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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737244/hypoxia-animal-experiments-and-clinical-implications
#1
Yasuyuki Kawagoe, Hiroshi Sameshima
The developing fetus has some unique physiological properties that differ from properties in extra-uterine life. The fetus exists in a hypoxemic condition as a result of the presence of the placenta, which serves as a limiting interface between maternal and fetal circulation. In addition, the fetus is prone to be exposed to uterine contractions, which place it under a further hypoxic burden. Thus, the fetal response to hypoxic insults is important. There has been marked progression in the understanding of fetal physiology since the introduction of the 'chronic preparation model'...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730459/fetal-programming-as-a-predictor-of-adult-health-or-disease-the-need-to-reevaluate-fetal-heart-function
#2
REVIEW
Joana O Miranda, Carla Ramalho, Tiago Henriques-Coelho, José Carlos Areias
Epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggests that adverse stimuli during critical periods in utero permanently alters organ structure and function and may have persistent consequences for the long-term health of the offspring. Fetal hypoxia, maternal malnutrition, or ventricular overloading are among the major adverse conditions that can compromise cardiovascular development in early life. With the heart as a central organ in fetal adaptive mechanisms, a deeper understanding of the fetal cardiovascular physiology and of the echocardiographic tools to assess both normal and stressed pregnancies would give precious information on fetal well-being and hopefully may help in early identification of special risk groups for cardiovascular diseases later in life...
July 20, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727782/detecting-expression-of-5t4-in-ctcs-and-tumor-samples-from-nsclc-patients
#3
Steven R Pirie-Shepherd, Cory Painter, Pamela Whalen, Pamela Vizcarra, Marc Roy, Jesse Qian, Tania Franks, Tim Coskran, Jon Golas, Shibing Deng, Wenyan Zhong, Eric Tucker, Dena Marrinucci, Hans-Peter Gerber, Eric L Powell
The fetal oncogene 5T4 is a cell surface protein, with overexpression observed in a variety of cancers as compared to normal adult tissue. The ability to select patients with tumors that express high levels of 5T4 may enrich a clinical trial cohort with patients most likely to respond to 5T4 targeted therapy. To that end, we developed assays to measure 5T4 in both tumors and in circulating tumor cells (CTCs). We identified the presence of 5T4 in both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of lung, in all clinical stages and grades of disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727021/physiology-and-endocrinology-symposium-the-effects-of-poor-maternal-nutrition-during-gestation-on-offspring-postnatal-growth-and-metabolism
#4
M L Hoffman, S A Reed, S M Pillai, A K Jones, K K McFadden, S A Zinn, K E Govoni
Poor maternal nutrition during gestation has been linked to poor growth and development, metabolic dysfunction, impaired health, and reduced productivity of offspring in many species. Poor maternal nutrition can be defined as an excess or restriction of overall nutrients or specific macro- or micronutrients in the diet of the mother during gestation. Interestingly, there are several reports that both restricted- and over-feeding during gestation negatively affect offspring postnatal growth with reduced muscle and bone deposition, increased adipose accumulation, and metabolic dysregulation through reduced leptin and insulin sensitivity...
May 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723885/term-versus-preterm-cord-blood-cells-for-the-prevention-of-preterm-brain-injury
#5
Jingang Li, Tamara Yawno, Amy Sutherland, Jan Loose, Ilias Nitsos, Beth J Allison, Robert Bischof, Courtney A McDonald, Graham Jenkin, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: White matter brain injury in preterm infants can induce neurodevelopmental deficits. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) cells demonstrate neuroprotective properties, but it is unknown whether cells obtained from preterm versus term cord blood have similar efficacy. This study compared the ability of term cord blood (TCB) versus preterm cord blood (PCB) cells to reduce white matter injury in preterm fetal sheep. METHODS: Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) was induced in fetal sheep (0...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721719/imprinted-nanovelcro-microchips-for-isolation-and-characterization-of-circulating-fetal-trophoblasts-toward-noninvasive-prenatal-diagnostics
#6
Shuang Hou, Jie-Fu Chen, Min Song, Yazhen Zhu, Yu Jen Jan, Szu Hao Chen, Tzu-Hua Weng, Dean-An Ling, Shang-Fu Chen, Tracy Ro, An-Jou Liang, Tom Lee, Helen Jin, Man Li, Lian Liu, Yu-Sheng Hsiao, Peilin Chen, Hsiao-Hua Yu, Ming-Song Tsai, Margareta D Pisarska, Angela Chen, Li-Ching Chen, Hsian-Rong Tseng
Circulating fetal nucleated cells (CFNCs) in maternal blood offer an ideal source of fetal genomic DNA for noninvasive prenatal diagnostics (NIPD). We developed a class of nanoVelcro microchips to effectively enrich a subcategory of CFNCs, i.e., circulating trophoblasts (cTBs) from maternal blood, which can then be isolated with single-cell resolution by a laser capture microdissection (LCM) technique for downstream genetic testing. We first established a nanoimprinting fabrication process to prepare the LCM-compatible nanoVelcro substrates...
July 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721123/aborted-fetal-sizes-of-thoroughbred-horses-in-hidaka-japan-between-2005-and-2015
#7
Harutaka Murase, Masaki Miyazawa, Takehiro Harada, Midori Ozawa, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada
The degree of fetal growth restriction has been unclear in equine reproduction. In this study, 2,195 fetuses from 2,137 abortions during 11 seasons were examined to determine the causes of abortion, and fetal size dimensions (crown rump length and body weight) were measured. In total, 900 cases (42.1%) of abortion were identified as caused by viral infection (215, 10.1%), bacterial infection (156, 7.3%), fungal infection (25, 1.2%), circulation failure (406, 19.0%), multiple causes (66, 3.1%), deformity (13, 0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715784/elemental-content-of-the-placenta-a-comparison-between-two-high-risk-obstetrical-populations-adult-women-carrying-multiples-and-adolescents-carrying-singletons
#8
Paolo de Angelis, Richard K Miller, Thomas H Darrah, Philip J Katzman, Eva K Pressman, Tera R Kent, Kimberly O O'Brien
BACKGROUND: The placenta is responsible for the exchange of nutrients and for preventing harmful compounds from entering the fetal circulation. With increasing industrialization, exposures to commercial and toxic metals become a concern for both pregnant women and those planning a pregnancy. The understanding of transport mechanisms and pharmacokinetics for most inorganic elements is incomplete and limited to normal term deliveries. OBJECTIVES: To obtain novel data on 46 inorganic elements in placentae from two high-risk obstetric populations, women carrying multiples and adolescents carrying singletons, evaluating differences, if present, and identifying predictors of placental content...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715646/l-form-bacteria-cohabitants-in-human-blood-significance-for-health-and-diseases
#9
Nadya D Markova
From a historical perspective, intriguing assumptions about unknown "live units" in human blood have attracted the attention of researchers, reflecting their desire to define a new class of microorganisms. Thus, the concept of "blood microbiota" brings about many questions about the nature, origin, and biological significance of the "unusual microbial cohabitants" in human blood. In contrast to current views that bloodstream in healthy humans is sterile, the hypothesis about the existence of microbes as L-forms (cell wall deficient bacteria) in human blood has evolved on the basis of known facts about their unique biology, as observed in our studies and those of other authors...
May 2017: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714905/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-epa-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-on-fetal-pulmonary-circulation-an-experimental-study-in-fetal-lambs
#10
Dyuti Sharma, Estelle Aubry, Thavarak Ouk, Ali Houeijeh, Véronique Houfflin-Debarge, Rémi Besson, Philippe Deruelle, Laurent Storme
Background: Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) causes significant morbidity and mortality in neonates. n-3 Poly-unsaturated fatty acids have vasodilatory properties in the perinatal lung. We studied the circulatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in fetal sheep and in fetal pulmonary arterial rings. Methods: At 128 days of gestation, catheters were placed surgically in fetal systemic and pulmonary circulation, and a Doppler probe around the left pulmonary artery (LPA)...
July 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714607/new-insights-into-how-serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-shape-the-developing-brain
#11
REVIEW
Jay A Gingrich, Heli Malm, Mark S Ansorge, Alan Brown, Andre Sourander, Deepika Suri, Cátia M Teixeira, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Darshini Mahadevia, Myrna M Weissman
Development passes through sensitive periods, during which plasticity allows for genetic and environmental factors to exert indelible influence on the maturation of the organism. In the context of central nervous system (CNS) development, such sensitive periods shape the formation of neuro-circuits that mediate, regulate, and control behavior. This general mechanism allows for development to be guided by both the genetic blueprint, as well as the environmental context. While allowing for adaptation, such sensitive periods are also windows of vulnerability during which external and internal factors can confer risk to brain disorders by derailing adaptive developmental programs...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714092/serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-of-erythrocytes-protruding-through-the-human-placental-syncytiotrophoblast
#12
Eleni Palaiologou, Patricia Goggin, David S Chatelet, Emma M Lofthouse, Christopher Torrens, Bram G Sengers, Jane K Cleal, Anton Page, Rohan M Lewis
The syncytiotrophoblast forms a continuous barrier between the maternal and fetal circulations. Here we present a serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBFSEM) study, based on a single image stack, showing pooling of fetal blood underneath a region of stretched syncytiotrophoblast that has become detached from the basement membrane. Erythrocytes are protruding from discrete holes in the syncytiotrophoblast suggesting that, under specific circumstances, the syncytiotrophoblast may be permeable to fetal cells...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714000/circulating-levels-of-angiogenesis-related-growth-factors-in-breast-cancer-a-study-to-profile-proteins-responsible-for-tubule-formation
#13
Gemma A Barron, Marie Goua, Klaus W J Wahle, Giovanna Bermano
The present study exploited a versatile in vitro endothelial cell/fibroblast co-culture cell system to investigate the association between angiogenesis and breast cancer by comparing the capacity of plasma from women with breast cancer and age-matched controls, to influence tubule formation and modulate angiogenesis in vitro, and to identify plasma circulating factors which might be responsible. Plasma from women with breast cancer (n=8) (added on day 7 after co-culture establishment) significantly increased tubule formation by 57% (P<0...
July 11, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713594/small-molecule-big-prospects-microrna-in-pregnancy-and-its-complications
#14
REVIEW
Meng Cai, Gopi K Kolluru, Asif Ahmed
MicroRNAs are small, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate target gene expression in the posttranscriptional level. Unlike siRNA, microRNAs are "fine-tuners" rather than "switches" in the regulation of gene expression; thus they play key roles in maintaining tissue homeostasis. The aberrant microRNA expression is implicated in the disease process. To date, numerous studies have demonstrated the regulatory roles of microRNAs in various pathophysiological conditions. In contrast, the study of microRNA in pregnancy and its associated complications, such as preeclampsia (PE), fetal growth restriction (FGR), and preterm labor, is a young field...
2017: Journal of Pregnancy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707059/a-prospective-cohort-study-on-the-prediction-of-fetal-distress-and-neonatal-status-with-arterial-and-venous-doppler-measurements-in-appropriately-grown-term-fetuses
#15
Ihsan Atabay, Semir Kose, Erkan Cagliyan, Bora Baysal, Ebru Yucesoy, Sabahattin Altunyurt
PURPOSE: To assess the predictive power of the cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) and the venous-arterial index (VAI) for the development of intrapartum fetal distress (FD) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. METHODS: Fetal umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery and umbilical vein Doppler measurements were obtained before the active phase of labor in 311 singleton pregnancies at ≥37 weeks. A continuous electronic fetal monitorization was applied, and an umbilical cord blood sample was obtained for each participant...
July 13, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694332/the-ets2-repressor-factor-erf-is-required-for-effective-primitive-and-definitive-hematopoiesis
#16
Ioanna Peraki, James Palis, George Mavrothalassitis
Erf is a ubiquitously expressed ets-DNA-binding containing transcriptional repressor. Erf haploinsufficiency causes craniosynostosis in human and mice, while its absence in mice leads to failed chorioallantoic fusion and death at E10.5. In this study, we show that Erf is required in all three waves of embryonic hematopoiesis. Mice lacking Erf in embryo proper exhibited severe anemia and died around embryonic day (E) 14.5. Erf epiblast specific knockout embryos had reduced numbers of circulating blood cells from E9...
July 10, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694210/circulating-microrna-expression-as-predictor-of-preeclampsia-and-its-severity
#17
Deeba S Jairajpuri, Zainab H Malalla, Naeema Mahmood, Wassim Y Almawi
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy syndrome characterized by hypertension and proteinuria, and a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, with poorly defined pathophysiological mechanisms remain. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules, which negatively regulate gene expression, and considered as promising biomarkers for PE. The objective of the study was to evaluate circulating miRNA signatures in women with PE compared to healthy women, and in women sub-grouped per PE severity...
July 7, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693893/emerging-role-for-dysregulated-decidualization-in-the-genesis-of-preeclampsia
#18
Kirk P Conrad, Maria Belen Rabaglino, Emiel D Post Uiterweer
In normal human placentation, uterine invasion by trophoblast cells and subsequent spiral artery remodeling depend on cooperation among fetal trophoblasts and maternal decidual, myometrial, immune and vascular cells in the uterine wall. Therefore, aberrant function of anyone or several of these cell-types could theoretically impair placentation leading to the development of preeclampsia. Because trophoblast invasion and spiral artery remodeling occur during the first half of pregnancy, the molecular pathology of fetal placental and maternal decidual tissues following delivery may not be informative about the genesis of impaired placentation, which transpired months earlier...
June 9, 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685004/a-newborn-with-an-alternative-porto-caval-shunt
#19
Çağrı Damar, Ayşe Gül Alımlı, Betül Emine Derinkuyu, Kudret Ebru Özcan, Asburçe Olgaç, Ali Murat Koç
BACKGROUND: Absent ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare condition, but it should be known that this embryonic anomaly may be detected by fetal echocardiographic or newborn ultrasound examinations. CASE REPORT: We present a baby with an ADV and an accompanying alternative porto-caval shunt between the right portal vein and inferior vena cava detected on postnatal ultrasound examination. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in the fetal umbilical or porto-systemic circulations should be detected by fetal or newborn ultrasound examinations and kept in mind before common interventions such as UV catheterizations...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681467/proliferation-of-endogenous-regulatory-t-cells-improve-the-pathophysiology-associated-with-placental-ischaemia-of-pregnancy
#20
Tarek Ibrahim, Lukasz Przybyl, Ashlyn C Harmon, Lorena M Amaral, Jessica L Faulkner, Denise C Cornelius, Mark W Cunningham, Thomas Hünig, Florian Herse, Gerd Wallukat, Ralf Dechend, Babbette LaMarca
PROBLEM: Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with inflammation and decreased Treg cells and IL-10. The reduced uterine perfusion pressure (RUPP) rat model of PE exhibits these characteristics, and we hypothesized that induction of endogenous Tregs by a specific stimulus (CD28 superagonistic monoclonal antibody) would reduce inflammation, vasoactive factors, and hypertension in RUPP rats. METHOD OF STUDY: RUPP was performed at gestation day (GD) 14; CD28 superagonist was administered intraperitoneally GD15; GD18 carotid catheters were inserted, and GD19 MAP and pup weight, blood, and tissues were collected...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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