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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775414/venoarterial-communication-mediates-arterial-wall-shear-stress-induced-maternal-uterine-vascular-remodeling-during-pregnancy
#1
Nga Ling Ko, Liam John, Aaron Gelinne, Maurizio Mandala, George Osol
Although expansive remodeling of the maternal uterine circulation during pregnancy is essential for maintaining uteroplacental perfusion and normal fetal growth, the underlying physiological mechanisms are not well understood. Using a rat model, surgical approaches were used to alter uterine hemodynamics and wall shear stress (WSS) in order to evaluate the effects of WSS and venoarterial communication (e.g. transfer of placentally derived growth signals from post-placental veins to pre-placental arteries) on gestational uterine vascular remodeling...
May 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772265/administration-of-low-dose-triclosan-to-pregnant-ewes-results-in-placental-uptake-and-reduced-estradiol-sulfotransferase-activity-in-fetal-liver-and-placenta
#2
Erin N Jackson, Laura Rowland-Faux, Margaret O James, Charles E Wood
Sulfonation is a major pathway of estrogen biotransformation with a role in regulating estrogen homeostasis in humans and sheep. Previous in vitro studies found that triclosan is an especially potent competitive inhibitor of ovine placental estrogen sulfotransferase, with Kic of <0.1 nM. As the placenta is the main organ responsible for estrogen synthesis in pregnancy in both women and sheep, and the liver is another site of estrogen biotransformation, this study examined the effects of triclosan exposure of pregnant ewes on placental and hepatic sulfotransferase activity...
May 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768640/lipoprotein-profile-modifications-during-gestation-a-current-approach-to-cardiovascular-risk-surrogate-markers-and-maternal-fetal-unit-complications
#3
Ana Paula Caires Dos Santos, Ricardo David Couto
Several changes occur in lipid metabolism during gestation due to hormonal and metabolic changes, which are essential to satisfy the nutritional demands of the maternal-fetal unit development. The gestation shows two distinct periods that begin with fat accumulation, mainly in maternal adipose tissue, and the late phase, characterized by accelerated catabolism, with the increase of fatty acids in the circulation that causes hyperlipidemia, especially the one characterized as hypertriglyceridemia. Maternal hyperlipidemia may be associated with the development of maternal-fetal complications (preterm birth, preeclampsia, vascular complications) and the development of long-term cardiovascular disease...
May 16, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765697/analytical-model-of-the-feto-placental-vascular-system-consideration-of-placental-oxygen-transport
#4
Parisa Mirbod
The placenta is a transient vascular organ that enables nutrients and blood gases to be exchanged between fetal and maternal circulations. Herein, the structure and oxygen diffusion across the trophoblast membrane between the fetal and maternal red blood cells in the feto-placental vasculature system in both human and mouse placentas are presented together as a functional unit. Previous models have claimed that the most efficient fetal blood flow relies upon structures containing a number of 'conductive' symmetrical branches, offering a path of minimal resistance that maximizes blood flow to the terminal villi, where oxygen diffusion occurs...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763587/mice-exposed-to-bisphenol-a-exhibit-depressive-like-behavior-with-neurotransmitter-and-neuroactive-steroid-dysfunction
#5
Frances Xin, Erin Fischer, Christopher Krapp, Elizabeth N Krizman, Yemin Lan, Clementina Mesaros, Nathaniel W Snyder, Amita Bansal, Michael B Robinson, Rebecca A Simmons, Marisa S Bartolomei
Fetal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes across the lifespan and can persist across multiple generations of offspring. However, the underlying mechanisms driving these changes are not well understood. We investigated the molecular perturbations associated with EDC-induced behavioral changes in first (F1) and second (F2) filial generations, using the model EDC bisphenol A (BPA). C57BL/6J dams were exposed to BPA from preconception until lactation through the diet at doses (10 μg/kg bw/d-lower dose or 10 mg/kg bw/d-upper dose) representative of human exposure levels...
May 12, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752389/pregnancy-in-women-with-a-fontan-circulation-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#6
Alvaro Garcia Ropero, Shankar Baskar, Jolien W Roos Hesselink, Andrea Girnius, Dominica Zentner, Lorna Swan, Magalie Ladouceur, Nicole Brown, Gruschen R Veldtman
BACKGROUND: The Fontan operation has provided life-saving palliation and adult survival for individuals born with single ventricle physiology. Many now seek advice about safe pregnancy. Little data are, however, available, consisting mainly of anecdotal experience and small series. This article seeks to review the published literature and identify lessons learnt from this collective experience. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a systematic review to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes of pregnancy in women with a Fontan circulation...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745271/fetal-hemoglobin-in-the-maternal-circulation-contribution-of-fetal-red-blood-cells
#7
Mutaz Dana, Eitan Fibach
The major hemoglobin (Hb) during fetal life is fetal Hb (Hb F). It is mostly replaced by adult Hbs before birth and during the first year of life. In adults, where Hb F comprises <2.0% of the total Hb, it is not homogenously distributed among the red blood cells (RBCs) but is concentrated in a few RBCs, termed F-cells. Interestingly, for reasons that are unclear, Hb F increases in the maternal circulation during pregnancy. This increased Hb F could have two potential origins that are not mutually exclusive: A) maternal origin, due to inducing environment of Hb F in the maternal erythroid precursors; B) fetal origin, due to fetal cells crossing the placenta and entering the maternal circulation...
May 10, 2018: Hemoglobin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740570/influence-of-sex-on-gestational-complications-fetal-to-neonatal-transition-and-postnatal-adaptation
#8
REVIEW
Sheila Lorente-Pozo, Anna Parra-Llorca, Begoña Torres, Isabel Torres-Cuevas, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, María Cernada, Ana García-Robles, Maximo Vento
Fetal sex is associated with striking differences during in utero development, fetal-to-neonatal transition, and postnatal morbidity and mortality. Male sex fetuses are apparently protected while in utero resulting in a higher secondary sex rate for males than for females. However, during fetal-to-neonatal transition and thereafter in the newborn period, female exhibits a greater degree of maturation that translates into a better capacity to stabilize, less incidence of prematurity and prematurity-associated morbidities, and better long-term outcomes...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739273/angiogenic-dysregulation-in-pregnancy-related-hypertension-a-role-for-metformin
#9
Nerolen Soobryan, Saravanakumar Murugesan, Arunagiri Pandiyan, Jagidesa Moodley, Irene Mackraj
In the face of escalating maternal and fetal health threats, hypertensive pregnancy disorders (HPDs) is one of the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. The range of HPDs include white-coat hypertension, chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, mild-to-moderate and severe preeclampsia and eclampsia. Current evidence implicates an imbalance of circulating anti- and angiogenic factors in HPDs emanating from the placental vasculature, impacting on angiogenesis. Delivery of the fetus is thus far the only curative measure, albeit with increased risk...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723064/cell-free-hemoglobin-in-the-fetoplacental-circulation-a-novel-cause-of-fetal-growth-restriction
#10
Adam Brook, Annie Hoaksey, Rekha Gurung, Edward E C Yoong, Rosanna Sneyd, Georgia C Baynes, Helen Bischof, Sarah Jones, Lucy E Higgins, Carolyn Jones, Susan L Greenwood, Rebecca L Jones, Magnus Gram, Ingrid Lang, Gernot Desoye, Jenny Myers, Henning Schneider, Stefan R Hansson, Ian P Crocker, Paul Brownbill
Cell free hemoglobin impairs vascular function and blood flow in adult cardiovascular disease. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that free fetal hemoglobin (fHbF) compromises vascular integrity and function in the fetoplacental circulation, contributing to the increased vascular resistance associated with fetal growth restriction (FGR). Women with normal and FGR pregnancies were recruited and their placentas collected freshly postpartum. FGR fetal capillaries showed evidence of erythrocyte vascular packing and extravasation...
May 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718107/the-intervention-effect-of-aspirin-on-a-lipopolysaccharide-induced-preeclampsia-like-mouse-model-by-inhibiting-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#11
Guanlin Li, Liyang Ma, Li Lin, Yan-Ling Wang, Huixia Yang
Preeclampsia is a severe pregnancy-related disorder, and patients usually present with high circulating inflammatory factor production as well as excessive activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. Administration of aspirin (ASP) is effective for the prevention of preeclampsia, we proposed that ASP might affect placental function by regulating the NF-κB pathway. Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (20 μg/kg) was used to induce preeclampsia-like pregnant mouse model and low-dose ASP (15.2 mg/kg) were further treated...
April 27, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717932/gestational-hypoxia-and-developmental-plasticity
#12
Charles A Ducsay, Ravi Goyal, William J Pearce, Sean Wilson, Xiang-Qun Hu, Lubo Zhang
Hypoxia is one of the most common and severe challenges to the maintenance of homeostasis. Oxygen sensing is a property of all tissues, and the response to hypoxia is multidimensional involving complicated intracellular networks concerned with the transduction of hypoxia-induced responses. Of all the stresses to which the fetus and newborn infant are subjected, perhaps the most important and clinically relevant is that of hypoxia. Hypoxia during gestation impacts both the mother and fetal development through interactions with an individual's genetic traits acquired over multiple generations by natural selection and changes in gene expression patterns by altering the epigenetic code...
July 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717378/risk-factors-for-clinical-ketosis-and-association-with-milk-production-and-reproduction-variables-in-dairy-cows-in-a-hot-environment
#13
M Mellado, A Dávila, L Gaytán, U Macías-Cruz, L Avendaño-Reyes, E García
The aims of the present study were to investigate (1) the risk factors that influence the occurrence of clinical ketosis (CK; blood β-hydroxybutyrate > 3.0 mmol/L) and (2) to determine the influence of subclinical ketosis (SCK; 1.2 ≤ β-hydroxybutyrate ≤ 2.9 mmol/L) and CK on reproductive performance and milk yield in high-yielding Holstein cows in a hot environment. Cows (n = 345) were blood sampled from 6 to 15 days postpartum for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) determination with a hand-held meter...
May 2, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716434/effect-of-sildenafil-on-pulmonary-circulation-and-cardiovascular-function-in-near-term-fetal-sheep-during-hypoxemia
#14
Amarnath Bhide, Leena Alanne, Juha Rasanen, Heikki Huhta, Juulia Junno, Merja Kokki, Tiina Erkinaro, Pasi Ohtonen, Mervi Haapsamo, Ganesh Acharya
Sildenafil is a potential new treatment for placental insufficiency in human pregnancies as it reduces the breakdown of vasodilator nitric oxide. Pulmonary vasodilatation is observed in normoxemic fetuses following sildenafil administration. Placental insufficiency often leads to fetal hypoxemia that can cause pulmonary vasoconstriction and fetal cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by reduced isovolumic myocardial velocities. We tested the hypotheses that sildenafil, when given directly to the hypoxemic fetus, reverses reactive pulmonary vasoconstriction, increases left ventricular cardiac output by increasing pulmonary venous return, and ameliorates hypoxemic myocardial dysfunction...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706899/development-of-the-human-placenta-and-fetal-heart-synergic-or-independent
#15
REVIEW
Graham J Burton, Eric Jauniaux
The placenta is the largest fetal organ, and toward the end of pregnancy the umbilical circulation receives at least 40% of the biventricular cardiac output. It is not surprising, therefore, that there are likely to be close haemodynamic links between the development of the placenta and the fetal heart. Development of the placenta is precocious, and in advance of that of the fetus. The placenta undergoes considerable remodeling at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy, and its vasculature is capable of adapting to environmental conditions and to variations in the blood supply received from the mother...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694994/predicting-the-future-delivery-room-planning-of-congenital-heart-disease-diagnosed-by-fetal-echocardiography
#16
Mary T Donofrio
Advances in prenatal imaging have improved the examination of the fetal cardiovascular system. Fetal echocardiography facilitates the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease (CHD) and through sequential examination, allows assessment of fetal cardiac hemodynamics, predicting the evolution of anatomical and functional cardiovascular abnormalities in utero and during the transition to a postnatal circulation at delivery. This approach allows detailed diagnosis with prenatal counseling and enables planning to define perinatal management, selecting the fetuses at a risk of postnatal hemodynamic instability who are likely to require a specialized delivery plan...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690855/maternal-phthalate-and-personal-care-products-exposure-alters-extracellular-placental-mirna-profile-in-twin-pregnancies
#17
Jia Zhong, Andrea A Baccarelli, Abdallah Mansur, Michal Adir, Ravit Nahum, Russ Hauser, Valentina Bollati, Catherine Racowsky, Ronit Machtinger
Prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) exerts both short- and long-term adverse effects on the developing fetus. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects have yet to be uncovered. Maternal-fetal signaling is mediated in part by signaling molecules (eg, microRNAs [miRNAs]) contained in extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are released by the placenta into the maternal circulation. We investigated whether maternal exposure to the EDCs phthalates and personal care products alters the miRNA profile of placental-derived EVs circulating in maternal blood...
January 1, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679053/pregnancy-associated-diamine-oxidase-originates-from-extravillous-trophoblasts-and-is-decreased-in-early-onset-preeclampsia
#18
Philipp Velicky, Karin Windsperger, Karin Petroczi, Sophie Pils, Birgit Reiter, Tamara Weiss, Sigrid Vondra, Robin Ristl, Sabine Dekan, Christian Fiala, David E Cantonwine, Thomas F McElrath, Bernd Jilma, Martin Knöfler, Thomas Boehm, Jürgen Pollheimer
Human extravillous trophoblast (EVT) invasion of the pregnant uterus constitutes a pivotal event for the establishment of the maternal-fetal interface. Compromised EVT function manifesting in inadequate arterial remodeling is associated with the severe pregnancy disorder early-onset preeclampsia (eoPE). Recent studies suggest that EVTs invade the entire uterine vasculature including arteries, veins and lymphatics in the first trimester of pregnancy. We therefore hypothesized that EVT-derived factors accumulate in the circulation of pregnant women early in gestation and may serve to predict eoPE...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674199/the-impact-of-female-fetal-sex-on-preeclampsia-and-the-maternal-immune-milieu
#19
Brandie D Taylor, Roberta B Ness, Mark A Klebanoff, Gong Tang, James M Roberts, David M Hougaard, Kristin Skogstrand, Catherine L Haggerty
OBJECTIVE: Small studies suggest that fetal sex alters maternal inflammation. We examined the association between fetal sex, preeclampsia and circulating maternal immune markers. METHODS: This was a secondary data analysis within a nested case-control study of 216 preeclamptic women and 432 randomly selected normotensive controls from the Collaborative Perinatal Project. All women had singleton, primiparous pregnancies without chronic health conditions. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between female fetal sex and preeclampsia...
February 24, 2018: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672868/fetal-cerebral-circulation-as-target-of-maternal-alcohol-consumption
#20
Anna N Bukiya, Alex M Dopico
Alcohol (ethanol) is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances worldwide. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy may result in a wide range of morphological and neurodevelopmental abnormalities termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), with the most severe cases diagnosed as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS and FASD are not readily curable and currently represent the leading preventable causes of birth defect and neurodevelopmental delay in the US. The etiology of FAS/FASD remains poorly understood...
April 19, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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