Read by QxMD icon Read

prokaryotic cell

David Hibbett, Kessy Abarenkov, Urmas Koljalg, Maarja Opik, Benli Chai, James R Cole, Qiong Wang, Pedro W Crous, Vincent A R G Robert, Thorunn Helgason, Josh Herr, Paul Kirk, Shiloh Lueschow, Kerry O'Donnell, Henrik Nilsson, Ryoko Oono, Conrad L Schoch, Christopher Smyth, Donny Walker, Andrea Porras-Alfaro, John W Taylor, David M Geiser
Fungal taxonomy and ecology have been revolutionized by the application of molecular methods and both have increasing connections to genomics and functional biology. However, data streams from traditional specimen- and culture-based systematics are not yet fully integrated with those from metagenomic and metatranscriptomic studies, which limits understanding of the taxonomic diversity and metabolic properties of fungal communities. This article reviews current resources, needs, and opportunities for sequence-based classification and identification (SBCI) in fungi as well as related efforts in prokaryotes...
October 19, 2016: Mycologia
Bartosz Gląb, Mirela Beganovic, Sanket Anaokar, Meng-Shu Hao, Allan Rasmusson, Jana Patton-Vogt, Antoni Banaś, Sten Stymne, Ida Lager
Glycero-3-phosphocholine (GPC), the product of the complete deacylation of phosphatidylcholine (PC), was long thought to not be a substrate for reacylation. However it was recently shown that cell-free extracts from yeast and plants could acylate GPC with acyl groups from acyl-CoA. By screening enzyme activities of extracts derived from a yeast knock-out collection, we were able to identify and clone the yeast gene (GPC1) encoding the enzyme, named glycerophosphocholine acyltransferase (GPCAT). By homology search we also identified and cloned GPCAT genes from three plant species...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Nickias Kienle, Tobias H Kloepper, Dirk Fasshauer
BACKGROUND: A defining feature of eukaryotic cells is the presence of various distinct membrane-bound compartments with different metabolic roles. Material exchange between most compartments occurs via a sophisticated vesicle trafficking system. This intricate cellular architecture of eukaryotes appears to have emerged suddenly, about 2 billion years ago, from much less complex ancestors. How the eukaryotic cell acquired its internal complexity is poorly understood, partly because no prokaryotic precursors have been found for many key factors involved in compartmentalization...
October 18, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Jinhua Sun, Yinglin Chen, Feiyue Qin, Xueting Guan, Wei Xu, Liangmei Xu
Interferons have attracted considerable attention due to their vital roles in the host immune response and low induction of antibiotic resistance. In this study, total RNA was extracted from spleen cells of chicken embryos inoculated with Newcastle disease vaccine, and the full-length chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) gene was amplified by RT-PCR. The full complementary DNA sequence of the ChIFN-γ gene was 495 bp long and was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pProEX™HTb . The plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli DH5α and the expression of ChIFN-γ was induced by isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside...
October 17, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Renwen Zhang, Xiaoxue Han, Zhanfeng Xia, Xiaoxia Luo, Chuanxing Wan, Lili Zhang
A novel actinomycete strain, designated TRM 49605(T), was isolated from a desert soil sample from Lop Nur, Xinjiang, north-west China, and characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain exhibited antifungal activity against the following strains: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium citrinum, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis; Antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Micrococcus luteus; and no antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli...
October 17, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Carmen Sarcinelli, Gabriella Fiorentino, Elio Pizzo, Simonetta Bartolucci, Danila Limauro
Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are ubiquitous thiol peroxidases that are involved in the reduction of peroxides. It has been reported that prokaryotic Prxs generally show greater structural robustness than their eukaryotic counterparts, making them less prone to inactivation by overoxidation. This difference has inspired the search for new antioxidants from prokaryotic sources that can be used as possible therapeutic biodrugs. Bacterioferritin comigratory proteins (Bcps) of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus that belong to the Prx family have recently been characterized...
2016: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
Hung X Nguyen, Robert D Kirkton, Nenad Bursac
The ability to directly enhance electrical excitability of human cells is hampered by the lack of methods to efficiently overexpress large mammalian voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC). Here we describe the use of small prokaryotic sodium channels (BacNav) to create de novo excitable human tissues and augment impaired action potential conduction in vitro. Lentiviral co-expression of specific BacNav orthologues, an inward-rectifying potassium channel, and connexin-43 in primary human fibroblasts from the heart, skin or brain yields actively conducting cells with customizable electrophysiological phenotypes...
October 18, 2016: Nature Communications
Patricia L Tavormina, Matthias Y Kellermann, Chakkiath Paul Antony, Elitza Tocheva, Nathan Dalleska, Ashley J Jensen, David L Valentine, Kai-Uwe Hinrichs, Grant Jensen, Nicole Dubilier, Victoria J Orphan
In the deep ocean, the conversion of methane into derived carbon and energy drives the establishment of diverse faunal communities. Yet specific biological mechanisms underlying the introduction of methane-derived carbon into the food web remain poorly described, due to a lack of cultured representative deep-sea methanotrophic prokaryotes. Here, we characterize the response of the deep-sea aerobic methanotroph Methyloprofundus sedimenti to methane starvation and recovery. By combining lipid analysis, RNA analysis, and electron cryotomography, we show that M...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
J Zhang, Y Wang, H Guo, Z Mao, C Ge
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida NB2011, the causative agent of visceral granulomas disease in farmed Larimichthys crocea in China, encodes a predicted type three effector PP_ExoU, a homolog of the cytotoxin ExoU of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, secretion of PP_ExoU was tested in various broth, the protein was expressed with the pET30a prokaryotic system, the phospholipase A (PLA) activity of the recombinant protein was determined with fluorogenic phospholipid substrates, fusion expression with green fluorescent protein in transfected HeLa cells was investigated, and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was measured...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Fish Diseases
Fang Liu, Anni Tan, Renhao Yang, Yingzi Xue, Ming Zhang, Lei Chen, Luanjuan Xiao, Xuesong Yang, Yanhong Yu
C1ql-like (C1QL)-1 and -4 proteins are encoded by homologous genes that are highly expressed in brain and adipose tissues. However, functional properties of C1QL proteins outside of the brain and adipocytes remain unknown. Here, we report that the globular domain of C1ql1/Ctrp14 and C1ql4/Ctrp11 proteins directly stimulate the angiogenesis of endothelial cells. In this study, soluble C1ql1/CTRP14 and C1ql4/Ctrp11 proteins, produced in prokaryote expression system, are co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelium cells (HUVECs), which phenotype is identified with von Willebrand factor antibody...
October 13, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Mauricio Toro-Nahuelpan, Frank D Müller, Stefan Klumpp, Jürgen M Plitzko, Marc Bramkamp, Dirk Schüler
BACKGROUND: The navigation of magnetotactic bacteria relies on specific intracellular organelles, the magnetosomes, which are membrane-enclosed crystals of magnetite aligned into a linear chain. The magnetosome chain acts as a cellular compass, aligning the cells in the geomagnetic field in order to search for suitable environmental conditions in chemically stratified water columns and sediments. During cytokinesis, magnetosome chains have to be properly positioned, cleaved and separated in order to be evenly passed into daughter cells...
October 12, 2016: BMC Biology
T Weber, K Namikawa, B Winter, K Müller-Brown, R Kühn, W Wurst, R W Köster
The zebrafish is a well-established model organism to study in vivo mechanisms of cell communication, differentiation and function. Existing cell ablation methods are either invasive thereby creating additional tissue damage and potential infection sites, or they rely on the cellular expression of prokaryotic enzymes and the use of antibiotic drugs as cell-death-inducing compounds. We have recently established a novel inducible genetic cell ablation system that is based on Tamoxifen-inducible Caspase8-activity, thereby exploiting mechanisms of cell death intrinsic to most cell types...
October 11, 2016: Development
Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir, Haihong Hao, Muhammad Zubair Shabbir, Hafiz Iftikhar Hussain, Zahid Iqbal, Saeed Ahmed, Adeel Sattar, Mujahid Iqbal, Jun Li, Zonghui Yuan
Prokaryotes have developed numerous innate immune mechanisms in order to fend off bacteriophage or plasmid attack. One of these immune systems is clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR). CRISPR-associated proteins play a key role in survival of prokaryotes against invaders, as these systems cleave DNA of foreign genetic elements. Beyond providing immunity, these systems have significant impact in altering the bacterial physiology in term of its virulence and pathogenicity, as well as evolution...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Veena C Yeruva, Mamata Savanagouder, Radhika Khandelwal, Apoorva Kulkarni, Yogendra Sharma, Tirumalai R Raghunand
The hallmark feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) the causative agent of human tuberculosis, is its complex lipid rich cell wall comprised primarily of mycolic acids, long chain fatty acids that play a key role in structural stability and permeability of the cell wall. In addition, they are involved in inhibiting phagosome-lysosome fusion and aid in granuloma formation during the pathogenic process. M.tb DesA1 is an essential acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase predicted to catalyze the introduction of position specific double bonds during the biosynthesis of mycolic acids...
October 6, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Libera Lo Presti, Bernd Zechmann, Jochen Kumlehn, Liang Liang, Daniel Lanver, Shigeyuki Tanaka, Ralph Bock, Regine Kahmann
Successful colonization of plants by prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens requires active effector-mediated suppression of defense responses and host tissue reprogramming. Secreted effector proteins can either display their activity in the apoplast or translocate into host cells and function therein. Although characterized in bacteria, the molecular mechanisms of effector delivery by fungal phytopathogens remain elusive. Here we report the establishment of an assay that is based on biotinylation of effectors in the host cytoplasm as hallmark of uptake...
September 26, 2016: New Phytologist
Nikhil Kumar, Mingqun Lin, Xuechu Zhao, Sandra Ott, Ivette Santana-Cruz, Sean Daugherty, Yasuko Rikihisa, Lisa Sadzewicz, Luke J Tallon, Claire M Fraser, Julie C Dunning Hotopp
Despite numerous advances in genomics and bioinformatics, technological hurdles remain to examine host-microbe transcriptomics. Sometimes the transcriptome of either or both can be ascertained merely by generating more sequencing reads. However, many cases exist where bacterial mRNA needs to be enriched further to enable cost-effective sequencing of the pathogen or endosymbiont. While a suitable method is commercially available for mammalian samples of this type, development of such methods has languished for invertebrate samples...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Tatyana Goldberg, Burkhard Rost, Yana Bromberg
Type III secretion system is a key bacterial symbiosis and pathogenicity mechanism responsible for a variety of infectious diseases, ranging from food-borne illnesses to the bubonic plague. In many Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system transports effector proteins into host cells, converting resources to bacterial advantage. Here we introduce a computational method that identifies type III effectors by combining homology-based inference with de novo predictions, reaching up to 3-fold higher performance than existing tools...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Steen Sørensen, Vibeke Myrhøj, Thanh Ha Nguyen, Per Aaslo, Young Bae Hansen
INTRODUCTION: Glycodelin is a glycoprotein with different oligosaccharides that are responsible for its diverse biological functions in contraception and immunosuppression. Therefore, it is necessary to have access to adequate amounts of glycodelin with retained carbohydrate structure for functional studies because the carbohydrate part can be lacking or be insufficient in recombinant glycodelin from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell systems. METHODS AND RESULTS: Native glycodelin was purified from amniotic fluid by a series of affinity chromatography steps and had many glycosylated forms verified by mass spectrometry...
October 3, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Fernando Narciandi, Beatriz Fernandez-Fuertes, Ilaina Khairulzaman, Hanne Jahns, Deirdre King, Emma K Finlay, Ken H Mok, Sean Fair, Pat Lonergan, Cliona O'Farrelly, Kieran G Meade
β-Defensins are innate immune molecules, often described as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) because of their bactericidal activity and are now known to have diverse additional functions including in cell signalling, chemoattraction, immunoregulation and reproduction. In humans and primates, β-defensin (BD) 126 has been shown to regulate the ability of sperm to swim through cervical mucus and to protect sperm from attack by the female immune system during transit towards the oviduct. Bovine β-defensin 126 (BBD126) is the ortholog of human defensin 126, and here, computational analysis revealed significant conservation between BBD126 and other mammalian orthologs at the N-terminus, although extensive sequence differences were detected at the C-terminus, implying possible species-specific roles for this β-defensin in reproduction...
October 5, 2016: Biology of Reproduction
Alexandra Vergnes, Julie P M Viala, Rabah Ouadah-Tsabet, Bérengère Pocachard, Laurent Loiseau, Stéphane Méresse, Frédéric Barras, Laurent Aussel
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S)-containing proteins contribute to various biological processes, including redox reactions or regulation of gene expression. Living organisms have evolved by developing distinct biosynthetic pathways to assemble these clusters, including ISC (Iron Sulfur Cluster) and SUF (Sulfur mobilization). Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is an intracellular pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, from gastroenteritis to severe systemic diseases. Salmonella possesses all known prokaryotic systems to assemble Fe-S clusters, including ISC and SUF...
October 5, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"