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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684885/abnormal-muscle-activation-patterns-are-associated-with-chronic-gait-deficits-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Samuel A Acuña, Mitchell E Tyler, Yuri P Danilov, Darryl G Thelen
BACKGROUND: Gait and balance disorders are common among individuals who have experienced a mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how the neuromuscular control of gait is altered following a TBI. RESEARCH QUESTION: Investigate the relationship between lower limb muscle activation patterns and chronic gait deficits in individuals who previously experienced a mild to moderate TBI. METHODS: Lower extremity electromyographic (EMG) signals were collected bilaterally during treadmill and overground walking in 44 ambulatory individuals with a TBI >1 year prior and 20 unimpaired controls...
April 12, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683829/harmful-or-physiologic-diagnosing-fibrinolysis-shutdown-in-a-trauma-cohort-with-rotational-thromboelastometry
#2
J Carolina Gomez-Builes, Sergio A Acuna, Bartolomeu Nascimento, Fabiana Madotto, Sandro B Rizoli
BACKGROUND: Despite its central role in early trauma coagulopathy, abnormal fibrinolysis continues to be poorly understood. Excessive fibrinolysis is a known contributor to mortality. Recent studies with thromboelastography (TEG) suggest decreased fibrinolysis (or shutdown) may be just as harmful. Considering the broad use of 2 different viscoelastic assays, which are not interchangeable, we proposed for the first time to define and characterize fibrinolysis shutdown using rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM)...
April 19, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683806/role-of-network-science-in-the-study-of-anesthetic-state-transitions
#3
UnCheol Lee, George A Mashour
The heterogeneity of molecular mechanisms, target neural circuits, and neurophysiologic effects of general anesthetics makes it difficult to develop a reliable and drug-invariant index of general anesthesia. No single brain region or mechanism has been identified as the neural correlate of consciousness, suggesting that consciousness might emerge through complex interactions of spatially and temporally distributed brain functions. The goal of this review article is to introduce the basic concepts of networks and explain why the application of network science to general anesthesia could be a pathway to discover a fundamental mechanism of anesthetic-induced unconsciousness...
April 23, 2018: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683777/relationship-between-posturography-clinical-balance-and-executive-function-in-parkinson%C3%A2-s-disease
#4
Carolina de Oliveira Souza, Mariana Callil Voos, Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Janini Chen, Debora Cristina Valente Francato, Matija Milosevic, Milos Popovic, Erich Talamoni Fonoff, Hsin Fen Chien, Egberto Reis Barbosa
This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between posturography, clinical balance, and executive function tests in Parkinson´s disease (PD). Seventy-one people participated in the study. Static posturography evaluated the center of pressure fluctuations in quiet standing and dynamic posturography assessed sit-to-stand, tandem walk, and step over an obstacle. Functional balance was evaluated by Berg Balance Scale, MiniBESTest, and Timed Up and Go test. Executive function was assessed by Trail Making Test (TMT) and semantic verbal fluency test...
April 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681793/autonomic-and-brain-morphological-predictors-of-stress-resilience
#5
REVIEW
Luca Carnevali, Julian Koenig, Andrea Sgoifo, Cristina Ottaviani
Stressful life events are an important cause of psychopathology. Humans exposed to aversive or stressful experiences show considerable inter-individual heterogeneity in their responses. However, the majority does not develop stress-related psychiatric disorders. The dynamic processes encompassing positive and functional adaptation in the face of significant adversity have been broadly defined as resilience . Traditionally, the assessment of resilience has been confined to self-report measures, both within the general community and putative high-risk populations...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679937/chronic-radiation-exposure-modifies-temporal-dynamics-of-cytogenetic-but-not-reproductive-indicators-in-scots-pine-populations
#6
Stanislav Geras'kin, Alla Oudalova, Alexey Kuzmenkov, Denis Vasiliyev
Over a period of 13 years (2003-2015), reproductive and cytogenetic effects are investigated in Scots pine populations growing in the Bryansk region of Russia radioactively contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident. In reference populations, the frequencies of cytogenetic abnormalities are shown to change with time in a cyclic manner. In chronically exposed populations, the cyclic patterns in temporal dynamics of cytogenetic abnormalities appear to be disturbed. In addition, a tendency to decrease in the frequencies of cytogenetic abnormalities with time as well as an increase in their variability with dose rate is revealed...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679400/the-development-of-hoof-balance-and-landing-preference-in-the-postnatal-period
#7
B M C Gorissen, F M Serra Bragança, C F Wolschrijn, W Back, P R van Weeren
BACKGROUND: Foals can follow the herd within hours of birth, but it has been shown that kinetic gait parameters and static balance still have to mature. However, development of dynamic balance has not been investigated. OBJECTIVES: To objectively quantify landing and pressure pattern dynamics under the hoof during the first half year of life. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort study performed at a single stud farm. METHODS: Pressure plate measurements at walk and trot from ten Dutch warmblood foals during the first 24 weeks of life were used to quantify toe-heel and medial-lateral hoof balance asymmetry indexes and to determine preferred landing strategy...
April 20, 2018: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679160/lasvm-based-big-data-learning-system-for-dynamic-prediction-of-air-pollution-in-tehran
#8
Z Ghaemi, A Alimohammadi, M Farnaghi
Due to critical impacts of air pollution, prediction and monitoring of air quality in urban areas are important tasks. However, because of the dynamic nature and high spatio-temporal variability, prediction of the air pollutant concentrations is a complex spatio-temporal problem. Distribution of pollutant concentration is influenced by various factors such as the historical pollution data and weather conditions. Conventional methods such as the support vector machine (SVM) or artificial neural networks (ANN) show some deficiencies when huge amount of streaming data have to be analyzed for urban air pollution prediction...
April 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678757/ultra-coarse-single-glance-human-face-detection-in-a-dynamic-visual-stream
#9
Genevieve L Quek, Joan Liu-Shuang, Valérie Goffaux, Bruno Rossion
Effective human interaction depends on our ability to rapidly detect faces in dynamic visual environments. Here we asked how basic units of visual information (spatial frequencies, or SF) contribute to this fundamental brain function. Human observers viewed initially blurry, unrecognizable natural object images presented at a fast 12 Hz rate and parametrically increasing in SF content over the course of 1 min. By inserting highly variable natural face images as every 8th stimulus we captured an objective neural index of face detection in participants' electroencephalogram (EEG) at exactly 1...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678335/arrhythmic-risk-stratification-in-patients-with-idiopathic-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#10
Davide Stolfo, Nicole Ceschia, Massimo Zecchin, Antonio De Luca, Marco Gobbo, Giulia Barbati, Marta Gigli, Marco Masè, Bruno Pinamonti, Alberto Pivetta, Marco Merlo, Gianfranco Sinagra
Arrhythmic risk stratification in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) remains a major concern. As the ventricles remodel in time, risk factors for arrhythmic death may change. A cohort of 710 patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, without previous ventricular arrhythmias, was retrospectively studied to understand how risks vary in time. The primary end point was a composite of sudden cardiac death, ventricular fibrillation, sustained ventricular tachycardia, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interventions...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677533/proresolving-protein-annexin-a1-the-role-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-obesity
#11
Nathalia T Pietrani, Cláudia N Ferreira, Kathryna F Rodrigues, Luiza O Perucci, Fernanda S Carneiro, Adriana A Bosco, Marina C Oliveira, Solange S Pereira, Antônio L Teixeira, Jacqueline I Alvarez-Leite, Adaliene V Ferreira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Karina B Gomes
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is a protein involved in inflammation resolution that might be altered in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a chronic inflammatory disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate AnxA1 serum levels in individuals with and without DM stratified according to the body mass index (BMI), and the dynamic of AnxA1 expression in adipose tissue from humans with obesity and non-obesity. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 41 patients with DM (lean, overweight and obese) and 40 controls, and adipose tissue samples were obtained from 16 individuals with obesity (with or without DM), and 15 controls...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677365/age-related-changes-to-human-tear-composition
#12
Alessandra Micera, Antonio Di Zazzo, Graziana Esposito, Rosa Longo, William Foulsham, Roberto Sacco, Roberto Sgrulletta, Stefano Bonini
Purpose: We characterize age-associated alterations in the expression of inflammatory mediators and tissue remodeling factors in human tears. Methods: A total of 75 consecutive volunteers (32 male/44 female; 19-93 years) underwent clinical assessment of ocular surface status, ocular surface disease index (OSDI) grading and tear sampling. The volunteers were categorized into three groups: young (18-40 years), middle-aged (41-60 years), and old (>60 years). Total protein profiles and chip-based protein array evaluations were conducted to investigate the expression of 60 potential candidates, including pro-/anti-inflammatory mediators and tissue remodeling factors...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675751/the-extent-of-temporary-water-bodies-increased-in-the-drylands-of-northern-china-a-multiscale-analysis-based-on-modis-data
#13
Siyuan Gou, Zhifeng Liu, Chunyang He, Jingwei Li
Understanding the dynamics of temporary water bodies (TWBs) is crucial for sustainable development in the drylands of northern China (DNC). Our objective was to quantify the dynamics of TWBs in the DNC between 2000 and 2015. First, we extracted TWBs in the DNC from 2000 to 2015 using the modified normalized difference water index based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data. Then, we examined the spatiotemporal patterns of TWBs in the DNC at multiple scales, ranging from the entire region to basins...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675440/multi-velocity-encoding-four-dimensional-flow-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-the-assessment-of-chronic-aortic-dissection
#14
Andrew G Sherrah, Fraser M Callaghan, Rajesh Puranik, Richmond W Jeremy, Paul G Bannon, Michael P Vallely, Stuart M Grieve
Background: Chronic descending thoracic aortic dissection (CDTAD) following surgical repair of ascending aortic dissection requires long-term imaging surveillance. We investigated four-dimensional (4D)-flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a novel multi-velocity encoding (multi-VENC) technique as an emerging clinical method enabling the dynamic quantification of blood volume and velocity throughout the cardiac cycle. Methods: Patients with CDTAD (n = 10; mean age, 55...
June 2017: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675297/minimally-invasive-multimode-optical-fiber-microendoscope-for-deep-brain-fluorescence-imaging
#15
Shay Ohayon, Antonio Caravaca-Aguirre, Rafael Piestun, James J DiCarlo
A major open challenge in neuroscience is the ability to measure and perturb neural activity in vivo from well defined neural sub-populations at cellular resolution anywhere in the brain. However, limitations posed by scattering and absorption prohibit non-invasive multi-photon approaches for deep (>2mm) structures, while gradient refractive index (GRIN) endoscopes are relatively thick and can cause significant damage upon insertion. Here, we present a novel micro-endoscope design to image neural activity at arbitrary depths via an ultra-thin multi-mode optical fiber (MMF) probe that has 5-10X thinner diameter than commercially available micro-endoscopes...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674657/emergence-of-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-at-an-australian-hospital-a-whole-genome-sequencing-analysis
#16
Kelvin W C Leong, Louise A Cooley, Tara L Anderson, Sanjay S Gautam, Belinda McEwan, Anne Wells, Fiona Wilson, Lucy Hughson, Ronan F O'Toole
In 2015, a marked increase in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolation was detected at the Royal Hobart Hospital, Australia. The primary objective of this work was to examine the dynamics of VREfm transmission using whole genome data mapped to public health surveillance information. Screening and clinical isolates of VREfm from patients were typed for the specific vancomycin-resistance locus present. Of total isolates collected from 2014-2016 (n = 222), 15.3% and 84.7% harboured either the vanA or the vanB vancomycin-resistance locus, respectively...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673639/left-ventricular-diastolic-function-after-aortic-valve-replacement-for-chronic-aortic-regurgitation
#17
Wenrui Ma, Wei Zhang, Wei Shi, Ye Kong, Xinyu Ma
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate the evolution of left ventricular diastolic function after aortic valve replacement (AVR) for chronic severe aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Patients (n=183) who underwent isolated AVR for severe aortic regurgitation were included in this study. Degrees of left ventricular diastolic function were designated, according to the integration of two echocardiographic parameters: left atrial volume index and average E/e' ratio...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673610/low-exertional-inspiratory-capacity-is-not-related-to-dynamic-inspiratory-muscle-weakness-in-heart-failure
#18
Franciele Plachi, Fernanda Machado Balzan, Ricardo Gass, Rui Gustavo Dorneles, Reisi Zambiazi, Danton Pereira da Silva, Paulo R Sanches, Nadine Oliveira Clausell, Danilo C Berton
Reduction in inspiratory capacity (IC) during exercise has been reported in chronic heart failure (CHF). Since inspiratory muscle dysfunction may be present to a variable degree, the assumption that IC reduction during exercise represents an increase in end-expiratory lung volume must be made with caution. This interpretation is flawed if patients develop dynamic inspiratory muscle strength reduction, i.e., progressively lower esophageal (Pes) pressures as the IC maneuvers are repeated. Sixteen CHF patients and 9 age-matched controls performed an incremental exercise test with serial IC and respiratory pressure measurements...
April 16, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673505/influence-of-microcirculatory-dysfunction-on-angiography-based-functional-assessment-of-coronary-stenoses
#19
Hernán Mejía-Rentería, Joo Myung Lee, Francesco Lauri, Nina W van der Hoeven, Guus A de Waard, Fernando Macaya, María José Pérez-Vizcayno, Nieves Gonzalo, Pilar Jiménez-Quevedo, Luis Nombela-Franco, Pablo Salinas, Iván Núñez-Gil, María Del Trigo, Sonoka Goto, Hyun Jong Lee, Catherine Liontou, Antonio Fernández-Ortiz, Carlos Macaya, Niels van Royen, Bon-Kwon Koo, Javier Escaned
OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to evaluate the influence of coronary microcirculatory dysfunction (CMD) on the diagnostic performance of the quantitative flow ratio (QFR). BACKGROUND: Functional angiographic assessment of coronary stenoses based on fluid dynamics, such as QFR, constitutes an attractive alternative to fractional flow reserve (FFR). However, it is unknown whether CMD affects the reliability of angiography-based functional indices. METHODS: FFR and the index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR) were measured in 300 vessels (248 patients) as part of a multicenter international registry...
April 23, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673397/sex-differences-in-kinematic-adaptations-to-muscle-fatigue-induced-by-repetitive-upper-limb-movements
#20
Jason Bouffard, Chen Yang, Mickael Begon, Julie Côté
BACKGROUND: Muscle fatigue induced by repetitive movements contributes to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Men and women respond differently to muscle fatigue during isometric single-joint efforts, but sex differences during dynamic multi-joint tasks have not been clearly identified. Moreover, most studies comparing men and women during fatigue development assessed endurance time. However, none evaluated sex differences in kinematic adaptations to fatigue during multi-joint dynamic tasks...
April 19, 2018: Biology of Sex Differences
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