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prokaryotic cell

Eri Uemura, Tatsuya Niwa, Shintaro Minami, Kazuhiro Takemoto, Satoshi Fukuchi, Kodai Machida, Hiroaki Imataka, Takuya Ueda, Motonori Ota, Hideki Taguchi
A subset of the proteome is prone to aggregate formation, which is prevented by chaperones in the cell. To investigate whether the basic principle underlying the aggregation process is common in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, we conducted a large-scale aggregation analysis of ~500 cytosolic budding yeast proteins using a chaperone-free reconstituted translation system, and compared the obtained data with that of ~3,000 Escherichia coli proteins reported previously. Although the physicochemical properties affecting the aggregation propensity were generally similar in yeast and E...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pamela A Santibáñez, Olivia J Maselli, Mark C Greenwood, Mackenzie M Grieman, Eric S Saltzman, Joseph R McConnell, John C Priscu
We present the first long-term, highly resolved prokaryotic cell concentration record obtained from a polar ice core. This record, obtained from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide (WD) ice core, spanned from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the early Holocene (EH) and showed distinct fluctuations in prokaryotic cell concentration coincident with major climatic states. The time series also revealed a ~1,500-year periodicity with greater amplitude during the Last Deglaciation (LDG). Higher prokaryotic cell concentration and lower variability occurred during the LGM and EH than during the LDG...
January 11, 2018: Global Change Biology
Shigenobu Shibata, Akiko Furutani
Circadian clock system has been widely maintained in many spices from prokaryote to mammals. "Circadian" means "approximately day" in Latin, thus circadian rhythm means about 24 hour rhythms. The earth revolves once every 24 hours, and our circadian system has been developed for adjusting to this 24 hour cycles, to get sun light information for getting their foods or for alive in birds or mammals. We have two different circadian systems so-called main oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus, and local oscillator located in the various peripheral organ tissues such as liver, kidney and skeletal muscle...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Nahideh Mazaheri, Abdolhossein Dalimi, Majid Pirestani, Farnoosh Jameie, Mehdi Mohebali, Mohamad Bagher Rokni
Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), as a zoonotic disease cause to health threat and economic losses. Despite implemented control programs, few countries have been able to decrease or eliminate this infection. Vaccination of the intermediate host offers an additional strategy to control the parasite transmission and EG95 antigen is considered more than the others in the vaccine issue. According to the high protection induced by the EG95 recombinant vaccine, this study was designed to construct recombinant plasmid formulation of EG95 antigen...
October 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
Jung-Ung An, Yong-Seok Song, Kyoung-Rok Kim, Yoon-Joo Ko, Do-Young Yoon, Deok-Kun Oh
Hepoxilins (HXs) and trioxilins (TrXs) are involved in physiological processes such as inflammation, insulin secretion and pain perception in human. They are metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, formed by 12-lipoxygenase (LOX) and epoxide hydrolase (EH) expressed by mammalian cells. Here, we identify ten types of HXs and TrXs, produced by the prokaryote Myxococcus xanthus, of which six types are new, namely, HXB5, HXD3, HXE3, TrXB5, TrXD3 and TrXE3...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
Christian Winter, Nicole Köstner, Carl-Philip Kruspe, Damaris Urban, Simone Muck, Thomas Reinthaler, Gerhard J Herndl
In aquatic habitats, viral lysis of prokaryotic cells lowers the overall efficiency of the microbial loop, by which dissolved organic carbon is transfered to higher trophic levels. Mixing of water masses in the dark ocean occurs on a global scale and may have far reaching consequences for the different prokaryotic and virus communities found in these waters by altering the environmental conditions these communities experience. We hypothesize that mixing of deep ocean water masses enhances the lytic activity of viruses infecting prokaryotes...
January 8, 2018: Ecology
Benjamin Böttinger, Florian Semmler, Karolin Zerulla, Katharina Ludt, Jörg Soppa
Bacteria were long assumed to be monoploid, maintaining one copy of a circular chromosome. In recent years it became obvious that the majority of species in several phylogenetic groups of prokaryotes are oligoploid or polyploid. The present study aimed at investigating the ploidy inGram-positive aerobic endospore-forming bacteria. First, the numbers of origins and termini of the widely-used laboratory strain Bacillus subtilis 168 were quantified. The strain was found to be mero-oligoploid in exponential phase (5...
January 5, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Huifang Wang, Zhangjiang He, Linli Luo, Xin Zhao, Zhuoyue Lu, Tingying Luo, Min Li, Yongjun Zhang
The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) belong to the NADP-dependent oxidoreductase superfamily, which play important roles in various physiological functions in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, many AKR superfamily members remain uncharacterized. Here, a downstream target gene of the HOG1 MAPK pathways coding for an aldo-keto reductase, named Bbakr1, was characterized in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana. Bbakr1 expression increased in response to osmotic and salt stressors, and oxidative and heavy metal (chromium) stress...
January 3, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Kai Chen, Yang Mu, Shanshan Jian, Xiaoxia Zang, Qing Chen, Weibin Jia, Zhuang Ke, Yanzheng Gao, Jiandong Jiang
The compound 3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzoate (DBHB) is both anthropogenically released into and naturally produced in the environment, and its environmental fate is of great concern. Aerobic and anaerobic reductive dehalogenations are the only two reported pathways for DBHB catabolism. In this study, a new oxidative-decarboxylation pathway for DBHB catabolism was identified in a DBHB-utilizing strain of Pigmentiphaga sp. H8. The genetic determinants underlying this pathway were elucidated based on comparative transcriptome analysis and subsequent experimental validation...
January 5, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Mariana I Costa, Micaela Cerletti, Roberto A Paggi, Christian Trötschel, Rosana De Castro, Ansgar Poetsch, Maria I Gimenez
Rhomboids are conserved intramembrane serine proteases involved in cell signaling processes. Their role in prokaryotes is scarcely known and remains to be investigated in Archaea. We previously constructed a rhomboid homolog deletion mutant (ΔrhoII) in Haloferax volcanii, which showed reduced motility, increased novobiocin sensitivity and an N- glycosylation defect. To address the impact of rhoII deletion on H. volcanii physiology, the proteomes of mutant and parental strains were compared by shotgun proteomics...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
Stoimir Kolarević, Dragana Milovanović, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Karolina Sunjog, Rajko Martinović, Jelena Đorđević, Irena Novaković, Dušan Sladić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
In this study, mutagenic and genotoxic potential of anti-tumor compounds avarol, avarone, and its derivatives 3'-methoxyavarone, 4'-(methylamino)avarone and 3'-(methylamino)avarone was evaluated and compared to cytostatics commonly used in chemotherapy (5-fluorouracil, etoposid, and cisplatin). Mutagenic potential of selected hydroquinone and quinones was assessed in prokaryotic model by the SOS/umuC assay in Salmonella typhimurium TA1535/pSK1002. Genotoxic potential was also assessed in eukaryotic models using comet assay in human fetal lung cell line (MRC-5), human adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A549), and in human peripheral blood cells (HPBC)...
January 4, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
J J David Ho, Nathan C Balukoff, Grissel Cervantes, Petrice D Malcolm, Jonathan R Krieger, Stephen Lee
The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5B (eIF5B) is a homolog of IF2, an ancient translation factor that enables initiator methionine-tRNAiMet (met-tRNAiMet) loading on prokaryotic ribosomes. While it can be traced back to the last universal common ancestor, eIF5B is curiously dispensable in modern aerobic yeast and mammalian cells. Here, we show that eIF5B is an essential element of the cellular hypoxic cap-dependent protein synthesis machinery. System-wide interrogation of dynamic translation machineries by MATRIX (mass spectrometry analysis of active translation factors using ribosome density fractionation and isotopic labeling experiments) demonstrated augmented eIF5B activity in hypoxic translating ribosomes...
January 2, 2018: Cell Reports
Amanda J Scopelliti, Josep Font, Robert J Vandenberg, Olga Boudker, Renae M Ryan
Cancer cells undergo a shift in metabolism where they become reliant on nutrients such as the amino-acid glutamine. Glutamine enters the cell via the alanine/serine/cysteine transporter 2 (ASCT2) that is upregulated in several cancers to maintain an increased supply of this nutrient and are therefore an attractive target in cancer therapeutic development. ASCT2 belongs to the glutamate transporter (SLC1A) family but is the only transporter in this family able to transport glutamine. The structural basis for glutamine selectivity of ASCT2 is unknown...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Dharam Pal, Rajan K Tripathy, Madaka Surya Teja, Mukesh Kumar, Uttam Chand Banerjee, Abhay H Pande
Recombinant human interferon-β (rhIFN-β), a therapeutic protein, is produced using both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems. However, instability of recombinant plasmid during cultivation of Escherichia coli results in low yield of the recombinant proteins. In addition, use of antibiotics during the cultivation imposes a major concern. In this study, we have compared the expression yield of rhIFN-β in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and E coli SE1 cells. Gene-encoding rhIFN-β was expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3) and SE1 cells and the cultivation of recombinant E...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
Evgeny Smirnov, Matúš Hornáček, Tomáš Vacík, Dušan Cmarko, Ivan Raška
The large number of works based on new single-cell and single-gene techniques show that individual genes can be transcribed in short bursts or pulses accompanied by changes in pulsing frequencies. Since so many examples of such discontinuous or fluctuating transcription have been found from prokaryotes to mammals, it now seems to be a common mode of gene expression. In this review we discuss the occurrence of the transcriptional fluctuations, the techniques used for their detection, their putative causes, kinetic characteristics, and probable physiological significance...
December 29, 2017: Nucleus
Malte C Grüner, Silke Niemann, Andreas Faust, Cristian A Strassert
Herein we present a comparative study about the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (Gram-positive model) and Escherichia coli (Gram-negative model) employing a neutral and a dicationic axially functionalized SiIV phthalocyanine. Depending on the charge of the siloxane moiety (neutral monosaccharide or cationic ammonium salt), different interactions with the bacteria were observed and a differential photoinactivation was facilitated. The intensity of the fluorescence labelling correlated with the photoinactivation of the two types of bacteria: while the neutral species only significantly affected the Gram-positive cells, we observed that the positively charged photosensitizer interacted both with the Gram-positive and with the Gram-negative models...
December 29, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Abhishek Kanyal, Mukul Rawat, Pratima Gurung, Deepak Choubey, Krishanpal Anamika, Krishanpal Karmodiya
Malaria parasites can readily sense and adapt to environmental changes, thus making the control and eradication of this disease difficult. Molecular studies have unraveled a very tightly coordinated transcriptional machinery governed by complex regulatory mechanisms including chromatin modification and spatiotemporal compartmentalization. Histone modifying enzymes play key roles in the regulation of chromatin modification and gene expression, which are associated with cell cycle progression, antigenic variation and immune evasion...
December 28, 2017: FEBS Journal
Thais Azevedo Enoki, Isabela Moreira-Silva, Esteban N Lorenzon, Eduardo Maffud Maffud Cilli, Katia Regina Perez, Karin A Riske, M Teresa Lamy
Considering the known different mode of action of antimicrobial peptides in zwitterionic and anionic cell membranes, the present work compares the action of the antimicrobial peptide K0-W6-Hya1 (KIFGAIWPLALGALKNLIK-NH2) with zwitterionic and negatively charged model membranes, namely, liposomes composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membranes, and a mixture of the two. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), steady state fluorescence of the Trp residue, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and the measurement of the leakage of an entrapped fluorescent dye (carboxyfluorescein, CF) were performed with large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs)...
December 28, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Joseph Conti, Marissa G Viola, Jodi L Camberg
Cell division in prokaryotes initiates with assembly of the Z-ring at midcell, which, in Escherichia coli, is tethered to the inner leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane through a direct interaction with FtsA, a widely conserved actin homolog. The Z-ring is comprised of polymers of tubulin-like FtsZ and has been suggested to provide the force for constriction. Here, we demonstrate that FtsA exerts force on membranes causing redistribution of membrane architecture, robustly hydrolyzes ATP and directly engages FtsZ polymers in a reconstituted system...
December 27, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
Charlie Y Mo, Matthew J Culyba, Trevor Selwood, Jeffrey M Kubiak, Zachary M Hostetler, Anthony J Jurewicz, Paul M Keller, Andrew J Pope, Amy Quinn, Jessica L Schneck, Katherine L Widdowson, Rahul M Kohli
The RecA/LexA axis of the bacterial DNA damage (SOS) response is a promising, yet non-traditional drug target. The SOS response is initiated upon genotoxic stress, when RecA, a DNA damage sensor, induces LexA, the SOS repressor, to undergo autoproteolysis, thereby de-repressing downstream genes that can mediate DNA repair and accelerate mutagenesis. As genetic inhibition of the SOS response sensitizes bacteria to DNA damaging antibiotics and decreases acquired resistance, inhibitors of the RecA/LexA axis could potentiate our current antibiotic arsenal...
December 24, 2017: ACS Infectious Diseases
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