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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930553/fetal-nucleic-acids-in-maternal-plasma-from-biology-to-clinical-translation
#1
Neha Bunkar, Arpit Bhargava, Koel Chaudhury, Radhey Shyam Sharma, Nirmal Kumar Lohiya, Pradyumna Kumar Mishra
Exposure to environmental contaminants during the critical window of pregnancy results in deregulation of highly coordinated genetic and epigenetic mechanisms involved in prenatal growth. Such disturbances significantly alter the fetal programming, and lead to various developmental disorders immediately, over the lifetime, or transgenerationally. During the process of placental development, fetal nucleic acids enter maternal plasma as a result of necrotic, apoptotic, and inflammatory mechanisms. These nucleic acids reflect normal or abnormal ongoing cellular changes during prenatal fetal development...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929598/levels-of-serum-circulating-angiogenic-factors-within-1-week-prior-to-delivery-are-closely-related-to-conditions-of-pregnant-women-with-pre-eclampsia-gestational-hypertension-and-or-fetal-growth-restriction
#2
Sakiko Nanjo, Sawako Minami, Mika Mizoguchi, Madoka Yamamoto, Tamaki Yahata, Saori Toujima, Michihisa Shiro, Aya Kobayashi, Yasuteru Muragaki, Kazuhiko Ino
AIM: We aimed to investigate maternal serum angiogenic marker profiles within 1 week prior to delivery in cases of gestational hypertension (GH), pre-eclampsia (PE), and/or fetal growth restriction (FGR) with different clinical conditions. METHODS: We enrolled 165 women with singleton pregnancy. The participants were classified based on three characteristics: (i) proteinuria (GH and PE); (ii) FGR (PE with FGR [PE + FGR], PE alone, and FGR alone); and (iii) onset (early onset PE [EO PE] and late-onset PE [LO PE])...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924318/pre-eclampsia-molecular-events-to-biomarkers
#3
REVIEW
Kavita Sahai, Seema Saraswathy, Tribhuvan Pal Yadav, Devendra Arora, Manu Krishnan
Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder in pregnancy, which accounts for 10-15% of the maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Abnormal placental development and tissue hypoxia are its main etiologic factors. The present diagnostic methods of blood pressure monitoring and renal function evaluation are insufficient in the early detection of pre-eclampsia. Since molecular events portent well ahead of the disease onset, biomarker research for the early diagnosis of pre-eclampsia has recently generated ambitious clinical targets...
April 2017: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921728/undifferentiated-connective-tissue-diseases-and-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-an-undervalued-association
#4
REVIEW
Arsenio Spinillo, Fausta Beneventi, Roberto Caporali, Veronique Ramoni, Carlomaurizio Montecucco
Undifferentiated connective tissue diseases (UCTDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by symptoms and signs suggestive of systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD), but which do not fulfill all the established criteria for definite diagnosis of a condition. Although a third of UCTDs can progress to a definite ARD within months or years, most UCTDs can remain stable for years with minimal disease activity. The annual incidence of UCTD in the general population ranges from 14 to 140 per 100 000 people...
September 16, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911172/androgens-mediate-sex-dependent-gonadotropin-expression-during-late-prenatal-development-in-the-mouse
#5
Michael J Kreisman, Christopher I Song, Kathleen Yip, Bryony V Natale, David R Natale, Kellie M Breen
Central organization of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is initiated during fetal life. At this critical time, gonadal hormones mediate sex-specific development of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which then dictates reproductive physiology and behavior in adulthood. Although studies have investigated the effects of prenatal androgens on central factors influencing gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release, the impact of fetal androgens on gonadotrope function has been overlooked. In the current study, we demonstrated that gonadotropin gene expression and protein production were robustly elevated in female mice compared with males during late fetal development and that this sex difference was dependent on fetal androgens...
September 1, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910276/igf2-stimulates-fetal-growth-in-a-sex-and-organ-dependent-manner
#6
Veronica White, Alicia Jawerbaum, Maria Belen Mazzucco, Martin Gauster, Gernot Desoye, Ursula Hiden
BACKGROUND: IGF2 is a key determinant of fetal growth, and altered expression of IGF2 is implicated in fetal growth disorders and maternal metabolic derangements including gestational diabetes. Here we studied how increased levels of IGF2 in late pregnancy affect fetal growth. METHODS: We employed a rat model of repeated intra-fetal IGF2 administration in late pregnancy, i.e. during GD19-GD21, and measured the consequences on fetal organ weight and expression of insulin/IGF-axis components...
September 14, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905984/fetal-intra-abdominal-umbilical-vein-aneurysm
#7
Stefano Raffaele Giannubilo, Angela Pasculli, Alessandro Cecchi, Alessandra Biagini, Andrea Ciavattini
Importance: Fetal umbilical vein aneurysm is an uncommon anomaly that accounts for approximately 4% of umbilical cord abnormalities. The rate of intrauterine fetal death is reported to be approximately 4% to 5%, higher than the background rate of 0.7% that is generally reported during pregnancy. Objective: The aim of this study was to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and clinical management of fetal umbilical vein aneurysm. Evidence Acquisition: Advances in high-resolution ultrasound combined with color Doppler and 3-dimensional rendering have contributed to an increased understanding of the fetal venous circulation in recent years...
September 2017: Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893652/a-new-threat-to-human-reproduction-system-posed-by-zika-virus-zikv-from-clinical-investigations-to-experimental-studies
#8
REVIEW
Xiangdong Li, Wenqiang Ma, Gary Wong, Shuoqian Ma, Shihua Li, Yuhai Bi, George F Gao
Zika virus (ZIKV) was first isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika forest of Uganda. ZIKV has since been silently circulating in a number of equatorial countries for over 50 years. The largest outbreak in humans occurred in Brazil in 2015-2016. Unlike its flavivirus relatives, sexual and post-transfusion transmissions of ZIKV have been reported. In addition, fetal infection can result in microcephaly and congenital Zikv syndrome has been reported in neonates. Moreover, ZIKV RNA can persist for at least 6 months in semen and 11 weeks in vaginal secretions after the infection, suggesting potential tropism for the male and female genital tracts...
September 8, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878092/equine-fetal-adrenal-gonadal-and-placental-steroidogenesis
#9
Erin L Legacki, Barry A Ball, C Jo Corbin, Shavahn C Loux, Kirsten E Scoggin, Scott D Stanley, Alan J Conley
Equine fetuses have substantial circulating pregnenolone concentrations and thus have been postulated to provide significant substrate for placental 5α-reduced pregnane production, but the fetal site of pregnenolone synthesis remains unclear. The current studies investigated steroid concentrations in blood, adrenal glands, gonads and placenta from fetuses (4, 6, 9 and 10 months of gestational age (GA)), as well as tissue steroidogenic enzyme transcript levels. Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were the most abundant steroids in fetal blood, pregnenolone was consistently higher but decreased progressively with GA...
October 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28868163/new-insights-into-the-vitamin-d-requirements-during-pregnancy
#10
REVIEW
Bruce W Hollis, Carol L Wagner
Pregnancy represents a dynamic period with physical and physiological changes in both the mother and her developing fetus. The dramatic 2-3 fold increase in the active hormone 1,25(OH)2D concentrations during the early weeks of pregnancy despite minimal increased calcium demands during that time of gestation and which are sustained throughout pregnancy in both the mother and fetus suggests an immunomodulatory role in preventing fetal rejection by the mother. While there have been numerous observational studies that support the premise of vitamin D's role in maintaining maternal and fetal well-being, until recently, there have been few randomized clinical trials with vitamin D supplementation...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867155/the-boundaries-of-fetal-cardiac-intervention-expand-or-tighten
#11
REVIEW
Laura Gellis, Wayne Tworetzky
Fetal cardiac intervention (FCI) is a relatively new and continually evolving field, and, for select cardiac defects, offers the potential to alter the progression of the disease and improve outcomes. It is a procedure that requires a collaborative effort between maternal-fetal medicine, interventional cardiology and fetal echo/ultrasound specialists, as well as fetal and maternal anesthesiologists, nursing specialists, and social workers. This article reviews the most recently reported data and advances in FCI...
August 31, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852106/the-role-of-na-ca2-exchanger-1-in-maintaining-ductus-arteriosus-patency
#12
Minghui Li, Chuan Jiang, Lincai Ye, Shoubao Wang, Haibo Zhang, Jinfen Liu, Haifa Hong
Patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA) is crucial for both fetal circulation and patients with DA-dependent congenital heart diseases (CHD). The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) protein has been shown to play a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and is elevated in DA-dependent CHD. This current study was conducted to investigate the mechanisms underpinning the role of NCX1 in DA patency. Our data showed NCX1 expression was up-regulated in the DA of fetal mice. Up-regulation of NCX1 expression resulted in a concomitant decrease in cytosolic Ca(2+) levels in human DA smooth muscle cells (DASMCs) and an inhibition of the proliferation and migration capacities of human DASMCs...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843326/valve-interventions-in-utero-understanding-the-timing-indications-and-approaches
#13
REVIEW
Aleksander Sizarov, Younes Boudjemline
Efficient use of fetal echocardiography has enabled early detection of congenital heart disease and of its often irreversible complications, such as ventricular hypoplasia in case of severe stenosis of the semilunar valves. Experience of the past 25 years has proved that balloon dilatation of the severely stenotic or atretic valve in fetuses as early as the 23rd week of gestation is technically feasible with a learning curve. Reported results regarding the ultimate biventricular circulation outcome after fetal valve intervention are at best controversial, with the desired improvements in the quality of life and cost-benefits of the postnatal treatment being as yet unconfirmed...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833712/cell-free-fetal-dna-analysis-in-maternal-plasma-as-a-screening-test-for-trisomy-21-18-and-13-in-twin-pregnancies
#14
Grégoire Le Conte, Alexandra Letourneau, Jacques Jani, Pascale Kleinfinger, Laurence Lohmann, Jean-Marc Costa, Alexandra Benachi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of noninvasive prenatal testing using cell-free circulating fetal DNA (cfDNA) in screening for the three main autosomal fetal trisomies in twin pregnancies. METHODS: CfDNA testing was offered to 492 patients with twin pregnancies without ultrasound anomalies as a first-line screening test or after serum screening in clinical practice. Data were collected prospectively and a retrospective analysis was performed. CfDNA analysis was performed by massively parallel sequencing...
August 18, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830992/integrative-single-cell-and-cell-free-plasma-rna-transcriptomics-elucidates-placental-cellular-dynamics
#15
Jason C H Tsang, Joaquim S L Vong, Lu Ji, Liona C Y Poon, Peiyong Jiang, Kathy O Lui, Yun-Bi Ni, Ka Fai To, Yvonne K Y Cheng, Rossa W K Chiu, Yuk Ming Dennis Lo
The human placenta is a dynamic and heterogeneous organ critical in the establishment of the fetomaternal interface and the maintenance of gestational well-being. It is also the major source of cell-free fetal nucleic acids in the maternal circulation. Placental dysfunction contributes to significant complications, such as preeclampsia, a potentially lethal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy. Previous studies have identified significant changes in the expression profiles of preeclamptic placentas using whole-tissue analysis...
August 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829768/association-of-pre-pregnancy-body-mass-index-with-offspring-metabolic-profile-analyses-of-3-european-prospective-birth-cohorts
#16
Diana L Santos Ferreira, Dylan M Williams, Antti J Kangas, Pasi Soininen, Mika Ala-Korpela, George Davey Smith, Marjo-Riitta Jarvelin, Debbie A Lawlor
BACKGROUND: A high proportion of women start pregnancy overweight or obese. According to the developmental overnutrition hypothesis, this could lead offspring to have metabolic disruption throughout their lives and thus perpetuate the obesity epidemic across generations. Concerns about this hypothesis are influencing antenatal care. However, it is unknown whether maternal pregnancy adiposity is associated with long-term risk of adverse metabolic profiles in offspring, and if so, whether this association is causal, via intrauterine mechanisms, or explained by shared familial (genetic, lifestyle, socioeconomic) characteristics...
August 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829492/metformin-increases-norepinephrine-transporter-expression-in-placenta-of-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#17
G Medina, M Maliqueo, N Crisosto, B Echiburú, T Sir-Petermann, H E Lara
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the norepinephrine (NE) and placental NE transporter (NET) in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) non-treated and treated with metformin during pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied sixteen pregnant women with PCOS: 8 without metformin treatment during pregnancy (PCOS-M) and 8 treated with metformin during pregnancy (PCOS+M). Sixteen pregnant women of similar age without PCOS were included as controls (Control). At 24th and 35th weeks of pregnancy, blood samples were obtained...
August 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828340/cell-free-fetal-nucleic-acid-identifier-markers-in-maternal-circulation
#18
REVIEW
Mahboubeh Ramezanzadeh, Sharifeh Khosravi, Rasoul Salehi
From the discovery of cell-free fetal (cff)-DNA in 1997 so far, many studies have been performed on various aspects of cff-nucleic acid. It is undoubted that currently, invasive prenatal diagnosis progresses to the noninvasive test. However, there are many problems. One of the most challenging issues in this field is differentiation and detection of the small amount of cff-nucleic acid in maternal plasma. Many markers and methods have been used for this purpose. This review makes an attempt to review and compare the studies in the field...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811696/relationship-between-fetal-loss-and-serum-gonadal-hormones-level-in-experimental-antiphospholipid-syndrome-mouse
#19
Shanmugam Velayuthaprabhu, Arunachalam Chinnathambi, Sulaiman Ali Alharbi, Hidehiko Matsubayashi, Govindaraju Archunan
To investigate the effects of antiphospholipid antibodies on establishment of pregnancy and changes in hormones such as estradiol-17ß (E2) and progesterone (P) levels in circulation. Hence, mice were immunized with human β2-Glycoprotein I (β2GPI) and the effect of these antibodies on fetuses weight, placental obsrvation, Serum levels of P and E2 in pregnant mice, hematological were observed. Immunization of mice with human β2-GPI resulted in elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies. The experimentally induced antiphospholipid syndrome mouse showed higher rate of fetal resorption, low number of viable fetuses, and "placental abnormalities"...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809844/the-4-vessel-sampling-approach-to-integrative-studies-of-human-placental-physiology-in-vivo
#20
Ane M Holme, Maia B Holm, Marie C P Roland, Hildegunn Horne, Trond M Michelsen, Guttorm Haugen, Tore Henriksen
The human placenta is highly inaccessible for research while still in utero. The current understanding of human placental physiology in vivo is therefore largely based on animal studies, despite the high diversity among species in placental anatomy, hemodynamics and duration of the pregnancy. The vast majority of human placenta studies are ex vivo perfusion studies or in vitro trophoblast studies. Although in vitro studies and animal models are essential, extrapolation of the results from such studies to the human placenta in vivo is uncertain...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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