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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919583/polyclonal-antibody-against-different-extracellular-subdomains-of-her2-induces-tumor-growth-inhibition-in-vitro
#1
Reza Hosseini Ghatar, Tahereh Soltantoyeh, Motahareh Bahadori, Jalal Khoshnoodi, Forough Golsaz Shirazi, Mahmood Jeddi Tehrani, Mohammad Mehdi Amiri, Fazel Shokri
BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) has a crucial role in several malignancies. The extracellular domain of HER2 (HER2-ECD) has been extensively employed as an important target in passive and active immunotherapy. Isolated recombinant prokaryotic HER2-ECD subdomains were previously found to be ineffective in inducing anti-tumor antibody response. OBJECTIVE: To employ recombinant eukaryotic HER2-ECD subdomains to raise anti-HER2 antibodies and determine their anti-tumor activity in vitro...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919416/identification-of-eukaryotic-udp-galactopyranose-mutase-inhibitors-using-the-thermofad-assay
#2
Julia S Martín Del Campo, Meital Eckshtain-Levi, Pablo Sobrado
Aspergillus fumigatus is a human pathogen responsible for deadly infections in immune-compromised patients. A potential strategy for treating A. fumigatus infections is by targeting the biosynthesis of cell wall components, such as galactofuranase, which is absent in humans. Galactofuranose biosynthesis is initiated by the flavoenzyme UDP-galactopyranose mutase (UGM), which converts UDP-galactopyranose (UDP-Galp) to UDP-galactofuranose (UDP-Galf). UGM requires the reduced form of the flavin for activity, which is obtained by reacting it with NADPH...
September 14, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917624/small-heat-shock-protein-27-an-effective-adjuvant-for-enhancement-of-hiv-1-nef-antigen-specific-immunity
#3
Alireza Milani, Azam Bolhassani, Sepideh Shahbazi, Fatemeh Motevalli, Seyed Mehdi Sadat, Sepehr Soleymani
Novel vaccine modalities have been designed to improve the efficiency of vaccines against HIV infections. In this way, the HIV-1 Nef protein has been known as an attractive antigenic candidate in therapeutic vaccine development. Moreover, the endogenous adjuvants such as heat shock proteins (HSPs) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) have been suggested effectively to induce antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. In this study, different Nef DNA and protein constructs were produced in eukaryotic and prokaryotic expression systems, and their immunostimulatory properties were evaluated using small heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and the HMGB1-derived peptide (Hp91) in a mouse model...
September 13, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916841/some-liked-it-hot-a-hypothesis-regarding-establishment-of-the-proto-mitochondrial-endosymbiont-during-eukaryogenesis
#4
Cory D Dunn
Eukaryotic cells are characterized by a considerable increase in subcellular compartmentalization when compared to prokaryotes. Most evidence suggests that the earliest eukaryotes consisted of mitochondria derived from an α-proteobacterial ancestor enclosed within an archaeal host cell. However, what benefits the archaeal host and the proto-mitochondrial endosymbiont might have obtained at the beginning of this endosymbiotic relationship remains unclear. In this work, I argue that heat generated by the proto-mitochondrion initially permitted an archaeon living at high temperatures to colonize a cooler environment, thereby removing apparent limitations on cellular complexity...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916813/genome-sequencing-reveals-metabolic-and-cellular-interdependence-in-an-amoeba-kinetoplastid-symbiosis
#5
Goro Tanifuji, Ugo Cenci, Daniel Moog, Samuel Dean, Takuro Nakayama, Vojtěch David, Ivan Fiala, Bruce A Curtis, Shannon J Sibbald, Naoko T Onodera, Morgan Colp, Pavel Flegontov, Jessica Johnson-MacKinnon, Michael McPhee, Yuji Inagaki, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Steven Kelly, Keith Gull, Julius Lukeš, John M Archibald
Endosymbiotic relationships between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells are common in nature. Endosymbioses between two eukaryotes are also known; cyanobacterium-derived plastids have spread horizontally when one eukaryote assimilated another. A unique instance of a non-photosynthetic, eukaryotic endosymbiont involves members of the genus Paramoeba, amoebozoans that infect marine animals such as farmed fish and sea urchins. Paramoeba species harbor endosymbionts belonging to the Kinetoplastea, a diverse group of flagellate protists including some that cause devastating diseases...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913418/unveiling-the-role-and-life-strategies-of-viruses-from-the-surface-to-the-dark-ocean
#6
Elena Lara, Dolors Vaqué, Elisabet Laia Sà, Julia A Boras, Ana Gomes, Encarna Borrull, Cristina Díez-Vives, Eva Teira, Massimo C Pernice, Francisca C Garcia, Irene Forn, Yaiza M Castillo, Aida Peiró, Guillem Salazar, Xosé Anxelu G Morán, Ramon Massana, Teresa S Catalá, Gian Marco Luna, Susana Agustí, Marta Estrada, Josep M Gasol, Carlos M Duarte
Viruses are a key component of marine ecosystems, but the assessment of their global role in regulating microbial communities and the flux of carbon is precluded by a paucity of data, particularly in the deep ocean. We assessed patterns in viral abundance and production and the role of viral lysis as a driver of prokaryote mortality, from surface to bathypelagic layers, across the tropical and subtropical oceans. Viral abundance showed significant differences between oceans in the epipelagic and mesopelagic, but not in the bathypelagic, and decreased with depth, with an average power-law scaling exponent of -1...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910862/effects-of-newly-synthesized-recombinant-human-amyloid-%C3%AE-complexes-and-poly-amyloid-%C3%AE-fibers-on-cell-apoptosis-and-cognitive-decline
#7
Soojin Park, Jae-Won Huh, Taekil Eom, Naeun Na, Youngjeon Lee, Ju-Sung Kim, Sun-Uk Kim, Insop Shim, Sang-Rae Lee, Ekyune Kim
The main pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is the deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain. Aβ has been widely used to mimic several aspects of Alzheimer's disease. However, several characteristics of amyloid-induced Alzheimer's disease pathology are not well established, especially in mice. The present study aimed to develop a new Alzheimer's disease model by investigating how amyloid beta can be effectively aggregated using prokaryotes and eukaryotes. To express the Aβ42 complex in HEK293 cells, we cloned the Aβ42 region repeatedly and incorporated the resulting construct into a eukaryotic expression vector...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904137/seasonal-variation-in-nutrient-utilization-shapes-gut-microbiome-structure-and-function-in-wild-giant-pandas
#8
Qi Wu, Xiao Wang, Yun Ding, Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Wei Wei, Shuai Ma, Li Yan, Lifeng Zhu, Fuwen Wei
Wild giant pandas use different parts of bamboo (shoots, leaves and stems) and different bamboo species at different times of the year. Their usage of bamboo can be classified temporally into a distinct leaf stage, shoot stage and transition stage. An association between this usage pattern and variation in the giant panda gut microbiome remains unknown. Here, we found associations using a gut metagenomic approach and nutritional analyses whereby diversity of the gut microbial community in the leaf and shoot stages was significantly different...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903076/role-of-human-dna2-hdna2-as-a-potential-target-for-cancer-and-other-diseases-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
Pan-Pan Jia, Muhammad Junaid, Yan-Bo Ma, Farooq Ahmad, Yong-Fang Jia, Wei-Guo Li, De-Sheng Pei
DNA nuclease/helicase 2 (DNA2), a multi-functional protein protecting the high fidelity of genomic transmission, plays critical roles in DNA replication and repair processes. In the maturation of Okazaki fragments, DNA2 acts synergistically with other enzymes to cleave the DNA-RNA primer flaps via different pathways. DNA2 is also involved in the stability of mitochondrial DNA and the maintenance of telomeres. Moreover, DNA2 potentially participates in controlling the cell cycle by repairing the DNA replication faults at main checkpoints...
September 6, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898905/taguchi-experimental-design-for-optimization-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-production-in-cho-cell-lines-and-comparing-its-biological-activity-with-prokaryotic-growth-hormone
#10
Zahra Sadat Aghili, Sayyed Hamid Zarkesh-Esfahani
Growth hormone deficiency results in growth retardation in children and the GH deficiency syndrome in adults and they need to receive recombinant-GH in order to rectify the GH deficiency symptoms. Mammalian cells have become the favorite system for production of recombinant proteins for clinical application compared to prokaryotic systems because of their capability for appropriate protein folding, assembly, post-translational modification and proper signal. However, production level in mammalian cells is generally low compared to prokaryotic hosts...
September 12, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895721/eukaryotic-ribosomal-expansion-segments-as-antimicrobial-targets
#11
Lizzette M Gómez Ramos, Natalya N Degtyareva, Nicholas A Kovacs, Stefany Y Holguin, Liuwei Jiang, Anton S Petrov, Marcin Biesiada, Michael Y Hu, Katarzyna J Purzycka, Dev Priya Arya, Loren Dean Williams
Diversity in eukaryotic rRNA structure and function offers possibilities of novel therapeutic targets. Unlike ribosomes of prokaryotes, eukaryotic ribosomes contain species-specific rRNA expansion segments (ESs) with idiosyncratic structures and functions that are essential and specific to some organisms. Here we investigate expansion segment 7 (ES7), one of the largest and most variable expansions of the eukaryotic ribosome. We hypothesize that ES7 of the pathogenic fungi Candida albicans (ES7CA) could be a prototypic drug target...
September 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892626/biomimetic-virulomics-for-capture-and-identification-of-cell-type-specific-effector-proteins
#12
John D Lapek, Ronnie H Fang, Xiaoli Wei, Pengyang Li, Bo Wang, Liangfang Zhang, David J Gonzalez
An unmet challenge in the study of disease is to accurately streamline the identification of important virulence factors. Traditional, genetically driven approaches miss biologically relevant markers due to discordance between the genome and proteome. Here, we developed a nanotechnology-enabled affinity enrichment strategy coupled with multiplexed quantitative proteomics, namely Biomimetic Virulomics, for successful identification of cell-type specific effector proteins of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens...
September 11, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889977/novel-organelles-with-elements-of-bacterial-and-eukaryotic-secretion-systems-weaponize-parasites-of-drosophila
#13
Mary Ellen Heavner, Johnny Ramroop, Gwenaelle Gueguen, Girish Ramrattan, Georgia Dolios, Michael Scarpati, Jonathan Kwiat, Sharmila Bhattacharya, Rong Wang, Shaneen Singh, Shubha Govind
The evolutionary success of parasitoid wasps, a highly diverse group of insects widely used in biocontrol, depends on a variety of life history strategies in conflict with those of their hosts [1]. Drosophila melanogaster is a natural host of parasitic wasps of the genus Leptopilina. Attack by L. boulardi (Lb), a specialist wasp to flies of the melanogaster group, activates NF-κB-mediated humoral and cellular immunity. Inflammatory blood cells mobilize and encapsulate Lb eggs and embryos [2-5]. L. heterotoma (Lh), a generalist wasp, kills larval blood cells and actively suppresses immune responses...
September 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889295/analysis-of-c-di-gmp-levels-synthesized-by-a-photoreceptor-protein-in-response-to-different-light-qualities-using-an-in-vitro-enzymatic-assay
#14
Veronika Angerer, Lars-Oliver Essen, Annegret Wilde
Diguanylate cyclases are enzymes that use two GTP molecules to produce one molecule cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP). This cyclic dinucleotide is an ubiquitous prokaryotic second messenger that controls a variety of cell functions. Several proteins have been described which contain a photoreceptor domain fused to a diguanylate cyclase. The cyanobacterial light sensor Cph2 is responsible for the blue-light induced synthesis of c-di-GMP in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for an in vitro enzymatic assay with a purified photoreceptor protein using light as the crucial reaction parameter for c-di-GMP synthesis...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882199/defining-the-architecture-of-the-core-machinery-for-the-assembly-of-fe-s-clusters-in-human-mitochondria
#15
Oleksandr Gakh, Wasantha Ranatunga, Belinda K Galeano, Douglas S Smith, James R Thompson, Grazia Isaya
Although Fe-S clusters may assemble spontaneously from elemental iron and sulfur in protein-free systems, the potential toxicity of free Fe(2+), Fe(3+), and S(2-) ions in aerobic environments underscores the requirement for specialized proteins to oversee the safe assembly of Fe-S clusters in living cells. Prokaryotes first developed multiprotein systems for Fe-S cluster assembly, from which mitochondria later derived their own system and became the main Fe-S cluster suppliers for eukaryotic cells. Early studies in yeast and human mitochondria indicated that Fe-S cluster assembly in eukaryotes is centered around highly conserved Fe-S proteins (human ISCU) that serve as scaffolds upon which new Fe-S clusters are assembled from (i) elemental sulfur, provided by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent cysteine desulfurase (human NFS1) and its stabilizing-binding partner (human ISD11), and (ii) elemental iron, provided by an iron-binding protein of the frataxin family (human FXN)...
2017: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876037/-expression-purification-stability-and-transduction-efficiency-of-gst-sod1-r9-fusion-protein
#16
Jianru Pan, Lunqiao Wu, Huocong He, Lijuan Chen, Ying Su, Lingling Li, Shutao Liu
The fusion of cell permeable peptide TAT and bifunctional antioxidant enzymes, GST (Glutathione sulfur transferase)-TAT-SOD1 (Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase), is an intracellular superoxide scavenger. Compared with SOD1-TAT, GST-TAT-SOD1 has better protective effect on oxidative damage but less transduction efficiency. A novel cell permeable bifunctional antioxidant enzymes with the fusion of GST, SOD1 and polyarginine R9 was constructed for higher transduction efficiency. The full nucleotide sequence of SOD1-R9 was synthesized and inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T-1 with the GST tag...
May 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875938/secretion-systems-used-by-bacteria-to-subvert-host-functions
#17
Chiara Rapisarda, Rémi Fronzes
In this review we examine the use of secretion systems by bacteria to subvert host functions. Bacteria have evolved multiple systems to interact with and overcome their eukaryotic host and other prokaryotes. Secretion systems are required for the release of several effectors through the bacterial membrane(s) into the extracellular space or directly into the cytoplasm of the host. We review the secretion systems of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and describe briefly the structural composition of the seven secretion systems that have been associated with increased virulence through subversion of host functions...
September 6, 2017: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875161/crystal-structures-of-a-zip-zinc-transporter-reveal-a-binuclear-metal-center-in-the-transport-pathway
#18
Tuo Zhang, Jian Liu, Matthias Fellner, Chi Zhang, Dexin Sui, Jian Hu
Zrt/Irt-like proteins (ZIPs) play fundamental roles in metal metabolism/homeostasis and are broadly involved in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The lack of high-resolution structure of the ZIPs hinders understanding of the metal transport mechanism. We report two crystal structures of a prokaryotic ZIP in lipidic cubic phase with bound metal substrates (Cd(2+) at 2.7 Å and Zn(2+) at 2.4 Å). The structures revealed a novel 3+2+3TM architecture and an inward-open conformation occluded at the extracellular side...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874565/virulence-protein-vird5-of-agrobacterium-tumefaciens-binds-to-kinetochores-in-host-cells-via-an-interaction-with-spt4
#19
Xiaorong Zhang, G Paul H van Heusden, Paul J J Hooykaas
The bacterium Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes crown gall tumor formation in plants. During infection the bacteria translocate an oncogenic piece of DNA (transferred DNA, T-DNA) into plant cells at the infection site. A number of virulence proteins are cotransported into host cells concomitantly with the T-DNA to effectuate transformation. Using yeast as a model host, we find that one of these proteins, VirD5, localizes to the centromeres/kinetochores in the nucleus of the host cells by its interaction with the conserved protein Spt4...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871175/fluorescent-crispr-adaptation-reporter-for-rapid-quantification-of-spacer-acquisition
#20
Lina Amlinger, Mirthe Hoekzema, E Gerhart H Wagner, Sanna Koskiniemi, Magnus Lundgren
CRISPR-Cas systems are adaptive prokaryotic immune systems protecting against horizontally transferred DNA or RNA such as viruses and other mobile genetic elements. Memory of past invaders is stored as spacers in CRISPR loci in a process called adaptation. Here we developed a novel assay where spacer integration results in fluorescence, enabling detection of memory formation in single cells and quantification of as few as 0.05% cells with expanded CRISPR arrays in a bacterial population. Using this fluorescent CRISPR Adaptation Reporter (f-CAR), we quantified adaptation of the two CRISPR arrays of the type I-E CRISPR-Cas system in Escherichia coli, and confirmed that more integration events are targeted to CRISPR-II than to CRISPR-I...
September 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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