Ilias Tagkopoulos
Microbes exhibit short and long term responses when exposed to challenging environmental conditions. To what extent these responses are correlated, what their evolutionary potential is and how they translate to cross-stress fitness is still unclear. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the response of Escherichia coli populations to four abiotic stresses (n-butanol, osmotic, acidic and oxidative) and their combinations by performing genome-scale transcriptional analysis and growth profiling. We performed analysis of their cross-stress behavior which identified 15 cases of cross- protection and one case of cross vulnerability...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004152/comparative-transcriptomes-reveal-novel-evolutionary-strategies-adopted-by-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-with-improved-xylose-utilization-capability
#15
Wei-Yi Zeng, Yue-Qin Tang, Min Gou, Zhao-Yong Sun, Zi-Yuan Xia, Kenji Kida
Production of ethanol from xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is suboptimal with slow fermentation rate, compared with that from glucose. In this study, a strain-expressing Scheffersomyces stipitis xylose reductase-xylitol dehydrogenase (XR-XDH) pathway was subjected to adaptive evolution on xylose; this approach generated populations with the significantly improved cell growth and ethanol production rate. Mutants were isolated, and the best one was used for sporulation to generate eight stable mutant strains with improved xylose fermentation ability...
December 21, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999583/structural-basis-for-redox-regulation-of-cytoplasmic-and-chloroplastic-triosephosphate-isomerases-from-arabidopsis-thaliana
#16
Laura M López-Castillo, Pedro Jiménez-Sandoval, Noe Baruch-Torres, Carlos H Trasviña-Arenas, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Samuel Lara-González, Robert Winkler, Luis G Brieba
In plants triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) interconverts glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) and dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) during glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and the Calvin-Benson cycle. The nuclear genome of land plants encodes two tpi genes, one gene product is located in the cytoplasm and the other is imported into the chloroplast. Herein we report the crystal structures of the TPIs from the vascular plant Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTPIs) and address their enzymatic modulation by redox agents. Cytoplasmic TPI (cTPI) and chloroplast TPI (pdTPI) share more than 60% amino acid identity and assemble as (β-α)8 dimers with high structural homology...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990298/suppression-of-crtc2-mediated-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-by-traf6-contributes-to-hypoglycemia-in-septic-shock
#17
Sihan Lv, Xinchen Qiu, Jian Li, Weida Li, Chao Zhang, Zhen-Ning Zhang, Bing Luan
Although hypoglycemia has been documented as a major cause of high mortality in the setting of septic shock, the mechanism of hypoglycemia in infection has not been clearly determined. Hepatic gluconeogenesis serves as an important mechanism to maintain glucose levels under physiological conditions and CREB coactivator CRTC2 plays an important role in regulating gluconeogenic gene expression. Here, we show that triggering of the Toll-like receptor 4 pathway in response to endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibits gluconeogenic gene expression and hepatic glucose output by blocking CRTC2 activation...
2016: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988416/energy-metabolism-and-metabolomics-response-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-to-sulfide-toxicity
#18
Tongyu Li, Erchao Li, Yantong Suo, Zhixin Xu, Yongyi Jia, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen, Zhimin Gu
The toxicity and poisoning mechanisms of sulfide were studied in Litopenaeus vannamei from the perspective of energy metabolism and metabolomics. The lethal concentrations of sulfide in L. vannamei (LC50) at 24h, 48h, 72h, and 96h were determined. Sulfide at a concentration of 0, 1/10 (425.5μg/L), and 1/5 (851μg/L) of the LC50 at 96h was used to test the metabolic responses of L. vannamei for 21days. The chronic exposure of shrimp to a higher sulfide concentration of 851μg/L decreased shrimp survival but did not affect weight gain or the hepatopancreas index...
December 12, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987997/enhanced-anti-obesity-effects-of-complex-of-resistant-starch-and-chitosan-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#19
Xu Si, Padraig Strappe, Chris Blanchard, Zhongkai Zhou
This study investigated the interventional effect of resistant starch (RS), chitosan (CS) and chitosan-starch complexes (CL) on blood glucose, lipid composition and oxidative stress in high-fat diet fed rats. Compared with RS or CS alone, CL administration performed more efficiently in controlling body weight and adipose tissue mass, together with an increase in HDL-C concentration, oxidative stress suppression by increasing body antioxidant capacity. Gene expression analysis demonstrated the fatty acid and triglyceride synthesis and metabolism gene SREBP-1, adipocyte differentiation gene PPARγ, cholesterol synthesis gene HMGCR, gluconeogenesis gene GAPDH, were significantly down-regulated, whilst lipid oxidation gene Acox1 and liver functional genes Gstm2, Gclc were up-regulated following CL consumption compared with single RS or CS treatment...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981898/the-role-of-carbonic-anhydrase-in-hepatic-glucose-production
#20
Ibrahim Salihu Ismail
Considerable efforts are being made daily to discover novel therapeutic targets to better understand the mechanism for designing drugs in treating diabetes. Inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis by metformin remains the first line of oral therapy for managing type 2 diabetes. The link between rise in blood lactate level and reduction of hepatic glucose production with metformin usage remains to be determined. Carbonic anhydrase is proposed to be the link connecting blood lactate accumulation and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis and thus could serve as a new therapeutic target for reducing hepatic glucose production...
December 14, 2016: Current Diabetes Reviews
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