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volume status critical care patients

Michael J Murray, Heidi DeBlock, Brian Erstad, Anthony Gray, Judi Jacobi, Che Jordan, William McGee, Claire McManus, Maureen Meade, Sean Nix, Andrew Patterson, M Karen Sands, Richard Pino, Ann Tescher, Richard Arbour, Bram Rochwerg, Catherine Friederich Murray, Sangeeta Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To update the 2002 version of "Clinical practice guidelines for sustained neuromuscular blockade in the adult critically ill patient." DESIGN: A Task Force comprising 17 members of the Society of Critical Medicine with particular expertise in the use of neuromuscular-blocking agents; a Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation expert; and a medical writer met via teleconference and three face-to-face meetings and communicated via e-mail to examine the evidence and develop these practice guidelines...
November 2016: Critical Care Medicine
H Chen, X T Wang, X Ding, H M Zhang, H Zhao, Y G Chao, W He, D W Liu
Objective: To investigate the relationship between optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and volume status of patients after cardiac surgery. Methods: A total of consecutive 56 patients who were treated in Critical Care Unit in Peking Union Medical College Hospital after open heart surgery from January to August 2015 were screened in this study. Central venous pressure (CVP) and 72 h net fluid balance were monitored. ONSD and diameter of inferior vena cava (IVC) were measured by ultrasound. Results: A total of 44 patients were finally included in the study...
October 1, 2016: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Samuel B Berry, Syrena C Fernandes, Anjali Rajaratnam, Nicholas S DeChiara, Charles R Mace
The quantification of blood cells provides critical information about a patient's health status. Sophisticated analytical equipment, such as hematology analyzers, have been developed to perform these measurements, but limited-resource settings often lack the infrastructure required to purchase, operate, and maintain instrumentation. To address these practical challenges, paper-based microfluidic devices have emerged as a platform to develop diagnostic assays specifically for use at the point-of-care. To date, paper-based microfluidic devices have been used broadly in diagnostic assays that apply immunoassay, clinical chemistry, and electrochemistry techniques...
October 7, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Marc Auerbach, Travis Whitfill, Marcie Gawel, David Kessler, Barbara Walsh, Sandeep Gangadharan, Melinda Fiedor Hamilton, Brian Schultz, Akira Nishisaki, Khoon-Yen Tay, Megan Lavoie, Jessica Katznelson, Robert Dudas, Janette Baird, Vinay Nadkarni, Linda Brown
Importance: The quality of pediatric resuscitative care delivered across the spectrum of emergency departments (EDs) in the United States is poorly described. In a recent study, more than 4000 EDs completed the Pediatric Readiness Survey (PRS); however, the correlation of PRS scores with the quality of simulated or real patient care has not been described. Objective: To measure and compare the quality of resuscitative care delivered to simulated pediatric patients across a spectrum of EDs and to examine the correlation of PRS scores with quality measures...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
Rolando Claure-Del Granado, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Fluid overload is frequently found in acute kidney injury patients in critical care units. Recent studies have shown the relationship of fluid overload with adverse outcomes; hence, manage and optimization of fluid balance becomes a central component of the management of critically ill patients. DISCUSSION: In critically ill patients, in order to restore cardiac output, systemic blood pressure and renal perfusion an adequate fluid resuscitation is essential...
August 2, 2016: BMC Nephrology
Kathryn D Winters, Stephanie Toth-Manikowski, Carol Martire, Tariq Shafi
BACKGROUND: Correctly assessing and managing volume status are critical elements of daily care for patients managed by nephrologists. However, intravascular volume is difficult to assess by physical examination alone. METHODS: We present vignettes illustrating the potential for using hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) to improve volume assessment in common clinical scenarios faced by the renal consultant in the hospital setting. These include patients with acute kidney injury and patients treated with hemodialysis...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chun-Ta Huang, Yu-Chung Chuang, Yi-Ju Tsai, Wen-Je Ko, Chong-Jen Yu
BACKGROUND: Severe sepsis is a potentially deadly illness and always requires intensive care. Do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders remain a debated issue in critical care and limited data exist about its impact on care of septic patients, particularly in East Asia. We sought to assess outcome of severe sepsis patients with regard to DNR status in Taiwan. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) between 2008 and 2010. All severe sepsis patients were included for analysis...
2016: PloS One
Timothy E Miller, Martin Bunke, Paul Nisbet, Charles S Brudney
BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a cornerstone of intensive care treatment, yet there is a lack of agreement on how various types of fluids should be used in critically ill patients with different disease states. Therefore, our goal was to investigate the practice patterns of fluid utilization for resuscitation of adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs) within the USA. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 502 physicians practicing in medical and surgical ICUs...
2016: Perioperative Medicine
Niraj Desai, Mahboob Rahman
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, and increased health care use. Optimal management of patients with ESRD requires close collaboration among primary care physicians, nephrology subspecialists, and other subspecialists. Critical issues for the family physician include helping patients transition from chronic kidney disease to ESRD, recognizing and managing common issues in patients receiving dialysis or after kidney transplantation, and understanding palliative care for patients with ESRD...
May 2016: FP Essentials
S G Ball, Zohaib Iqbal
Hyponatraemia is the most common electrolyte abnormality encountered by physicians in the hospital setting. It is associated with increased mortality and length of hospital stay. However, the basis of the relationship of hyponatraemia with clinical outcome is not clear. Doubt remains as to whether the relationship is causal. It may reflect the association of two independent variables both of which are linked with disease severity. Serum sodium concentration is regulated through integrated neuro-humeral mechanisms that overlap with those regulating circulating volume...
March 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Jennifer G Wilson, Kristine E W Breyer
The use of point-of-care ultrasound in the intensive care unit, both for diagnostic and procedural purposes, has rapidly proliferated, and evidence supporting its use is growing. Conceptually, critical care ultrasound (CCUS) should be considered an extension of the physical examination and should not be considered a replacement for formal echocardiography or radiology-performed ultrasound. Several CCUS applications are of particular relevance to nephrologists, including focused renal ultrasound in patients at high risk for urinary tract obstruction, real-time ultrasound guidance and verification during the placement of central venous catheters, and ultrasound-augmented assessment of shock and volume status...
May 2016: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
Hussein D Kanji, Jessica L McCallum, Kapil M Bhagirath, Andrew S Neitzel
OBJECTIVE: The application of ultrasound to assess a patient's cardiac function and volume status is becoming commonplace in the practice of critical care. These skills have been taught through varying curricula; however, no consensus on the optimal curriculum has been established. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate the literature regarding critical care ultrasound curriculum development and evaluation. DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified using MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycInfo, the Cochrane Center Register of Controlled Trials, and ERIC according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines through June 2014...
August 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Amy N McCammond, David M Axelrod, David K Bailly, E Zachary Ramsey, John M Costello
OBJECTIVE: In this Consensus Statement, we review the etiology and pathophysiology of fluid disturbances in critically ill children with cardiac disease. Clinical tools used to recognize pathologic fluid states are summarized, as are the mechanisms of action of many drugs aimed at optimal fluid management. DATA SOURCES: The expertise of the authors and a review of the medical literature were used as data sources. DATA SYNTHESIS: The authors synthesized the data in the literature in order to present clinical tools used to recognize pathologic fluid states...
March 2016: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Chiao-Lin Chuang
The goal of fluid therapy in critical care medicine is to restore hemodynamic stability and vital organ perfusion while avoiding interstitial edema. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in critically ill patients. Decisions regarding fluid management in critically ill patients with AKI are difficult, as these patients often have accompanying oliguria as well as body fluid overload. Both hypovolemia and volume overload are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in critical care patients; therefore, accurate assessment of the intravascular volume status as well as the response to fluid replacement remains one of the most challenging and important issues for clinicians in daily practice...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Michele Vitacca, Luca Barbano, Fabio Vanoglio, Alberto Luisa, Palmira Bernocchi, Amerigo Giordano, Mara Paneroni
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether a 6-month home physiotherapy program can improve outcomes in critical care survivors. DESIGN: Forty-eight consecutive patients were randomized. The treatment group underwent 2 sessions/day of breathing retraining and bronchial hygiene, physical activity (mobilization, sit-to-stand gait, limb strengthening), and exercise re-conditioning whereas controls underwent standard care. Maximum inspiratory/expiratory pressures (MIP/MEP), forced volumes, blood gases, dyspnea, respiratory rate, disability, peripheral force measurements, perceived health status (Euroquol-5D), patient adherence/satisfaction, safety, and costs were assessed...
August 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Jian Ji, Suyun Qian, Jie Yan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the resting energy expenditure on mechanical ventilation in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) by indirect calorimetry, and analyze the distribution of metabolic states. The nutrition supply was assessed according to the resting energy expenditure. METHOD: An observational study which was held in PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital from November 2013 to April 2014. Critically ill children with mechanical ventilation were enrolled in this study...
January 2016: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Nicole T Townsend, John Kendall, Carlton Barnett, Thomas Robinson
BACKGROUND: Simulation training and competency-based assessment are the evolving standard for surgical education. The Focused Assessment Diagnostic Echocardiography (FADE) examination is a bedside, limited transthoracic ultrasound to assess cardiac function, anatomy, and volume status. FADE can be used to noninvasively evaluate and guide resuscitation of critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the learning curve for surgical residents to perform and interpret the results of the FADE examination using simulation and competency-based assessment...
March 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
Ümmügülsüm Gaygısız, Müge Aydoğdu, Melike Badoğlu, Nazlıhan Boyacı, Zuhal Güllü, Gül Gürsel
BACKGROUND: In critical care patients, the diagnosis of subclinical acute kidney injury (AKI) might be difficult with measurements of serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Their 'sensitive kidneys' can easily be affected from sepsis, underlying diseases, medications and volume status and if they can be detected earlier, some preventive measures might be taken. In this study we aimed to determine whether admission serum cystatin C (sCys-C) and other clinical parameters can identify subclinical AKI in medical intensive care unit (ICU) patients with normal creatinine-based eGFR at admission...
2016: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Dharmendra Kumar, Syed Moied Ahmed, Shahna Ali, Utpal Ray, Ankur Varshney, Kashmiri Doley
BACKGROUND: Central venous pressure (CVP) assesses the volume status of patients. However, this technique is not without complications. We, therefore, measured peripheral venous pressure (PVP) to see whether it can replace CVP. AIMS: To evaluate the correlation and agreement between CVP and PVP after passive leg raise (PLR) in critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation. SETTING AND DESIGN: Prospective observational study in Intensive Care Unit...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Martin Westphal, Tim Kampmeier
Great white sharks are responsible for about 10 cases of death annually worldwide, as compared with millions of deaths caused by sepsis. However, the basic principles of avoiding shark attacks and fighting sepsis seem to be similar: avoidance, attention, and speed, if necessary. The present review discusses the current status of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, which are actually content for discussion because of their low specificity. Current data suggest that one in eight patients with severe sepsis does not fulfill the SIRS criteria and is consequently missed, and therefore the calls for new definitions of sepsis are getting louder...
2015: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
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