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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532058/interaction-of-nanostructured-tio2-biointerfaces-with-stem-cells-and-biofilm-forming-bacteria
#1
Mukta Kulkarni, Ita Junkar, Petr Humpolíček, Zdenka Capáková, Katarzyna Anna Radaszkiewicz, Nikola Mikušová, Jiří Pacherník, Marián Lehocký, Aleš Iglič, Markéta Hanáčková, Miran Mozetič
Nanostructured TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) of diameters from 15 to 100nm were fabricated by an electrochemical anodization process. Biofilm-positive strains of Bacillus cereus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa behaved similarly on all TiO2 NTs as well as on native titanium (Ti) foil. The adhesion and growth of mesenchymal stem cells (MSc), embryonic stem cells (ESc), and pure cardiomyocytes derived from ESc exhibited significant differences. MSc as well as ESc were, in contrast to cardiomyocytes, able to adhere, and grow on TiO2 NTs...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527322/arsenic-biotransformation-by-a-cyanobacterium-nostoc-sp-pcc-7120
#2
Xi-Mei Xue, Yu Yan, Chan Xiong, Georg Raber, Kevin Francesconi, Ting Pan, Jun Ye, Yong-Guan Zhu
Nostoc sp. PCC 7120 (Nostoc), a typical filamentous cyanobacterium ubiquitous in aquatic system, is recognized as a model organism to study prokaryotic cell differentiation and nitrogen fixation. In this study, Nostoc cells incubated with arsenite (As(III)) for two weeks were extracted with dichloromethane/methanol (DCM/MeOH) and the extract was partitioned between water and DCM. Arsenic species in aqueous and DCM layers were determined using high performance liquid chromatography - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS/ESIMSMS)...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#3
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524871/in-situ-light-responses-of-the-proteorhodopsin-bearing-antarctic-sea-ice-bacterium-psychroflexus-torques
#4
David J Burr, Andrew Martin, Elizabeth W Maas, Ken G Ryan
Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a wide-spread protein found in many marine prokaryotes. PR allows for the potential conversion of solar energy to ATP, possibly assisting in cellular growth and survival during periods of high environmental stress. PR utilises either blue or green light through a single amino acid substitution. We incubated the PR-bearing bacterium Psychroflexus torquis 50 cm deep within Antarctic sea ice for 13 days, exposing cultures to diurnal fluctuations in light and temperature. Enhanced growth occurred most prominently in cultures incubated under irradiance levels of ∼50 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), suggesting PR provides a strong selective advantage...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523919/editing-plants-for-virus-resistance-using-crispr-cas
#5
J C Green, J S Hu
This minireview summarizes recent advancements using the clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats-associated nuclease systems (CRISPR-Cas) derived from prokaryotes to breed plants resistant to DNA and RNA viruses. The CRISPR-Cas system represents a powerful tool able to edit and insert novel traits into plants precisely at chosen loci offering enormous advantages to classical breeding. Approaches to engineering plant virus resistance in both transgenic and non-transgenic plants are discussed. Iterations of the CRISPR-Cas system, FnCas9 and C2c2 capable of editing RNA in eukaryotic cells offer a particular advantage for providing resistance to RNA viruses which represent the great majority of known plant viruses...
2017: Acta Virologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522439/interpreting-the-functional-role-of-a-novel-interaction-motif-in-prokaryotic-sodium-channels
#6
REVIEW
Altin Sula, B A Wallace
Voltage-gated sodium channels enable the translocation of sodium ions across cell membranes and play crucial roles in electrical signaling by initiating the action potential. In humans, mutations in sodium channels give rise to several neurological and cardiovascular diseases, and hence they are targets for pharmaceutical drug developments. Prokaryotic sodium channel crystal structures have provided detailed views of sodium channels, which by homology have suggested potentially important functionally related structural features in human sodium channels...
May 18, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522157/antiviral-goes-viral-harnessing-crispr-cas9-to-combat-viruses-in-humans
#7
REVIEW
Jasper Adriaan Soppe, Robert Jan Lebbink
The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are RNA-guided sequence-specific prokaryotic antiviral immune systems. In prokaryotes, small RNA molecules guide Cas effector endonucleases to invading foreign genetic elements in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in DNA cleavage by the endonuclease upon target binding. A rewired CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR/Cas has also been harnessed to target human pathogenic viruses as a potential new antiviral strategy...
May 15, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513556/microscale-quantitative-analysis-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-in-prokaryotes-using-idms
#8
Mariana Itzel Velasco Alvarez, Angela Ten Pierick, Patricia T N van Dam, Reza Maleki Seifar, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, S Aljoscha Wahl
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is an interesting biopolymer for replacing petroleum-based plastics, its biological production is performed in natural and engineered microorganisms. Current metabolic engineering approaches rely on high-throughput strain construction and screening. Analytical procedures have to be compatible with the small scale and speed of these approaches. Here, we present a method based on isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and propanolysis extraction of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) from an Escherichia coli strain engineered for PHB production...
May 17, 2017: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512703/metal-homeostasis-in-bacteria-the-role-of-arsr-smtb-family-of-transcriptional-repressors-in-combating-varying-metal-concentrations-in-the-environment
#9
REVIEW
Rudra P Saha, Saikat Samanta, Surajit Patra, Diganta Sarkar, Abinit Saha, Manoj Kumar Singh
Bacterial infections cause severe medical problems worldwide, resulting in considerable death and loss of capital. With the ever-increasing rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the lack of development of new antibiotics, research on metal-based antimicrobial therapy has now gained pace. Metal ions are essential for survival, but can be highly toxic to organisms if their concentrations are not strictly controlled. Through evolution, bacteria have acquired complex metal-management systems that allow them to acquire metals that they need for survival in different challenging environments while evading metal toxicity...
May 16, 2017: Biometals: An International Journal on the Role of Metal Ions in Biology, Biochemistry, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510221/development-of-a-dual-expression-vector-facilitated-with-selection-free-pcr-recombination-cloning-strategy
#10
Liting Cao, Yancheng Zhou, Lin Huang, Shiqi Dong, Yue Ma
The conventional procedure for the construction of recombinant expression vector of a target gene includes PCR cloning and restriction enzyme mediated subcloning, which is time-consuming and sometimes troublesome because of the inefficiency of ligation. A variety of ligase-independent PCR cloning strategies have been developed, but they either involve complicated PCR procedures or need other DNA modifying enzymes. In this study, we report the design, and construction of an omnipotent expression vector pOmni, with which a target gene can be easily cloned through innovative selection-free PCR recombination cloning strategy with only one pair of primer and two times of PCR in one work day, without using any restriction enzymes, ligase and other DNA modifying enzymes...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508168/distinct-histone-modifications-modulate-defb1-expression-in-human-vaginal-keratinocytes-in-response-to-lactobacillus-spp
#11
Jaehyouk Lee, Ara Jang, Jin Wook Kim, Jun Hyun Han, Byung Hee Chun, Hye Su Jung, Che Ok Jeon, Soon Chul Myung
Vaginal commensal lactobacilli are considered to contribute significantly to the control of vaginal microbiota by competing with other microflora for adherence to the vaginal epithelium and by producing antimicrobial compounds. However, the molecular mechanisms of symbiotic prokaryotic-eukaryotic communication in the vaginal ecosystem remain poorly understood. Here, we showed that both DNA methylation and histone modifications were associated with expression of the DEFB1 gene, which encodes the antimicrobial peptide human β-defensin-1, in vaginal keratinocyte VK2/E6E7 cells...
May 15, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508135/adaptations-of-archaeal-and-bacterial-membranes-to-variations-in-temperature-ph-and-pressure
#12
REVIEW
Melvin F Siliakus, John van der Oost, Servé W M Kengen
The cytoplasmic membrane of a prokaryotic cell consists of a lipid bilayer or a monolayer that shields the cellular content from the environment. In addition, the membrane contains proteins that are responsible for transport of proteins and metabolites as well as for signalling and energy transduction. Maintenance of the functionality of the membrane during changing environmental conditions relies on the cell's potential to rapidly adjust the lipid composition of its membrane. Despite the fundamental chemical differences between bacterial ester lipids and archaeal ether lipids, both types are functional under a wide range of environmental conditions...
May 15, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506354/-immunoprotective-effect-of-combined-pneumococcal-endopeptidase-o-and-pneumococcal-surface-adhesin-a-vaccines-against-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection
#13
Jing Zhang, Ya-Li Cui, Yong-Mei Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prokaryotic expression of proteins pneumococcal endopeptidase O (PepO) and pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) in Streptococcus pneumoniae and their immunoprotective effect as vaccine candidate proteins. METHODS: Specific primers of target gene fragments were designed, and then PCR amplification was performed to establish recombinant plasmids pET28a(+)-pepO and pET28a(+)-psaA, which were transformed into host cells, Escherichia coli BL21 and DE3, respectively, to induce expression...
May 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504929/evolution-of-an-intricate-j-protein-network-driving-protein-disaggregation-in-eukaryotes
#14
Nadinath B Nillegoda, Antonia Stank, Duccio Malinverni, Niels Alberts, Anna Szlachcic, Alessandro Barducci, Paolo De Los Rios, Rebecca C Wade, Bernd Bukau
Hsp70 participates in a broad spectrum of protein folding processes extending from nascent chain folding to protein disaggregation. This versatility in function is achieved through a diverse family of J-protein cochaperones that select substrates for Hsp70. Substrate selection is further tuned by transient complexation between different classes of J-proteins, which expands the range of protein aggregates targeted by metazoan Hsp70 for disaggregation. We assessed the prevalence and evolutionary conservation of J-protein complexation and cooperation in disaggregation...
May 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503091/natural-compounds-as-anticancer-agents-targeting-dna-topoisomerases
#15
REVIEW
Chetan Kumar Jain, Hemanta Kumar Majumder, Susanta Roychoudhury
DNA topoisomerases are important cellular enzymes found in almost all types of living cells (eukaryotic and prokaryotic). These enzymes are essential for various DNA metabolic processes e.g. replication, transcription, recombination, chromosomal decatenation etc. These enzymes are important molecular drug targets and inhibitors of these enzymes are widely used as effective anticancer and antibacterial drugs. However, topoisomerase inhibitors have some therapeutic limitations and they exert serious side effects during cancer chemotherapy...
February 2017: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502977/the-evolutionary-significance-of-polyploidy
#16
REVIEW
Yves Van de Peer, Eshchar Mizrachi, Kathleen Marchal
Polyploidy, or the duplication of entire genomes, has been observed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, and in somatic and germ cells. The consequences of polyploidization are complex and variable, and they differ greatly between systems (clonal or non-clonal) and species, but the process has often been considered to be an evolutionary 'dead end'. Here, we review the accumulating evidence that correlates polyploidization with environmental change or stress, and that has led to an increased recognition of its short-term adaptive potential...
May 15, 2017: Nature Reviews. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501994/scanning-electron-microscopy-sample-preparation-and-imaging
#17
Jenny Ngoc Tran Nguyen, Amanda M Harbison
Scanning electron microscopes allow us to reach magnifications of 20-130,000× and resolve compositional and topographical images with intense detail. These images are created by bombarding a sample with electrons in a focused manner to generate a black and white image from the electrons that bounce off of the sample. The electrons are detected using positively charged detectors. Scanning electron microscopy permits three-dimensional imaging of desiccated specimens or wet cells and tissues by using variable pressure chambers...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500535/reconstitution-of-protein-dynamics-involved-in-bacterial-cell-division
#18
Martin Loose, Katja Zieske, Petra Schwille
Even simple cells like bacteria have precisely regulated cellular anatomies, which allow them to grow, divide and to respond to internal or external cues with high fidelity. How spatial and temporal intracellular organization in prokaryotic cells is achieved and maintained on the basis of locally interacting proteins still remains largely a mystery. Bulk biochemical assays with purified components and in vivo experiments help us to approach key cellular processes from two opposite ends, in terms of minimal and maximal complexity...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500532/the-structure-function-and-roles-of-the-archaeal-escrt-apparatus
#19
Rachel Y Samson, Megan J Dobro, Grant J Jensen, Stephen D Bell
Although morphologically resembling bacteria, archaea constitute a distinct domain of life with a closer affiliation to eukaryotes than to bacteria. This similarity is seen in the machineries for a number of essential cellular processes, including DNA replication and gene transcription. Perhaps surprisingly, given their prokaryotic morphology, some archaea also possess a core cell division apparatus that is related to that involved in the final stages of membrane abscission in vertebrate cells, the ESCRT machinery...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500531/tubulin-like-proteins-in-prokaryotic-dna-positioning
#20
Gero Fink, Christopher H S Aylett
A family of tubulin-related proteins (TubZs) has been identified in prokaryotes as being important for the inheritance of virulence plasmids of several pathogenic Bacilli and also being implicated in the lysogenic life cycle of several bacteriophages. Cell biological studies and reconstitution experiments revealed that TubZs function as prokaryotic cytomotive filaments, providing one-dimensional motive forces. Plasmid-borne TubZ filaments most likely transport plasmid centromeric complexes by depolymerisation, pulling on the plasmid DNA, in vitro...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
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