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Fetal circulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441439/hemodynamics-and-gas-exchange-during-chest-compressions-in-neonatal-resuscitation
#1
Payam Vali, Praveen Chandrasekharan, Munmun Rawat, Sylvia Gugino, Carmon Koenigsknecht, Justin Helman, Bobby Mathew, Sara Berkelhamer, Jayasree Nair, Myra Wyckoff, Satyan Lakshminrusimha
PURPOSE: Current knowledge about pulmonary/systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange during neonatal resuscitation in a model of transitioning fetal circulation with fetal shunts and fluid-filled alveoli is limited. Using a fetal lamb asphyxia model, we sought to determine whether hemodynamic or gas-exchange parameters predicted successful return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). METHODS: The umbilical cord was occluded in 22 lambs to induce asphyxial cardiac arrest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#2
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437575/the-24-segment-sphericity-index-a-new-technique-to-evaluate-fetal-cardiac-diastolic-shape
#3
Greggory R DeVore, Berthold Klas, Gary Satou, Mark Sklansky
INTRODUCTION: Because of parallel circulation in the fetus and the differential effect various disease states may have on the shape of the right and left ventricles, this study was conducted to evaluate the Sphericity Index (SI) of 24 transverse segments distributed from the base to the apex of the ventricular chambers. METHODS: Two hundred control fetuses were examined between 20 and 40 weeks of gestation. The displacement of the ventricular endocardium during the cardiac cycle was computed using offline software...
April 24, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428216/maturation-of-platelet-function-during-murine-fetal-development-in-vivo
#4
Andreas Margraf, Claudia Nussbaum, Ina Rohwedder, Sarah Klapproth, Angela R M Kurz, Annamaria Florian, Volker Wiebking, Joachim Pircher, Monika Pruenster, Roland Immler, Steffen Dietzel, Ludmila Kremer, Friedemann Kiefer, Markus Moser, Andreas W Flemmer, Elizabeth Quackenbush, Ulrich H von Andrian, Markus Sperandio
OBJECTIVE: Platelet function has been intensively studied in the adult organism. However, little is known about the function and hemostatic capacity of platelets in the developing fetus as suitable in vivo models are lacking. APPROACH AND RESULTS: To examine fetal platelet function in vivo, we generated a fetal thrombosis model and investigated light-/dye-induced thrombus formation by intravital microscopy throughout gestation. We observed that significantly less and unstable thrombi were formed at embryonic day (E) 13...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425976/prenatal-exposure-to-a-maternal-high-fat-diet-affects-histone-modification-of-cardiometabolic-genes-in-newborn-rats
#5
Bijaya Upadhyaya, Tricia Larsen, Shivon Barwari, Eli J Louwagie, Michelle L Baack, Moul Dey
Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0...
April 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415865/-placental-gene-activity-of-significant-angiogenetic-factors-in-the-background-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#6
Péter Kovács, Attila Rab, Imre Szentpéteri, József Gábor Joó, László Kornya
Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia...
April 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410946/right-atrial-dysfunction-in-the-fetus-with-severely-regurgitant-tricuspid-valve-disease-a-potential-source-of-cardiovascular-compromise
#7
Lisa W Howley, Nee Scze Khoo, Anita J Moon-Grady, Sonali S Patel, Fayeza Alrais, Wayne Tworetzky, Timothy Colen, Paul Brooks, Jean Trines, Tiina Ojala, Lisa K Hornberger
BACKGROUND: In severe right heart obstruction (RHO), redistribution of cardiac output to the left ventricle (LV) is well tolerated by the fetal circulation. Although the same should be true of severely regurgitant tricuspid valve disease (rTVD) with reduced or no output from the right ventricle, affected fetuses more frequently develop hydrops or suffer intrauterine demise. We hypothesized that right atrium (RA) function is altered in rTVD but not in RHO, which could contribute to differences in outcomes...
April 11, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404739/feeding-your-baby-in-utero-how-the-uteroplacental-circulation-impacts-pregnancy
#8
REVIEW
Joanna L James, Lawrence W Chamley, Alys R Clark
The utero-placental circulation links the maternal and fetal circulations during pregnancy, ensuring adequate gas and nutrient exchange, and consequently fetal growth. However, our understanding of this circulatory system remains incomplete. Here, we discuss how the utero-placental circulation is established, how it changes dynamically during pregnancy, and how this may impact on pregnancy success, highlighting how we may address knowledge gaps through advances in imaging and computational modeling approaches...
May 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404685/rising-maternal-circulating-gh-during-murine-pregnancy-suggests-placental-regulation
#9
Kathryn L Gatford, Beverly Muhlhausler, Lili Huang, Pamela S-L Sim, Claire T Roberts, Johannes D Veldhuis, Chen Chen
Placenta-derived hormones including growth hormone (GH) in humans contribute to maternal adaptation to pregnancy, and intermittent maternal GH administration increases fetal growth in several species. Both patterns and abundance of circulating GH are important for its activity, but their changes during pregnancy have only been reported in humans and rats. The aim of the present study was to characterise circulating profiles and secretory characteristics of GH in non-pregnant female mice and throughout murine pregnancy...
April 12, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387929/placental-passage-of-antiepileptic-drugs-at-delivery-and-neonatal-outcomes
#10
Anna M Bank, Zachary N Stowe, D Jeffrey Newport, James C Ritchie, Page B Pennell
Children of women treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are at increased risk of adverse outcomes detectable in the neonatal period, which may be associated with the amount of AEDs in the fetal circulation. Placental passage of AEDs can be measured by calculating the ratio of umbilical cord to maternal AED concentrations collected at delivery. The aims of this study were to determine the umbilical cord concentrations and umbilical-to-maternal ratios for AEDs, and whether higher cord concentrations are associated with increased risk of neonatal complications...
April 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384638/fetal-aortic-valvuloplasty-experience-and-results-of-two-tertiary-centers-in-spain
#11
Alberto Galindo, Enery Gómez-Montes, Olga Gómez, Mar Bennasar, Fàtima Crispi, Ignacio Herraiz, Alberto Mendoza, David Escribano, Enrique García-Torres, Juan Manuel Carretero, Eduard Gratacós, Josep María Martínez
OBJECTIVE: Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) may avoid progression of critical aortic stenosis (CAS) to hypoplastic left ventricle, improving the options for biventricular circulation (BVC). We describe the results of FAV in 2 referral centers in Spain. METHODS: We analyzed all FAVs performed in the period 2007-2015. The selection of candidates, the technique, and postnatal management were made following an agreed protocol. A descriptive analysis of survival, type of circulation after birth, and complications was made, considering all deaths in the first 48 h after FAV as FAV-related...
April 7, 2017: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384202/plasma-cross-gestational-sphingolipidomic-analyses-reveal-potential-first-trimester-biomarkers-of-preeclampsia
#12
Aneta Dobierzewska, Sony Soman, Sebastian E Illanes, Andrew J Morris
INTRODUCTION: Preeclampsia (PE) is a gestational disorder, manifested in the second half of pregnancy by maternal hypertension, proteinuria and generalized edema. PE is a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, accounting for nearly 40% of all premature births worldwide. Bioactive sphingolipids are emerging as key molecules involved in etiopathogenesis of PE, characterized by maternal angiogenic imbalance and symptoms of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to compare the cross-gestational profile of circulating bioactive sphingolipids in maternal plasma from preeclamptic (PE) versus normotensive control (CTL) subjects with the goal of identifying sphingolipids as candidate first trimester biomarkers of PE for early prediction of the disease...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381449/endocrinology-in-pregnancy-case-series-and-review-of-literature-pheochromocytoma-in-pregnancy
#13
Kim van der Weerd, Charlotte van Noord, Martine Loeve, Maarten F C M Knapen, Willy Visser, Wouter de Herder, Gaston J H Franssen, Caroline D van der Marel, Richard A Feelders
Pheochromocytoma in pregnancy is extremely rare. Early recognition is crucial as antepartum diagnosis can largely decrease maternal and fetal mortality rates. As symptoms of pheochromocytoma are rather similar to those of other far more common causes of hypertension during pregnancy, timely diagnosis is a challenge. In pregnant patients, similar to non-pregnant patients, increased plasma and/or 24h-urine (nor)metanephrine concentrations most reliably confirm the diagnosis pheochromocytoma. MRI and ultrasound are the only imaging modalities that can be used safely during pregnancy to localize the tumor...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381180/follow-up-of-gestational-trophoblastic-disease-neoplasia-via-quantification-of-circulating-nucleic-acids-of-placental-origin-using-c19mc-micrornas-hypermethylated-rassf1a-and-sry-sequences
#14
Ilona Hromadnikova, Katerina Kotlabova, Ladislav Krofta, Filip Hron
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of placental-specific markers, extracellular fetal DNA (sex-determining region Y and hypermethylated RASSF1A sequences) and circulating C19MC microRNAs (miR-516-5p, miR-517-5p, miR-518b, miR-520a-5p, miR-520h, miR-525, and miR-526a) for the diagnosis and consecutive follow-up of gestational trophoblastic disease/neoplasia. Increased levels of extracellular fetal DNA and C19MC microRNAs were detected in patients with active disease when compared with the period when the patients reached remission of the disease...
April 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366216/continuous-flow-microfluidic-separation-and-processing-of-rare-cells-and-bioparticles-found-in-blood-a-review
#15
REVIEW
Maria Antfolk, Thomas Laurell
Rare cells in blood, such as circulating tumor cells or fetal cells in the maternal circulation, posses a great prognostic or diagnostic value, or for the development of personalized medicine, where the study of rare cells could provide information to more specifically targeted treatments. When conventional cell separation methods, such as flow cytometry or magnetic activated cell sorting, have fallen short other methods are desperately sought for. Microfluidics have been extensively used towards isolating and processing rare cells as it offers possibilities not present in the conventional systems...
May 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364018/ultrasound-detection-of-altered-placental-vascular-morphology-based-on-hemodynamic-pulse-wave-reflection
#16
Anum Rahman, Yu-Qing Zhou, Yohan Yee, Jun Dazai, Lindsay S Cahill, John C Kingdom, Chris Macgowan, John G Sled
Abnormally pulsatile umbilical artery (UA) Doppler ultrasound velocity waveforms are a hallmark of severe or early-onset placental-mediated intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) while milder late-onset IUGR pregnancies typically have normal UA pulsatility. The diagnostic utility of these waveforms to detect placental pathology is thus limited, and hampered by factors outside of the placental circulation including fetal cardiac output. We developed a new ultrasound approach to isolate that portion of the UA Doppler waveform that originates from the placenta, specifically the reflected pulse pressure wave propagating backward along the UA...
March 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361046/endothelial-progenitor-cells-of-the-human-placenta-and-fetoplacental-circulation-a-potential-link-to-fetal-neonatal-and-long-term-health
#17
REVIEW
Diane L Gumina, Emily J Su
The fetoplacental circulation plays a key role in both short- and long-term outcomes, and aberrant flow indices as manifested by abnormal fetal Doppler velocimetry within this compartment have been associated with significant adverse consequences. These include fetal growth restriction, which often coexists with preeclampsia, and long-lasting medical issues as a result of both the underlying pathology and prematurity such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia, chronic lung disease, and neurodevelopmental delay. Furthermore, it is also clear that exposure to an abnormal in utero environment increases risk for long-term, adulthood issues such as cardiovascular disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357616/prenatal-screening-for-chromosomal-abnormalities-in-ivf-patients-that-opted-for-preimplantation-genetic-screening-diagnosis-pgs-d-a-need-for-revised-algorithms-in-the-era-of-personalized-medicine
#18
Afua Takyi, Joaquin Santolaya-Forgas
Obstetricians offer prenatal screening for most common chromosomal abnormalities to all pregnant women including those that had in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic screening/diagnosis (PGS/D). We propose that free fetal DNA in maternal circulation together with the second trimester maternal serum alfa feto protein (MSAFP) and ultrasound imaging is the best prenatal screening test for chromosomal abnormalities and congenital anomalies in IVF-PGD/S patients because risk estimations from all other prenatal screening algorithms for chromosomal abnormalities depend heavily on maternal age which is irrelevant in PGS/D patients...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356501/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-and-fertility-management-in-agricultural-species
#19
Francesca Mossa, Fermin Jimenez-Krassel, Danielle M Scheetz, Miriam Weber-Nielsen, Alexander C O Evans, Jim Ireland
A reliable, easy to assess marker for fertility in agricultural species would be highly desirable and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) is a promising candidate. This review summarizes recent findings concerning AMH and its role in fertility management, mainly in cattle. It focuses on: 1) alterations in circulating AMH concentrations from birth to puberty and during estrous cycles; 2) correlation of circulating AMH concentrations with ovarian follicle numbers and ovarian reserve; 3) factors that impact circulating AMH concentrations; 4) use of AMH as a predictor of fertility...
March 29, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349890/placental-maternal-and-fetal-vascular-circulation-in-healthy-non-obese-and-metabolically-healthy-obese-pregnant-women
#20
Jacob Bar, Michal Kovo, Letizia Schraiber, Marina Shargorodsky
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We investigated placental histopathology for lesions that are associated with maternal and fetal circulation abnormalities in obese pregnant women with and without metabolic alterations. METHODS: 332 pregnant women were divided into three groups: Group 1 included 163 non-obese metabolically healthy (NOMH), Group 2 106 obese metabolically healthy (OMH), and Group 3 63 obese metabolically abnormal (OMA) subjects, respectively. RESULTS: Fetal vascular supply (FVS) abnormalities and Willous maturation defect (WMD) rate were higher in obese subjects without metabolic abnormalities, compared to NOMH subjects (p < 0...
May 2017: Atherosclerosis
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