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Gluconeogenesis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778923/quantitative-proteomic-profiling-indicates-the-difference-in-reproductive-efficiency-between-meishan-and-duroc-boar-spermatozoa
#1
Li Xinhong, Linqing Zhen, Jieli Fu, Lirui Wang, Qiangzhen Yang, Peifei Li, Yuhua Li
The reproductive efficiency of Meishan pigs is higher than that of Duroc pigs, but the underlying molecular mechanism for this disparity remains unclear. No systematic quantitative proteomics studies, comparing global proteins in Meishan and Duroc boar spermatozoa have been reported. Therefore, we applied iTRAQ labeling coupled with mass spectrometry, and analyzed the differences in proteins between Meishan and Duroc sperm. In the present study, a total of 1597 proteins were quantified. Of these proteins, 190 showed statistically significant fold changes between Meishan and Duroc spermatozoa...
April 30, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777991/co-evolutionary-associations-between-root-associated-microbiomes-and-root-transcriptomes-in-wild-and-cultivated-rice-varieties
#2
Lei Tian, Shaohua Shi, Lina Ma, Fahad Nasir, Xiujun Li, Lam-Son Phan Tran, Chunjie Tian
The plants and root-associated microbiomes are closely related. Plant metabolic substances can serve as a nutrient source for the microbiome, and in return, the microbiome can regulate the production of plant metabolic substances. Wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), as the ancestor of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), has changed several metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiome during evolution. Thus, the study of the different associations between metabolic pathways and root-associated microbiomes in wild and cultivated rice varieties is important for rice breeding...
April 13, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777018/managing-the-sugar-factory-a-new-feather-in-the-cap-for-nuclear-factor-y
#3
Sabyasachi Sen, Chandrima Das
Gluconeogenesis in the liver converts lipids and several other noncarbohydrate precursors into glucose, ensuring that blood sugar levels are maintained at healthy levels, especially during fasting. Effective regulation of gluconeogenesis is therefore critical for maintaining systemic metabolic homeostasis. Zhang and colleagues have discovered that the ubiquitous transcriptional regulator nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) confers cAMP responsiveness to key gluconeogenic genes and up-regulates hepatic glucose production...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775926/chlorophyll-a-%C3%AF-uorescence-and-transcriptome-reveal-the-toxicological-effects-of-bisphenol-a-on-an-invasive-cyanobacterium-cylindrospermopsis-raciborskii
#4
Rong Xiang, Junqiong Shi, Hongbo Zhang, Congcong Dong, Li Liu, JunKe Fu, Xinyu He, Yanjun Yan, Zhongxing Wu
Bisphenol A has attracted worldwide attention due to its harmful effects on humans, animals and plants. In this study, the toxicological effects of BPA on Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii were assessed based on chlorophyll a fluorescence and transcriptome analyses. The results showed that the growth of C. raciborskii was significantly inhibited when BPA exceeded 0.1 mg L-1 . A marked rise of phase J was observed at a concentration greater than 0.1 mg L-1 , while a K phase appeared at 20 mg L-1 . The chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of RC/CS0 , F0 , φP0 , φE0 , and ψ0 , underwent a significant decline under all treatments of BPA, whereas a significant increase in both VJ and M0 occurred under all concentrations of BPA...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774539/clinical-and-molecular-characterization-of-indian-patients-with-fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase-deficiency-identification-of-a-frequent-variant-e281k
#5
Pratibha Bhai, Sunita Bijarnia-Mahay, Ratna D Puri, Renu Saxena, Deepti Gupta, Udhaya Kotecha, Anil Sachdev, Dhiren Gupta, Vyomesh Vyas, Divya Agarwal, Vivek Jain, Rajeev K Bansal, Tapisha G Kumar, Ishwar Chander Verma
Fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of gluconeogenesis caused by genetic defect in the FBP1 gene. It is characterized by episodic, often life-threatening metabolic acidosis, liver dysfunction, and hyperlactatemia. Without a high index of suspicion, it may remain undiagnosed with devastating consequences. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved either by enzyme assay or gene studies. Enzyme assay requires a liver biopsy and is tedious, invasive, expensive, and not easily available...
May 18, 2018: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773555/prostaglandin-f-2%C3%AE-facilitates-hepatic-glucose-production-through-camkii%C3%AE-p38-foxo1-signaling-pathway-in-fasting-and-obesity
#6
Yuanyang Wang, Shuai Yan, Bing Xiao, Shengkai Zuo, Qianqian Zhang, Guilin Chen, Yu Yu, Di Chen, Qian Liu, Yi Liu, Yujun Shen, Ying Yu
Gluconeogenesis is drastically increased in patients with type 2 diabetes and accounts for increased fasting plasma glucose concentrations. Circulating prostaglandin (PG) F2α is also markedly elevated in diabetes mellitus; however, whether and how PGF2α regulates hepatic glucose metabolism remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that PGF2α receptor (F-prostanoid receptor; FP) was upregulated in livers of mice upon fasting- and diabetic stress. Hepatic deletion of the FP receptor suppressed fasting-induced hepatic gluconeogenesis, whereas FP overexpression enhanced hepatic gluconeogenesis in mice...
May 17, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772231/roles-of-14-3-3%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-in-regulation-of-the-glucocorticoid-receptor-transcriptional-activation-and-hepatic-gluconeogenesis
#7
Yunhee Hwang, Hyoung-Tae An, Minsoo Kang, Jesang Ko
The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the effects of glucocorticoids, and plays a crucial role in cell growth, development, inflammation, and gluconeogenesis. The 14-3-3 proteins bind to target proteins via phosphorylation, and influence many cellular events by altering their subcellular localization or by acting as chaperones. However, the mechanisms by which 14-3-3 proteins regulate GR transactivation and their involvement in gluconeogenesis remain uncharacterized...
May 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769578/metabolomic-profile-of-systemic-sclerosis-patients
#8
Federica Murgia, Silvia Svegliati, Simone Poddighe, Milena Lussu, Aldo Manzin, Tatiana Spadoni, Colomba Fischetti, Armando Gabrielli, Luigi Atzori
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease of unknown aetiology characterized by vascular lesions, immunological alterations and diffuse fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Since recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolomics and immune mediated disease, serum metabolic profile of SSc patients and healthy controls was investigated by 1 H-NMR and GC-MS techniques. The results indicated a lower level of aspartate, alanine, choline, glutamate, and glutarate in SSc patients compared with healthy controls...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769552/a-comprehensive-bioinformatics-analysis-on-multiple-gene-expression-omnibus-datasets-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#9
Shanzhou Huang, Chengjun Sun, Yuchen Hou, Yunhua Tang, Zebin Zhu, Zhiheng Zhang, Yixi Zhang, Linhe Wang, Qiang Zhao, Mao-Gen Chen, Zhiyong Guo, Dongping Wang, Weiqiang Ju, Qi Zhou, Linwei Wu, Xiaoshun He
Fatty liver disease is one of the leading causes of chronic damage in western countries. Approximately 25% of adults in the United States have fatty livers in the absence of excessive alcohol consumption, a condition termed nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Little is known about the prevalence and genetic background of NAFLD or the factors that determine its development. In this study, we used the Gene-Cloud of Biotechnology Information bioinformatics platform to carry out a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs), key biological processes and intersecting pathways...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768256/overexpression-of-pck1-gene-antagonizes-hepatocellular-carcinoma-through-the-activation-of-gluconeogenesis-and-suppression-of-glycolysis-pathways
#10
Yufu Tang, Yibing Zhang, Chunhui Wang, Zhongyi Sun, Longfei Li, Shuqun Cheng, Wenping Zhou
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gluconeogenesis, a reverse process of glycolysis, is suppressed in neoplastic livers. Cytoplasmic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C/PCK1, encoded by PCK1) is a step limiting enzyme of gluconeogenesis. The induced expression of the factor is reported to initiate gluconeogenesis process and antagonize hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the current study, the effect of the modulation of PCK1 expression on HCC was assessed. METHODS: The levels of PCK1 in clinical HCC tissues and different HCC cell lines were investigated with real time quantitative PCR, immunochemistry, and western blotting...
May 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767079/gluconeogenesis-during-starvation-and-refeeding-phase-is-affected-by-previous-dietary-carbohydrates-levels-and-a-glucose-stimuli-during-early-life-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#11
Xiaofang Liang, Jia Wang, Guan Gong, Min Xue, Yingchao Dong, Xiufeng Wu, Xin Wang, Chunshan Chen, Xufang Liang, Yuchang Qin
Gluconeogenesis responses was assessed during a short starvation period and subsequent refeeding in Siberian sturgeon ( Acipenser baerii ) previously fed different dietary carbohydrates levels and experienced to a glucose stimuli during early life. The sturgeon larvae were previously fed either a high glucose diet (G) or a low glucose diet (F) from the first feeding to yolk absorption (8 to 12 d post-hatching [dph]). Each group of fish was sub-divided into 2 treatments at 13 dph and was fed either a high-carbohydrate diet (H) or a low carbohydrate diet (L) until 20 wk...
September 2017: Animal nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765984/jazf1-inhibits-adipose-tissue-macrophages-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-diet-induced-diabetic-mice
#12
Fanping Meng, Yao Lin, Min Yang, Minyan Li, Gangyi Yang, Po Hao, Ling Li
Background: Juxtaposed with another zinc finger gene 1 (JAZF1) affects gluconeogenesis, insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammation, but its exact role in chronic inflammation remains unclear. This study aimed to examine JAZF1 overexpression in vivo on adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). Methods: Mouse models of high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced insulin resistance were induced using C57BL/6J and JAZF1-overexpressing (JAZF1-OX) mice. The mice were randomized (8-10/group) to C57BL/6J mice fed regular diet (RD) (NC group), C57BL/6J mice fed HFD (HF group), JAZF1-OX mice fed RD (NJ group), and JAZF1-OX mice fed HFD (HJ group)...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765322/therapeutic-potential-of-ginsenosides-as-an-adjuvant-treatment-for-diabetes
#13
REVIEW
Litao Bai, Jialiang Gao, Fan Wei, Jing Zhao, Danwei Wang, Junping Wei
Ginseng, one of the oldest traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, has been used widely in China and Asia for thousands of years. Ginsenosides extracted from ginseng, which is derived from the roots and rhizomes of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, have been used in China as an adjuvant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Owing to the technical complexity of ginsenoside production, the total ginsenosides are generally extracted. Accumulating evidence has shown that ginsenosides exert antidiabetic effects. In vivo and in vitro tests revealed the potential of ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, Rg5, Rb1, Rb2, Rb3, compound K, Rk1, Re, ginseng total saponins, malonyl ginsenosides, Rd, Rh2, F2, protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type saponins to treat diabetes and its complications, including type 1 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic cognitive dysfunction, type 2 diabetes mellitus with fatty liver disease, diabetic cerebral infarction, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and diabetic erectile dysfunction...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765243/reexploring-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic-acid-mica-as-a-potential-antidiabetic-agent
#14
Liang-Jun Yan
5-Methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA) is a potent hypoglycemic agent that inhibits gluconeogenesis in the liver. It is also a well-known inhibitor of mitochondrial dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. MICA was extensively studied in the 1960s and 1970s and was once tested for its antidiabetic effect in diabetic Chinese hamsters, whereby MICA was shown to exhibit pronounced glucose-lowering ability while also leading to increased rate of death of the diabetic animals. Since then, MICA's potential ability in lowering blood glucose in diabetes has never been revisited...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761924/decreased-hepatic-response-to-glucagon-adrenergic-agonists-and-camp-in-glycogenolysis-gluconeogenesis-and-glycolysis-in-tumor-bearing-rats
#15
Giuliana R Biazi, Isabele G Frasson, Daniele R Miksza, Hely de Morais, Flaviane de Fatima Silva, Gisele L Bertolini, Helenir M de Souza
The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755442/the-algicidal-fungus-trametes-versicolor-f21a-eliminating-blue-algae-via-genes-encoding-degradation-enzymes-and-metabolic-pathways-revealed-by-transcriptomic-analysis
#16
Wei Dai, Xiaolin Chen, Xuewen Wang, Zimu Xu, Xueyan Gao, Chaosheng Jiang, Ruining Deng, Guomin Han
The molecular mechanism underlying the elimination of algal cells by fungal mycelia has not been fully understood. Here, we applied transcriptomic analysis to investigate the gene expression and regulation at time courses of Trametes versicolor F21a during the algicidal process. The obtained results showed that a total of 193, 332, 545, and 742 differentially expressed genes were identified at 0, 6, 12, and 30 h during the algicidal process, respectively. The gene ontology terms were enriched into glucan 1,4-α-glucosidase activity, hydrolase activity, lipase activity, and endopeptidase activity...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754289/the-novel-adipokine-wisp1-associates-with-insulin-resistance-and-impairs-insulin-action-in-human-myotubes-and-mouse-hepatocytes
#17
Tina Hörbelt, Christopher Tacke, Mariya Markova, Daniella Herzfeld de Wiza, Frederique Van de Velde, Marlies Bekaert, Yves Van Nieuwenhove, Silke Hornemann, Maria Rödiger, Nicole Seebeck, Elisabeth Friedl, Wenke Jonas, G Hege Thoresen, Oliver Kuss, Anke Rosenthal, Volker Lange, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Annette Schürmann, Bruno Lapauw, Natalia Rudovich, Olga Pivovarova, D Margriet Ouwens
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Wingless-type (Wnt) inducible signalling pathway protein-1 (WISP1) has been recently identified as a proinflammatory adipokine. We examined whether WISP1 expression and circulating levels are altered in type 2 diabetes and whether WISP1 affects insulin signalling in muscle cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Serum and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) biopsies, for analysis of circulating WISP1 levels by ELISA and WISP1 mRNA expression by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, were collected from normal-weight men (control group, n = 33) and obese men with (n = 46) and without type 2 diabetes (n = 56) undergoing surgery...
May 12, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738450/chronic-effects-of-fusarium-mycotoxins-in-rations-with-or-without-increased-concentrate-proportion-on-the-insulin-sensitivity-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
Asako Kinoshita, Christina Keese, Ulrich Meyer, Alexander Starke, Christine Wrenzycki, Sven Dänicke, Jürgen Rehage
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long-term exposure to a Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON, 5 mg/kg DM) on the energy metabolism in lactating cows fed diets with different amounts of concentrate. In Period 1 27 German Holstein cows were assigned to two groups and fed a control or mycotoxin-contaminated diet with 50% concentrate for 11 weeks. In Period 2 each group was further divided and fed either a diet containing 30% or 60% concentrate for 16 weeks. Blood samples were collected in week 0, 4, 8, 15, 21, and 27 for calculation of the Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index and biopsy samples of skeletal muscle and the liver in w 0, 15, and 27 for analysis by real-time RT-qPCR...
May 8, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736189/investigation-of-the-influence-of-high-glucose-on-molecular-and-genetic-responses-an-in-vitro-study-using-a-human-intestine-model
#19
Tugce Boztepe, Sukru Gulec
Background: Dietary glucose consumption has increased worldwide. Long-term high glucose intake contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obese people tend to eat glucose-containing foods, which can lead to an addiction to glucose, increased glucose levels in the blood and intestine lumen, and exposure of intestinal enterocytes to high dietary glucose. Recent studies have documented a role for enterocytes in glucose sensing. However, the molecular and genetic relationship between high glucose levels and intestinal enterocytes has not been determined...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736170/susceptible-and-prognostic-genetic-factors-associated-with-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
L B L Prabodha, N D Sirisena, V H W Dissanayake
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a disorder of glucose metabolism. It is a complex process involving the regulation of insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity, gluconeogenesis, and glucose uptake at the cellular level. Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) is one of the debilitating complications that is present in approximately 50% of diabetic patients. It is the primary cause of diabetes-related hospital admissions and nontraumatic foot amputations. The pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy is a complex process that involves hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and altered polyol metabolism that changes the nerve microvasculature, altered growth factor support, and deregulated lipid metabolism...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
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