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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629280/absent-ductus-venosus-case-series-from-two-tertiary-centres
#1
Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Gabriele Saccone, M D Andrea Ciardulli, Laura Letizia Mazzarelli, Vincenzo Berghella, M D Pasquale Martinelli
INTRODUCTION: Congenital absence of the ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare vascular anomaly often associated with fetal cardiac and extracardiac anomalies, aneuploidies, and hydrops. The prognosis depends on the patterns of abnormal venous circulation, on the associated malformations and on chromosomal aberrations. METHODS: We performed a retrospective audit of all consecutive cases with ADV referred in our centres and analysed the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of six cases with prenatally diagnosed ADV were identified...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625088/mitochondrial-content-and-hepcidin-are-increased-in-obese-pregnant-mothers
#2
G M Anelli, M Cardellicchio, C Novielli, P Antonazzo, M I Mazzocco, I Cetin, C Mandò
OBJECTIVE: Maternal obesity is characterized by systemic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress (OxS) with the contribution of fetal sex dimorphism. We recently described increased mitochondrial content (mtDNA) in placentas of obese pregnancies. Here we quantify mtDNA and hepcidin as indexes of OxS and systemic inflammation in the obese maternal circulation. METHODS: Forty-one pregnant women were enrolled at elective Caesarean section: 16 were normal-weight [NW] and 25 were obese (OB)...
June 18, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623970/localization-of-the-placental-bcrp-abcg2-transporter-to-lipid-rafts-role-for-cholesterol-in-mediating-efflux-activity
#3
John T Szilagyi, Anna M Vetrano, Jeffrey D Laskin, Lauren M Aleksunes
INTRODUCTION: The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) is an efflux transporter in the placental barrier. By transporting chemicals from the fetal to the maternal circulation, BCRP limits fetal exposure to a range of drugs, toxicants, and endobiotics such as bile acids and hormones. The purpose of the present studies was to 1) determine whether BCRP localizes to highly-ordered, cholesterol-rich lipid raft microdomains in placenta microvillous membranes, and 2) determine the impact of cholesterol on BCRP-mediated placental transport in vitro...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618983/regulatory-t-cells-show-dynamic-behavior-during-late-pregnancy-delivery-and-the-postpartum-period
#4
Jorge Lima, Catarina Martins, Glória Nunes, Maria-José Sousa, Jorge C Branco, Luís-Miguel Borrego
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical immunomodulators during early pregnancy by preventing maternal T-cell activation against fetal cells. However, how populations of maternal Tregs vary during and after pregnancy in humans is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated Treg subsets in the peripheral blood of pregnant women from late pregnancy through the postpartum period. To accomplish this, the following circulating Treg subsets were analyzed in 43 healthy pregnant women and 35 nonpregnant women by flow cytometry during the third trimester, on the day of delivery, and postpartum: CD4(Dim)CD25(Hi), CD4(+)CD25(Hi)Foxp3(+), and CD4(+)CD25(Hi)CD127(-/dim)...
July 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618186/therapeutic-efficacy-of-fresh-allogeneic-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-severe-refractory-feline-chronic-gingivostomatitis
#5
Boaz Arzi, Kaitlin C Clark, Ayswarya Sundaram, Mathieu Spriet, Frank J M Verstraete, Naomi J Walker, Megan R Loscar, Nasim Fazel, William J Murphy, Natalia Vapniarsky, Dori L Borjesson
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potent immunomodulatory functions and are a promising therapy for immune-mediated inflammatory disorders. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of fresh, autologous, adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) to treat feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS), a chronic oral mucosal inflammatory disease similar to human oral lichen planus. Here, we investigate the use of fresh allogeneic ASCs for treatment of FCGS in seven cats. Radiolabeled ASCs were also tracked systemically. Each cat received two intravenous injections of 20 million ASCs, 1 month apart...
June 15, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613398/fetal-and-umbilical-doppler-ultrasound-in-high-risk-pregnancies
#6
REVIEW
Zarko Alfirevic, Tamara Stampalija, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Abnormal blood flow patterns in fetal circulation detected by Doppler ultrasound may indicate poor fetal prognosis. It is also possible that false positive Doppler ultrasound findings could lead to adverse outcomes from unnecessary interventions, including preterm delivery. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effects of Doppler ultrasound used to assess fetal well-being in high-risk pregnancies on obstetric care and fetal outcomes...
June 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607126/mechanisms-and-treatment-of-halogen-inhalation-induced-pulmonary-and-systemic-injuries-in-pregnant-mice
#7
James A Lambert, Matthew A Carlisle, Adam Lam, Saurabh Aggarwal, Stephen Doran, Changchun Ren, Wayne E Bradley, Louis Dell'Italia, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, David A Ford, Rakesh P Patel, Tamas Jilling, Sadis Matalon
Inhalation of oxidant gases has been implicated in adverse outcomes in pregnancy, but animal models to address mechanisms and studies to identify potential pregnancy-specific therapies are lacking. Herein, we show that inhalation of bromine at 600 parts per million for 30 minutes by pregnant mice on the 15th day of embryonic development results in significantly lower survival after 96 hours than an identical level of exposure in nonpregnant mice. On the 19th embryonic day, bromine-exposed pregnant mice have increased systemic blood pressure, abnormal placental development, severe fetal growth restriction, systemic inflammation, increased levels of circulating antiangiogenic short fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and evidence of pulmonary and cardiac injury...
June 12, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597291/multiple-drug-transporters-mediate-the-placental-transport-of-sulpiride
#8
Mengru Bai, Zhiyuan Ma, Dongli Sun, Caihong Zheng, Yayun Weng, Xi Yang, Ting Jiang, Huidi Jiang
Sulpiride is a typical antipsychotic drug for the treatment of schizophrenia, depression and other psychological disorders. It has been proven that a small amount of sulpiride could cross the human placenta using an ex vivo placental perfusion model. However, the placental transfer mechanism has not been elucidated. Considering the structure of sulpiride, we speculated that the transporters expressed in placenta might be involved in sulpiride uptake across the blood-placenta barrier. The aim of our study was to determine which transporters contributed to the placental transfer of sulpiride...
June 9, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595268/placental-biomarkers-for-assessing-fetal-health
#9
Irina Manokhina, Giulia F Del Gobbo, Chaini Konwar, Samantha L Wilson, Wendy P Robinson
The placenta is a multifunctional organ that regulates key aspects of pregnancy maintenance and fetal development. As the placenta is in direct contact with maternal blood, cellular products (DNA, RNA, proteins, etc.) from the placenta can enter maternal circulation by a variety of ways. The application of serum proteins and circulating placental derived DNA has been well demonstrated for the diagnosis of aneuploidy, and there is great interest in exploring the use of placental biomarkers for the prediction of a range of fetal health parameters...
June 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583471/expression-of-glucose-transporter-proteins-in-human-diabetic-placenta
#10
REVIEW
Paweł Jan Stanirowski, Dariusz Szukiewicz, Monika Pazura-Turowska, Włodzimierz Sawicki, Krzysztof Cendrowski
Gestational diabetes mellitus and pregestational diabetes mellitus constitute carbohydrate metabolism disorders, which, if not diagnosed and adequately treated, lead to serious and often life-threatening pregnancy complications. According to a recently formulated hypothesis, some diabetes-related complications, such as fetal macrosomia, may be the result of disturbances in the transplacental transport of nutrients-in particular, excessive maternal-fetal glucose transfer. Throughout pregnancy, glucose flux across the placenta is mediated by the group of facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT), the expression of which in different placental compartments is the precondition for effective glucose uptake from maternal blood and its subsequent transfer to the fetal circulation...
June 2, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583065/application-of-nonsense-mediated-primer-exclusion-nope-for-preparation-of-unique-molecular-barcoded-libraries
#11
Dmitriy A Shagin, Maria A Turchaninova, Irina A Shagina, Mikhail Shugay, Andrew R Zaretsky, Olga I Zueva, Dmitriy A Bolotin, Sergey Lukyanov, Dmitriy M Chudakov
BACKGROUND: Recently we proposed efficient method to exclude undesirable primers at any stage of amplification reaction, here termed NOPE (NOnsense-mediated Primer Exclusion). According to this method, added oligonucleotide overlapping with the 3'-end of unwanted amplification primer (NOPE oligo) simultaneously provides a template for its elongation. This elongation disrupts specificity of unwanted primer, preventing its further participation in PCR. The suggested approach allows to rationally manage the course of PCR reactions in order to facilitate analysis of complex DNA mixtures as well as to perform multistage PCR bypassing intermediate purification steps...
June 5, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577615/maternal-allo-recognition-of-the-fetus
#12
REVIEW
Ashley Moffett, Olympe Chazara, Francesco Colucci
Immunological adjustments are needed to accommodate the close contact between two genetically different individuals, the mother and her baby, during mammalian pregnancy. Contact occurs between fetal somatic or placental cells that enter the maternal systemic circulation or between uterine immune cells and the invading extravillous trophoblast. Here we discuss two main types of maternal allo-recognition of the fetus. One depends on avoidance of maternal T cells recognizing and responding to paternally-derived non-self human leukocyte antigens class I and class I allotypes...
June 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567130/villous-tree-model-with-active-contractions-for-estimating-blood-flow-conditions-in-the-human-placenta
#13
Yoko Kato, Michelle L Oyen, Graham J Burton
BACKGROUND: In the human placenta, maternal and fetal bloods exchange substances through the surface of the villous trees: the fetal blood circulates in the villous trees, around which the maternal blood circulates. The blood flows directly influence fetal growth. Stem villi, the main supports of the villous tree, have contractile cells along the axes, whose contractions are expected to influence the blood circulations in the placenta. The displacement is neither measurable nor predictable while non-invasive measurements such as umbilical Doppler waveforms are helpful to predict the histological changes of the villous trees and vascularization in the placenta...
2017: Open Biomedical Engineering Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566491/chronic-hypoxia-alters-fetal-cerebrovascular-responses-to-endothelin%C3%A2-1
#14
Jinjutha Silpanisong, Dahlim Kim, James M Williams, Olayemi Adeoye, Richard Thorpe, William J Pearce
In utero hypoxia influences the structure and function of most fetal arteries, including those of the developing cerebral circulation. Whereas the signals that initiate this hypoxic remodeling remain uncertain, these appear to be distinct from the mechanisms that maintain the remodeled vascular state. The present study explores the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia elicits sustained changes in fetal cerebrovascular reactivity to endothelin‑1 (ET-1), a potent vascular contractant and mitogen. In fetal lambs, chronic hypoxia (3820 m altitude for the last 110 days of gestation) had no significant effect on plasma ET-1 levels or ETA receptor density in cerebral arteries but enhanced contractile responses to ET-1 in an ETA-dependent manner...
May 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554529/maternal-alcohol-exposure-during-mid-pregnancy-dilates-fetal-cerebral-arteries-via-endocannabinoid-receptors
#15
Olga Seleverstov, Ana Tobiasz, J Scott Jackson, Ryan Sullivan, Dejian Ma, J Pierce Sullivan, Steven Davison, Yada Akkhawattanangkul, Danielle L Tate, Terry Costello, Stacey Barnett, Wei Li, Giancarlo Mari, Alex M Dopico, Anna N Bukiya
Prenatal alcohol exposure often results in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Mechanisms of fetal brain damage by alcohol remain unclear. We used baboons (Papio spp.) to study alcohol-driven changes in the fetal cerebral artery endocannabinoid system. Pregnant baboons were subjected to binge alcohol exposure via gastric infusion three times during a period equivalent to the second trimester of human pregnancy. A control group was infused with orange-flavored drink that was isocaloric to the alcohol-containing solution...
June 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549829/impact-of-chlorpyrifos-on-human-villous-trophoblasts-and-chorionic-villi
#16
M E Ridano, A C Racca, J B Flores-Martin, R Fretes, C L Bandeira, L Reyna, E Bevilacqua, S Genti-Raimondi, G M Panzetta-Dutari
Placental barrier regulates maternal-fetal interchange protecting the baby from damage caused by substances found in the uterine environment or circulating in the vascular system. Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are a paramount group of environmental pollutants used in intensive agriculture for protection against diseases and pests. While many studies have reported an increased risk of pregnancy alterations in pregnant women exposed to OPs, few have analyzed the effects caused by these pesticides in the placenta...
May 23, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547726/stroke-induces-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-to-infarcted-brain-areas-via-cxcr4-and-c-met-signaling
#17
Oh Young Bang, Gyeong Joon Moon, Dong Hee Kim, Ji Hyun Lee, Sooyoon Kim, Jeong Pyo Son, Yeon Hee Cho, Won Hyuk Chang, Yun-Hee Kim
Mesenchymal stem cells circulate between organs to repair and maintain tissues. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured with fetal bovine serum have therapeutic effects when intravenously administered after stroke. However, only a small number of mesenchymal stem cells reach the brain. We hypothesized that the serum from stroke patients increases mesenchymal stem cells trophism toward the infarcted brain area. Mesenchymal stem cells were grown in fetal bovine serum, normal serum from normal rats, or stroke serum from ischemic stroke rats...
May 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543953/improved-technical-success-postnatal-outcomes-and-refined-predictors-of-outcome-for-fetal-aortic-valvuloplasty
#18
Kevin G Friedman, Lynn A Sleeper, Lindsay R Freud, Audrey C Marshall, Max E Godfrey, Monika Drogosz, Terra Lafranchi, Carol B Benson, Louise E Wilkins-Haug, Wayne Tworetzky
BACKGROUND: Fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) may prevent progression of mid-gestation aortic stenosis (AS) to hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). METHODS: We evaluate outcomes in 123 fetuses that underwent FAV between 2000 and 2015. We analyze whether technical success and biventricular (Biv) outcome changed from the early era (2000-08) to a more recent era (2009-15) and identify pre-FAV predictors of Biv outcome. We developed CART models to predict the likelihood of Biv outcome...
May 22, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541280/a-quantitative-csmart-assay-for-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-of-autosomal-recessive-nonsyndromic-hearing-loss-caused-by-gjb2-and-slc26a4-mutations
#19
Mingyu Han, Zhifeng Li, Wenlu Wang, Shasha Huang, Yanping Lu, Zhiying Gao, Longxia Wang, Dongyang Kang, Linwei Li, Yiqian Liu, Mengnan Xu, David S Cram, Pu Dai
PurposeThe aim of this study was to assess the performance of a noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) assay for accurate fetal genotyping of pregnancies at genetic risk for autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL).MethodsA total of 80 pregnant couples carrying known mutations in either the GJB2 or SLC26A4 genes associated with a risk for ARNSHL were recruited to the study. Fetal amniocyte samples were genotyped by invasive prenatal screening (IPS), whereas the cell-free fetal DNA present in maternal plasma samples was genotyped using a novel NIPS method based on circulating single-molecule amplification and resequencing technology (cSMART)...
May 25, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529976/de-novo-generation-and-characterization-of-new-zika-virus-isolate-using-sequence-data-from-a-microcephaly-case
#20
Yin Xiang Setoh, Natalie A Prow, Nias Peng, Leon E Hugo, Gregor Devine, Jessamine E Hazlewood, Andreas Suhrbier, Alexander A Khromykh
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged and is the etiological agent of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS), a spectrum of congenital abnormalities arising from neural tissue infections in utero. Herein, we describe the de novo generation of a new ZIKV isolate, ZIKVNatal, using a modified circular polymerase extension reaction protocol and sequence data obtained from a ZIKV-infected fetus with microcephaly. ZIKVNatal thus has no laboratory passage history and is unequivocally associated with CZS. ZIKVNatal could be used to establish a fetal brain infection model in IFNAR(-/-) mice (including intrauterine growth restriction) without causing symptomatic infections in dams...
May 2017: MSphere
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