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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338787/total-and-fetal-circulating-cell-free-dna-angiogenic-and-antiangiogenic-factors-in-preeclampsia-and-hellp-syndrome
#1
Rocío Muñoz-Hernández, Pablo Medrano-Campillo, Maria L Miranda, Hada C Macher, Jose Manuel Praena-Fernández, Antonio J Vallejo-Vaz, María J Dominguez-Simeon, Rafael Moreno-Luna, Pablo Stiefel
BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy characterized by hypertension and proteinuria. The HELLP syndrome is the most severe form of PE. The aim of the present study was to determine different potential biomarkers that may help us perform an early diagnosis of the disease, assess on the severity of the disease, and/or predict maternal or fetal adverse outcomes. METHODS: We measured serum levels of total and fetal circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA), soluble endoglin, soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, and placental growth factor in a healthy control group of pregnant women (n = 26), patients with mild (n = 37) and severe PE (n = 25), and patients with HELLP syndrome (n = 16)...
February 25, 2017: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333275/anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-inhibits-activation-and-growth-of-bovine-ovarian-follicles-in-vitro-and-is-localized-to-growing-follicles
#2
M Y Yang, R A Cushman, J E Fortune
STUDY QUESTION: Does anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) inhibit activation (initiation of growth) of primordial follicles and attenuate the growth of primary follicles in cattle, an excellent animal model for human ovarian follicular development? SUMMARY ANSWER: AMH inhibited activation of bovine primordial follicles and attenuated the growth of activated follicles in vitro. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In mice null mutant for AMH, the pool of primordial follicles is depleted prematurely and AMH inhibits follicle activation in vitro...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333238/clustering-of-pcos-like-traits-in-naturally-hyperandrogenic-female-rhesus-monkeys
#3
D H Abbott, B H Rayome, D A Dumesic, K C Lewis, A K Edwards, K Wallen, M E Wilson, S E Appt, J E Levine
STUDY QUESTION: Do naturally occurring, hyperandrogenic (≥1 SD of population mean testosterone, T) female rhesus monkeys exhibit traits typical of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Hyperandrogenic female monkeys exhibited significantly increased serum levels of androstenedione (A4), 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), estradiol (E2), LH, antimullerian hormone (AMH), cortisol, 11-deoxycortisol and corticosterone, as well as increased uterine endometrial thickness and evidence of reduced fertility, all traits associated with PCOS...
March 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330965/greater-sympathoadrenal-activation-with-longer-pre-ventilation-intervals-after-immediate-cord-clamping-increases-hemodynamic-lability-at-birth-in-preterm-lambs
#4
Joseph J Smolich, Kelly R Kenna, Murray David Esler, Sarah E Phillips, Gavin W Lambert
This study tested the hypothesis that varying degrees of hemodynamic fluctuations seen after birth following immediate cord clamping were related to development of asphyxia with longer cord clamp-to-ventilation intervals, resulting in higher perinatal circulating levels of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (Epi), and thus increased heart rate, blood pressures and cardiac contractility after birth. Anesthetized preterm fetal lambs were instrumented with 1) aortic (AoT) and pulmonary trunk (PT) micromanometers to obtain pressures and the maximal rate of pressure rise (dP/dtmax) as a surrogate measure of ventricular contractility, and 2) an AoT catheter to obtain samples for blood gas and catecholamine analyses...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330415/novel-detection-of-placental-insufficiency-by-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-nonhuman-primate
#5
Jamie O Lo, Victoria H J Roberts, Matthias C Schabel, Xiaojie Wang, Terry K Morgan, Zheng Liu, Colin Studholme, Christopher D Kroenke, Antonio E Frias
The placenta is a vital organ necessary for healthy fetal development. Placental insufficiency creates an in utero environment where the fetus is at risk of insufficient oxygen or nutrient exchange. This is primarily caused by impairment of either maternal or fetal circulation or vascular thrombosis such as placental infarction. As a result of placental dysfunction, affected fetuses may be growth restricted, neurologically impaired, and at risk of increased morbidity and mortality. In a cohort of 4 pregnant Rhesus macaques, we describe antenatal detection of naturally occurring intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and aberrant fetal neurodevelopment in 1 animal...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326960/placental-pathologic-features-in-fetomaternal-hemorrhage-detected-by-flow-cytometry
#6
Natasha E Lewis, Laura Marszalek, Linda M Ernst
Background Fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) is a poorly understood entity that can have significant clinical effects. Flow cytometry is a reliable and relatively new method for FMH diagnosis. The objective of this study was to correlate placental pathology with FMH detected by flow cytometry. Methods All patients with available placentas and FMH flow cytometric testing performed from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Cases were defined as ≥0.10% fetal red blood cells (RBCs) in the maternal circulation while controls contained <0...
March 2017: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326464/meningiomas-in-pregnancy-timing-of-surgery-and-clinical-outcomes-as-observed-in-104-cases-and-establishment-of-a-best-management-strategy
#7
REVIEW
Yosef Laviv, Ahmed Bayoumi, Anand Mahadevan, Brett Young, Myles Boone, Ekkehard M Kasper
BACKGROUND: There is a strong correlation between the level of circulating female sex hormones and the parturient growth of meningiomas. As a result, rapid changes in meningioma size occur during pregnancy, putting both the mother and fetus at risk. Large, symptomatic meningiomas require surgical resection, regardless of the status of pregnancy. However, the preferred timing of such complex intervention is a matter of debate. The rarity of this clinical scenario and the absence of prospective trials make it difficult to reach evidence-based conclusions...
March 22, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325734/does-maternal-fetal-transfer-of-creatine-occur-in-pregnant-sheep
#8
Syed Baharom, Robert De Matteo, Stacey Ellery, Paul Della Gatta, Clinton R Bruce, Greg M Kowalski, Nadia Hale, Hayley Dickinson, Richard Harding, David Walker, Rodney J Snow
Our aim was to determine the disposition of creatine in ovine pregnancy, and whether creatine is transferred across the placenta from mother to fetus. Pregnant ewes received either: (i) a continuous intravenous infusion of creatine monohydrate or saline from 122 to 131 days gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood and amniotic fluid samples collected daily for creatine analysis and fetal tissues collected at necropsy at 133 days for analysis of creatine content, or; (ii) a single systemic bolus injection of (13)C labelled creatine monohydrate at 130 days of gestation, with maternal and fetal arterial blood, uterine vein blood and amniotic fluid samples collected prior to, and for 4 hours post injection and analysed for creatine, creatine isotopic enrichment, and guanidinoacetic acid (GAA, precursor of creatine) concentrations...
March 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323976/protective-effects-of-fetal-zone-steroids-are-comparable-to-estradiol-in-hyperoxia-induced-cell-death-of-immature-glia
#9
Stephanie Hübner, Donna E Sunny, Christine Pöhlke, Johanna Ruhnau, Antje Vogelgesang, Bettina Reich, Matthias Heckmann
Impaired neurodevelopment in preterm infants is caused by prematurity itself; however, hypoxia/ischemia, inflammation, and hyperoxia contribute to the extent of impairment. Because preterm birth is accompanied by a dramatic decrease in 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone, preliminary clinical studies have been carried out to substitute these steroids in preterm infants; however, they failed to confirm significantly improved neurological outcomes. We therefore hypothesized that the persistently high postnatal production of fetal zone steroids (mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)) until term could interfere with E2-mediated protection...
March 3, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322690/biologic-evidence-required-for-zika-disease-enhancement-by-dengue-antibodies
#10
Scott B Halstead
The sudden appearance of overt human Zika virus infections that cross the placenta to damage fetal tissues, target sexual organs, and are followed in some instances by Guillain-Barré syndrome raises questions regarding whether these outcomes are caused by genetic mutations or if prior infection by other flaviviruses affects disease outcome. Because dengue and Zika viruses co-circulate in the urban Aedes aegypti mosquito-human cycle, a logical question, as suggested by in vitro data, is whether dengue virus infections result in antibody-dependent enhancement of Zika virus infections...
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320871/essential-roles-of-l-type-amino-acid-transporter-1-in-syncytiotrophoblast-development-by-presenting-fusogenic-4f2hc
#11
Ryuichi Ohgaki, Takahiro Ohmori, Saori Hara, Saya Nakagomi, Masami Kanai-Azuma, Kazuko Kaneda-Nakashima, Suguru Okuda, Shushi Nagamori, Yoshikatsu Kanai
Layer(s) of epithelial syncytium, syncytiotrophoblast, differentiates from chorionic trophoblasts via cell fusion and separates maternal and fetal circulations in hemochorial placentas. L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and its covalently-linked ancillary subunit 4F2hc are colocalized on both maternal and fetal surface of syncytiotrophoblasts, implying their roles in amino acid transfer through the placental barrier. In this study, LAT1 knockout, in addition, revealed a novel role of LAT1 in syncytiotrophoblast development...
March 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301696/toward-an-ethically-sensitive-implementation-of-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-in-the-global-context
#12
Jessica Mozersky, Vardit Ravitsky, Rayna Rapp, Marsha Michie, Subhashini Chandrasekharan, Megan Allyse
Noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA, which analyzes placental DNA circulating in maternal blood to provide information about fetal chromosomal disorders early in pregnancy and without risk to the fetus, has been hailed as a potential "paradigm shift" in prenatal genetic screening. Commercial provision of cell-free DNA screening has contributed to a rapid expansion of the tests included in the screening panels. The tests can include screening for sex chromosome anomalies, rare subchromosomal microdeletions and aneuploidies, and most recently, the entire fetal genome...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301585/a-maternal-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-has-sex-specific-effects-on-fetal-glucocorticoids-with-little-consequence-for-offspring-metabolism-and-voluntary-locomotor-activity-in-mice
#13
Eunice H Chin, Kim L Schmidt, Kaitlyn M Martel, Chi Kin Wong, Jordan E Hamden, William T Gibson, Kiran K Soma, Julian K Christians
Maternal overnutrition and obesity during pregnancy can have long-term effects on offspring physiology and behaviour. These developmental programming effects may be mediated by fetal exposure to glucocorticoids, which is regulated in part by placental 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) type 1 and 2. We tested whether a maternal high-fat, high-sucrose diet would alter expression of placental 11β-HSD1 and 2, thereby increasing fetal exposure to maternal glucocorticoids, with downstream effects on offspring physiology and behaviour...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289707/eomesodermin-and-t-bet-mark-developmentally-distinct-human-natural-killer-cells
#14
Amélie Collins, Nyanza Rothman, Kang Liu, Steven L Reiner
Immaturity of the immune system of human fetuses and neonates is often invoked to explain their increased susceptibility to infection; however, the development of the fetal innate immune system in early life remains incompletely explored. We now show that the most mature NK cells found in adult (or postnatal) human circulation (CD94(-)CD16(+)) are absent during ontogeny. Human fetal NK cells were found to express the 2 signature T-box transcription factors essential for the development of all murine NK and NK-like cells, eomesodermin (Eomes) and T-bet...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289056/expression-and-trafficking-of-placental-micrornas-at-the-feto-maternal-interface
#15
Guojing Chang, Jean-François Mouillet, Takuya Mishima, Tianjiao Chu, Elena Sadovsky, Carolyn B Coyne, W Tony Parks, Urvashi Surti, Yoel Sadovsky
During pregnancy, placental trophoblasts at the feto-maternal interface produce a broad repertoire of microRNA (miRNA) species. These species include miRNA from the primate-specific chromosome 19 miRNA cluster (C19MC), which is expressed nearly exclusively in the placenta. Trafficking of these miRNAs among the maternal, placental, and fetal compartments is unknown. To determine miRNA expression and trafficking patterns during pregnancy, we sequenced miRNAs in triads of human placenta and of maternal and fetal blood and found large subject-to-subject variability, with C19MC exhibiting compartment-specific expression...
March 13, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288148/natriuretic-peptide-c-receptor-in-the-developing-sheep-lung-role-in-perinatal-transition
#16
Bobby Mathew, Christopher A D'Angelis, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Peter A Nickerson, June J Sokolowski, Vasantha H S Kumar, Huamei Wang, Karen A Wynn, Bruce A Holm, Rita M Ryan
BACKGROUND: At birth, the release of surfactant from Alveolar Type II (ATII) cells is stimulated by increased activity of the beta-adrenergic/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP- signaling cascade. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) stimulates surfactant secretion through Natriuretic peptide receptor A (NPR-A). ANP inhibits adenylyl cyclase activity through its binding to NPR-C. We wished to further understand the role of the NPR-C in perinatal transition. METHODS: We studied fetal and newborn sheep ATII expression of NPR-C and surfactant secretion in isolated ATIIs by measuring (3)[H] choline release into the media...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286853/paradoxical-embolism-due-to-persistent-foramen-ovale-a-case-report
#17
Dormar David Barrios, Jonathan Roncancio, Albert Alejandro Avila, Jaime Andrés Alvarado, Ana Cristina Montenegro
The mean percentage of cryptogenic strokes among ischemic strokes is 31%, of which one-third may be associated with patent foramen ovale. The foramen ovale is required for blood flow through the fetal atrial septum. It is formed as of the fourth week of gestation, and this leads to right-left interatrial shunt that allows the passage of oxygenated blood to systemic circulation. In 75% of cases, its closure is complete by 2 years of age, but it may persist in 25% of patients. We present the case of a patient with paradoxical embolism in the lower extremities and ischemic stroke in the clinical context of a patent foramen ovale...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285896/perinatal-changes-in-fetal-ventricular-geometry-myocardial-performance-and-cardiac-function-in-normal-term-pregnancies
#18
Olga Patey, Michael A Gatzoulis, Basky Thilaganathan, Julene S Carvalho
BACKGROUND: The fetal heart at term is exposed to an increase in hemodynamic work as a consequence of fetal growth, increased circulating volume, and alteration in loading patterns due to maturational changes in fetoplacental circulation. The extent to which these cardiovascular changes influence human fetal and neonatal cardiac adaptation has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate perinatal cardiovascular changes in ventricular geometry and myocardial performance in normal term fetuses...
March 9, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284050/incomplete-circle-of-willis-a-risk-factor-for-mesial-temporal-sclerosis
#19
Gokhan Kuyumcu, Richard W Byrne, Robert J Dawe, Mehmet Kocak
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether there may be a correlation between the anatomical variants of Circle of Willis (CoW) and presence/laterality of mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS). METHODS: We retrospectively identified the CoW variants on Wada angiograms in 71 patients with pathologically proven MTS. Angiograms were interpreted by two radiologists independently and blinded to clinical data. We divided the anterior and posterior components of the CoW into functionally complete and functionally incomplete groups...
March 2, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283176/usefulness-of-the-prenatal-echocardiogram-in-fetuses-with-isolated-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-to-predict-the-need-for-balloon-atrial-septostomy
#20
Trisha V Vigneswaran, Vita Zidere, Owen I Miller, John M Simpson, Gurleen K Sharland
The outcome of the arterial switch operation for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) is excellent, but there is still associated preoperative mortality. Hypoxemia due to inadequate mixing of the pulmonary and systemic circulations may be implicated. Prediction of early hypoxemia by prenatal echocardiographic criteria has proved difficult. We aimed to identify prenatal echocardiographic features that may predict the need for emergency balloon atrial septostomy (BAS) in isolated TGA. Third trimester fetal echocardiograms of the last 40 cases of isolated TGA were reviewed without knowledge of the postnatal outcome...
February 9, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
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