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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231673/-changes-of-resistant-phenotype-and-crispr-cas-system-of-four-shigella-strains-passaged-for-90-times-without-antibiotics
#1
B Zhang, L J Hong, G C Duan, W J Liang, H Y Yang, Y L Xi
Objective: To explore the stability of resistant phenotypes and changes of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) gene system on four Shigella strains in the absence of antibiotics. Methods: Four clinical isolated Shigella strains that resistant to different antibiotics were consecutive passaged for 90 times without antibiotics. Agar dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of Shigella strains. After sequence analysis with PCR, CRISPR Finder and Clustal X 2...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231670/-factors-associated-with-marital-status-among-spouse-after-diagnosed-in-newly-reported-hiv-cases-in-china-2014
#2
J Li, J Xu, H L Tang, J Han, Y R Mao
Objective: To analyze the factors associated with divorce or separation when one of the spouse diagnosed and newly reported as HIV positive, in China. Methods: Data from the Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Response Information Management System, by December 31, 2015 were used for collection on newly reported HIV cases regarding their baseline information in 2014 and follow-up within one year, among couples and above 18 year olds. HIV cases were divided into divorce/separation group and married group according to their marriage dynamics in one year after being diagnosed as HIV positive...
February 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231639/cell-cycle-rna-regulons-coordinating-early-lymphocyte-development
#3
REVIEW
Alison Galloway, Martin Turner
Lymphocytes undergo dynamic changes in gene expression as they develop from progenitor cells lacking antigen receptors, to mature cells that are prepared to mount immune responses. While transcription factors have established roles in lymphocyte development, they act in concert with post-transcriptional and post-translational regulators to determine the proteome. Furthermore, the post-transcriptional regulation of RNA regulons consisting of mRNAs whose protein products act cooperatively allows RNA binding proteins to exert their effects at multiple points in a pathway...
February 23, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231548/spatiotemporal-exposome-dynamics-of-soil-lead-and-children-s-blood-lead-pre-and-ten-years-post-hurricane-katrina-lead-and-other-metals-on-public-and-private-properties-in-the-city-of-new-orleans-louisiana-u-s-a
#4
Howard W Mielke, Christopher R Gonzales, Eric T Powell, Paul W Mielke
BACKGROUND: Anthropogenic re-distribution of lead (Pb) principally through its use in gasoline additives and lead-based paints have transformed the urban exposome. This unique study tracks urban-scale soil Pb (SPb) and blood Pb (BPb) responses of children living in public and private communities in New Orleans before and ten years after Hurricane Katrina (29 August 2005). OBJECTIVES: To compare and evaluate associations of pre- and ten years post-Katrina SPb and children's BPb on public and private residential census tracts in the core and outer areas of New Orleans, and to examine correlations between SPb and nine other soil metals...
February 20, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231508/regulating-dynamic-signaling-between-hematopoietic-stem-cells-and-niche-cells-via-a-hydrogel-matrix
#5
Bhushan P Mahadik, Narayanan A K Bharadwaj, Randy H Ewoldt, Brendan A C Harley
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in unique bone marrow niches and are influenced by signals from surrounding cells, the extracellular matrix (ECM), ECM-bound or diffusible biomolecules. Here we describe the use of a three-dimensional hydrogel to alter the balance of HSC-generated autocrine feedback and paracrine signals generated by co-cultured niche-associated cells. We report shifts in HSC proliferation rate and fate specification in the presence of lineage positive (Lin(+)) niche cells. Hydrogels promoting autocrine feedback enhanced expansion of early hematopoietic progenitors while paracrine signals from Lin(+) cells increased myeloid differentiation...
February 14, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231498/bone-specific-poly-ethylene-sodium-phosphate-bearing-biodegradable-nanoparticles
#6
Yuya Hirano, Yasuhiko Iwasaki
Chemotherapy is the most reliable treatment for osteoporosis and osseous metastases. To facilitate better drug delivery for bone treatments, a novel preparation of polymeric nanoparticles with high affinity to bone has been prepared. Two-step synthesis of cholesteryl-functionalized poly(ethylene sodium phosphate) (Ch-PEPn·Na) was performed via ring-opening polymerization of cyclic phosphoesters and the demethylation. The molecular weight of Ch-PEPn·Na could be well controlled by changing the ratio of cholesterol and cyclic phosphoesters...
February 16, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231490/lipid-droplet-growth-regulation-of-a-dynamic-organelle
#7
REVIEW
David Barneda, Mark Christian
Intracellular lipid droplets (LDs) are remarkably dynamic and complex organelles that enact regulated storage and release of lipids to fulfil their fundamental roles in energy metabolism, membrane synthesis and provision of lipid-derived signaling molecules. Although small LDs are observed in all types of eukaryotic cells, it is adipocytes that present the widest range of sizes up to the massive unilocular droplet of a white adipocyte. Our knowledge of the proteins and associated processes that control LD dynamics is improving...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231489/moving-and-positioning-the-endolysosomal-system
#8
REVIEW
Juan S Bonifacino, Jacques Neefjes
The endolysosomal system is extremely dynamic, yet highly organized. The spatio-temporal distribution of endolysosomal organelles depends on transport driven by microtubule motors such as kinesins and dynein, and by actin-based myosin motors. It has recently become appreciated that interactions with motors are controlled by contacts with other organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER also controls the concentration of endolysosomal organelles in the perinuclear area, as well as their fission and fusion, through a complex system of tethering proteins...
February 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231471/pathogenic-potential-and-virulence-genotypes-of-intestinal-and-faecal-isolates-of-porcine-post-weaning-enteropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#9
Anna Malik, Béla Nagy, Renáta Kugler, Ama Szmolka
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) are frequent causes of diarrhoea in infants and in young mammals by inducing attaching effacing (AE) lesions of the intestinal epithelium. EPEC bacteria have also been implicated in cases of porcine post-weaning diarrhoea but their pathogenicity for conventional weaned pigs remains less elucidated. This present study investigates differences in pathogenic potential and virulence genotypes of intestinal and faecal isolates of EPEC from newly-weaned pigs. For this we inoculated ligated ileal loops of four weeks old weaned pigs to assess EPEC adherence to enterocytes by histology and immunohistology...
February 9, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231468/parkinson-sac-domain-mutation-in-synaptojanin-1-impairs-clathrin-uncoating-at-synapses-and-triggers-dystrophic-changes-in-dopaminergic-axons
#10
Mian Cao, Yumei Wu, Ghazaleh Ashrafi, Amber J McCartney, Heather Wheeler, Eric A Bushong, Daniela Boassa, Mark H Ellisman, Timothy A Ryan, Pietro De Camilli
Synaptojanin 1 (SJ1) is a major presynaptic phosphatase that couples synaptic vesicle endocytosis to the dephosphorylation of PI(4,5)P2, a reaction needed for the shedding of endocytic factors from their membranes. While the role of SJ1's 5-phosphatase module in this process is well recognized, the contribution of its Sac phosphatase domain, whose preferred substrate is PI4P, remains unclear. Recently a homozygous mutation in its Sac domain was identified in early-onset parkinsonism patients. We show that mice carrying this mutation developed neurological manifestations similar to those of human patients...
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231453/siderophore-transport-by-mmpl5-mmps5-protein-complex-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Padmani Sandhu, Yusuf Akhter
Iron is an essential metal ion required for the various physiological activities of bacteria. The pathogenic bacteria remain dependent on the host cell for their iron requirements and evolved with specialized scavenging machinery in the form of iron chelating siderophores. Mycobacterium tuberculosis has two types of siderophore molecules, mycobactin and carboxymycobactin. These are synthesized inside bacterial cells and need to be transported outside by specialized membrane associated proteins. MmpL5-MmpS5 (mycobacterial membrane protein large5-mycobacterial membrane protein small5) complex has been linked to the export of non-ferrated siderophores to extracellular environment but the precise molecular mechanism involved was largely unknown...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231402/ex-vivo-visualization-of-human-ciliated-epithelium-and-quantitative-analysis-of-induced-flow-dynamics-by-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#12
Yuye Ling, Xinwen Yao, Ute A Gamm, Emilio Arteaga-Solis, Charles W Emala, Michael A Choma, Christine P Hendon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cilia-driven mucociliary clearance is an important self-defense mechanism of great clinical importance in pulmonary research. Conventional light microscopy possesses the capability to visualize individual cilia and its beating pattern but lacks the throughput to assess the global ciliary activities and flow dynamics. Optical coherence tomography (OCT), which provides depth-resolved cross-sectional images, was recently introduced to this area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen de-identified human tracheobronchial tissues are directly imaged by two OCT systems: one system centered at 1,300 nm with 6...
February 23, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231392/from-dendritic-cells-to-b-cells-dysfunctions-during-hiv-1-infection-tfh-at-the-cross-road
#13
REVIEW
Nicolas Ruffin, Lylia Hani, Nabila Seddiki
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are essential for B cell differentiation and the subsequent antibody responses. Their numbers and functions are altered during human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infections. In lymphoid tissues, Tfh cells are present in germinal center, where they are the main source of replicative HIV-1 and represent a major reservoir. Paradoxically, Tfh numbers are increased in chronically infected individuals. Understanding the fate of Tfh cells in the course of HIV-1 infection is essential for the design of efficient strategies toward a protective HIV vaccine or a cure...
February 23, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231337/4d-dose-simulation-in-volumetric-arc-therapy-accuracy-and-affecting-parameters
#14
Thilo Sothmann, Tobias Gauer, René Werner
Radiotherapy of lung and liver lesions has changed from normofractioned 3D-CRT to stereotactic treatment in a single or few fractions, often employing volumetric arc therapy (VMAT)-based techniques. Potential unintended interference of respiratory target motion and dynamically changing beam parameters during VMAT dose delivery motivates establishing 4D quality assurance (4D QA) procedures to assess appropriateness of generated VMAT treatment plans when taking into account patient-specific motion characteristics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231335/immigrants-in-the-one-percent-the-national-origin-of-top-wealth-owners
#15
Lisa A Keister, Brian Aronson
BACKGROUND: Economic inequality in the United States is extreme, but little is known about the national origin of affluent households. Households in the top one percent by total wealth own vastly disproportionate quantities of household assets and have correspondingly high levels of economic, social, and political influence. The overrepresentation of white natives (i.e., those born in the U.S.) among high-wealth households is well-documented, but changing migration dynamics suggest that a growing portion of top households may be immigrants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231333/molecular-mechanisms-of-cooperative-binding-of-transcription-factors-runx1-cbf%C3%AE-ets1-on-the-tcr%C3%AE-gene-enhancer
#16
Kota Kasahara, Masaaki Shiina, Ikuo Fukuda, Kazuhiro Ogata, Haruki Nakamura
Ets1 is an essential transcription factor (TF) for several important physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. Its recognition of the enhancer region of the TCRα gene is enhanced by the cooperative binding of the Runx1-CBFβ heterodimer, with the cancelation of phosphorylation-dependent autoinhibition. The detailed mechanism of this interesting cooperativity between Ets1 and the Runx1-CBFβ heterodimer is still largely unclear. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of this cooperativity, by using molecular dynamics simulations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231296/cooperation-decision-time-and-culture-online-experiments-with-american-and-indian-participants
#17
Akihiro Nishi, Nicholas A Christakis, David G Rand
Two separate bodies of work have examined whether culture affects cooperation in economic games and whether cooperative or non-cooperative decisions occur more quickly. Here, we connect this work by exploring the relationship between decision time and cooperation in American versus Indian subjects. We use a series of dynamic social network experiments in which subjects play a repeated public goods game: 80 sessions for a total of 1,462 subjects (1,059 from the United States, 337 from India, and 66 from other countries) making 13,560 decisions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231280/alkbh7-variant-related-to-prostate-cancer-exhibits-altered-substrate-binding
#18
Alice R Walker, Pavel Silvestrov, Tina A Müller, Robert H Podolsky, Gregory Dyson, Robert P Hausinger, Gerardo Andrés Cisneros
The search for prostate cancer biomarkers has received increased attention and several DNA repair related enzymes have been linked to this dysfunction. Here we report a targeted search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and functional impact characterization of human ALKBH family dioxygenases related to prostate cancer. Our results uncovered a SNP of ALKBH7, rs7540, which is associated with prostate cancer disease in a statistically significantly manner in two separate cohorts, and maintained in African American men...
February 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231278/interplay-between-fungicides-and-parasites-tebuconazole-but-not-copper-suppresses-infection-in-a-daphnia-metschnikowia-experimental-model
#19
Ana P Cuco, Nelson Abrantes, Fernando Gonçalves, Justyna Wolinska, Bruno B Castro
Natural populations are commonly exposed to complex stress scenarios, including anthropogenic contamination and their biological enemies (e.g., parasites). The study of the pollutant-parasite interplay is especially important, given the need for adequate regulations to promote improved ecosystem protection. In this study, a host-parasite model system (Daphnia spp. and the microparasitic yeast Metschnikowia bicuspidata) was used to explore the reciprocal effects of contamination by common agrochemical fungicides (copper sulphate and tebuconazole) and parasite challenge...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231277/comparison-of-cross-sectional-hiv-incidence-assay-results-from-dried-blood-spots-and-plasma
#20
Katherine E Schlusser, Christopher Pilcher, Esper G Kallas, Breno R Santos, Steven G Deeks, Shelley Facente, Sheila M Keating, Michael P Busch, Gary Murphy, Alex Welte, Thomas Quinn, Susan H Eshleman, Oliver Laeyendecker
BACKGROUND: Assays have been developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation using plasma samples. Large scale surveillance programs are planned using dried blood spot (DBS) specimens for incidence assessment. However, limited information exists on the performance of HIV cross-sectional incidence assays using DBS. METHODS: The assays evaluated were: Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg-Avidity), Sedia HIV-1 BED-Capture EIA (BED-CEIA), and CDC modified BioRad HIV-1/2 Plus O Avidity-based Assay (CDC-BioRad Avidity) using pre-determined cutoff values...
2017: PloS One
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