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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417039/a-true-human-tail-in-a-neonate-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Mahesh K Pillai, Smitha T Nair
A true human tail is a benign vestigial caudal cutaneous structure composed of adipose, connective tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and mechanoreceptors. A true human tail can be distinguished from a pseudotail as the latter is commonly associated with underlying spinal dysraphism, which requires specialised management. True human tails are very rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported to date. We report a healthy one-day-old male newborn who was referred to the Bharath Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India, in 2014 with a cutaneous appendage arising from the lumbosacral region...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405712/emergence-of-new-srnas-in-enteric-bacteria-is-associated-with-low-expression-and-rapid-evolution
#2
Fenil R Kacharia, Jess A Millar, Rahul Raghavan
Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are critical to post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. However, unlike for protein-coding genes, the evolutionary forces that shape sRNAs are not understood. We investigated sRNAs in enteric bacteria and discovered that recently emerged sRNAs evolve at significantly faster rates than older sRNAs. Concomitantly, younger sRNAs are expressed at significantly lower levels than older sRNAs. This process could potentially facilitate the integration of newly emerged sRNAs into bacterial regulatory networks...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405393/lung-anatomy-and-histology-of-the-extant-coelacanth-shed-light-on-the-loss-of-air-breathing-during-deep-water-adaptation-in-actinistians
#3
Camila Cupello, François J Meunier, Marc Herbin, Gaël Clément, Paulo M Brito
Lungs are specialized organs originated from the posterior pharyngeal cavity and considered as plesiomorphic for osteichthyans, as they are found in extant basal actinopterygians (i.e. Polypterus) and in all major groups of extant sarcopterygians. The presence of a vestigial lung in adult stages of the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae is the result of allometric growth during ontogeny, in relation with long-time adaptation to deep water. Here, we present the first detailed histological and anatomical description of the lung of Latimeria chalumnae, providing new insights into its arrested differentiation in an air-breathing complex, mainly represented by the absence of pneumocytes and of compartmentalization in the latest ontogenetic stages...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384845/biometrics-of-pyramidalis-muscle-and-its-clinical-importance
#4
Sushant Swaroop Das, Sandeep Saluja, Neelam Vasudeva
INTRODUCTION: Pyramidalis is classified as a vestigial muscle which is frequently present. It is muscle of the anterior abdominal wall. It is thought to tense the linea alba. It has been used as a surgical landmark, source of muscle stem cells and in various surgical procedures. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the morphometry and morphology of pyramidalis muscle in an adult Indian population and its correlation with the clinical significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cadaveric study on 25 formalin fixed cadavers (males-17, females-8) was conducted in context with prevalence, morphology and morphometry of pyramidalis muscle...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373032/comparative-morphology-of-the-prothoracic-leg-in-heliconian-butterflies-tracing-size-allometry-podite-fusions-and-losses-in-ontogeny-and-phylogeny
#5
Gilson R P Moreira, Denis S Silva, Gislene L Gonçalves
Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on hostplants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels...
March 31, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355472/drag-reduction-in-a-natural-high-frequency-swinging-micro-articulation-mouthparts-of-the-honey-bee
#6
Guanya Shi, Jianing Wu, Shaoze Yan
Worker-bee mouthparts consist of the glossa, the galeae and the vestigial labial palp, and it is these structures that enable bees to feed themselves. The articulation joints, 60∼70 µm in diameter, are present on the tip of the labial palp and are covered with olfactory sensilla, allowing movements between the segments. Using a specially designed high-speed camera system, we discovered that the articulation joint could swing in the nectar at a frequency of ∼50 Hz, considerably higher than the usual motion frequency of mammalian joints...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355098/meniscus-beyond-mechanics-using-biology-to-advance-our-understanding-of-meniscus-injury-and-treatment
#7
Muhammad Farooq Rai, Amy L McNulty
Meniscus tissues were historically considered vestigial structures in the knee, and largely remained an unexplored and underappreciated area of research. However, this concept was refuted with the discovery that loss of meniscus tissue leads to joint degeneration and development of osteoarthritis (OA). These findings have led to a growing interest in the role of the meniscus in knee stability and joint health and have brought the meniscus to the forefront of orthopaedic research. While the critical role of the meniscus in joint health has been established, little is known about the biomechanical, biochemical, and molecular signaling pathways that are involved in meniscus homeostasis and pathogenesis...
March 29, 2017: Connective Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325358/seromucinous-ovarian-tumor-a-comparison-with-the-rest-of-ovarian-epithelial-tumors
#8
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Georgia Karpathiou, Celine Chauleur, Thomas Corsini, Melany Venet, Cyril Habougit, Freschia Honeyman, Fabien Forest, Michel Peoc'h
BACKGROUND: Seromucinous ovarian tumors are rare and not adequately described in the literature and this is especially true for seromucinous carcinomas. AIM OF THE STUDY: To describe histological and clinical features of these tumors in comparison with the rest of ovarian epithelial tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and forty one (241) ovarian tumors, borderline (n=92) or malignant (n=149), treated surgically without neoadjuvant chemotherapy, were examined...
April 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322734/the-activity-of-the-drosophila-vestigial-protein-is-modified-by-scalloped-dependent-phosphorylation
#9
Virginia L Pimmett, Hua Deng, Julie A Haskins, Rebecca J Mercier, Paul LaPointe, Andrew J Simmonds
The Drosophila vestigial gene is required for proliferation and differentiation of the adult wing and for differentiation of larval and adult muscle identity. Vestigial is part of a multi-protein transcription factor complex, which includes Scalloped, a TEAD-class DNA binding protein. Binding Scalloped is necessary for translocation of Vestigial into the nucleus. We show that Vestigial is extensively post-translationally modified and at least one of these modifications is required for proper function during development...
March 18, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317918/vertebrate-cryptochromes-are-vestigial-flavoproteins
#10
Roger J Kutta, Nataliya Archipowa, Linus O Johannissen, Alex R Jones, Nigel S Scrutton
All cryptochromes are currently classified as flavoproteins. In animals their best-described role is as components of the circadian clock. This circadian function is variable, and can be either light-dependent or -independent; the molecular origin of this difference is unknown. Type I animal cryptochromes are photoreceptors that entrain an organism's clock to its environment, whereas Type II (including mammals) regulate circadian timing in a light-independent manner. Here, we reveal that, in contrast to Type I, Type II animal cryptochromes lack the structural features to securely bind the photoactive flavin cofactor...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297940/hierarchy-of-orientational-phases-and-axial-anisotropies-in-the-gauge-theoretical-description-of-generalized-nematic-liquid-crystals
#11
Ke Liu, Jaakko Nissinen, Josko de Boer, Robert-Jan Slager, Jan Zaanen
The paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking encompasses the breaking of the rotational symmetries O(3) of isotropic space to a discrete subgroup, i.e., a three-dimensional point group. The subgroups form a rich hierarchy and allow for many different phases of matter with orientational order. Such spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs in nematic liquid crystals, and a highlight of such anisotropic liquids is the uniaxial and biaxial nematics. Generalizing the familiar uniaxial and biaxial nematics to phases characterized by an arbitrary point-group symmetry, referred to as generalized nematics, leads to a large hierarchy of phases and possible orientational phase transitions...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289229/persistence-of-the-mitochondrial-permeability-transition-in-the-absence-of-subunit-c-of-human-atp-synthase
#12
Jiuya He, Holly C Ford, Joe Carroll, Shujing Ding, Ian M Fearnley, John E Walker
The permeability transition in human mitochondria refers to the opening of a nonspecific channel, known as the permeability transition pore (PTP), in the inner membrane. Opening can be triggered by calcium ions, leading to swelling of the organelle, disruption of the inner membrane, and ATP synthesis, followed by cell death. Recent proposals suggest that the pore is associated with the ATP synthase complex and specifically with the ring of c-subunits that constitute the membrane domain of the enzyme's rotor...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264339/two-new-species-of-i-melanorivulus-i-cyprinodontiformes-cynolebiidae-from-rio-verde-drainage-upper-rio-paran%C3%A3-basin-brazil
#13
Matheus Vieira Volcan, Bruno Klotzel, Luis Esteban Krause Lanés
Two new species of the genus Melanorivulus are herein described from the middle Rio Verde drainage, upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both new species are members of the Melanorivulus pictus clade, diagnosed by having ventral process of angulo-articular vestigial and flanks intense greenish blue or greenish golden to purplish blue above anal fin base in males. Melanorivulus nigropunctatus, new species, from wetlands of a small drainage tributary of right side of the Rio Verde, differs from all other congeners by possessing black dots over the head and body in both sexes and pectoral fin orange with a dark grey margin in males...
February 21, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257951/gobioecetes-biwaensis-n-g-n-sp-monogenea-dactylogyridae-from-the-gills-of-a-freshwater-gobiid-fish-rhinogobius-sp-bw-takahashi-okazaki-2002-with-a-redescription-of-parancyrocephaloides-daicoci-yamaguti-1938
#14
Kazuo Ogawa, Naoki Itoh
A description is given of Gobioecetes biwaensis n. g., n. sp. (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) on the gills of a freshwater gobiid fish, Rhinogobius sp. BW Takahashi & Okazaki, 2002 from Lake Biwa, Shiga Prefecture and Rhinogobius sp. from Sento Imperial Palace, Kyoto Prefecture, Japan. This monogenean is most similar to Parancyrocephaloides rhinogobius Ling, 1973, proposed here as Gobioecetes rhinogobius n. comb., collected from the gills of Rhinogobius giurinus (Rutter, 1897) in Hupei Province, China, but can be differentiated from it in that ventral hamuli of G...
February 28, 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257108/a-new-strategy-to-reduce-influenza-escape-detecting-therapeutic-targets-constituted-of-invariance-groups
#15
Julie Lao, Anne Vanet
The pathogenicity of the different flu species is a real public health problem worldwide. To combat this scourge, we established a method to detect drug targets, reducing the possibility of escape. Besides being able to attach a drug candidate, these targets should have the main characteristic of being part of an essential viral function. The invariance groups that are sets of residues bearing an essential function can be detected genetically. They consist of invariant and synthetic lethal residues (interdependent residues not varying or slightly varying when together)...
March 2, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243536/eotaria-citrica-sp-nov-a-new-stem-otariid-from-the-topanga-formation-of-southern-california
#16
Jorge Velez-Juarbe
A new taxon of stem otariid, Eotaria citrica sp. nov., is described from the upper Burdigalian to lower Langhian "Topanga" formation of Orange County, California. The new species is described from mandibular and dental remains that show a unique combination of plesiomorphic and derived characters. Specifically, it is characterized by having trenchant and prominent paraconid cusps in p3-m1, lingual cingula of p2-4 with faint crenulations, premolars and molars with vestigial metaconid, bilobed root of m2 and a genial tuberosity located under p3...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238073/non-neurogenic-svz-like-niche-in-dolphins-mammals-devoid-of-olfaction
#17
Roberta Parolisi, Bruno Cozzi, Luca Bonfanti
Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in brain plasticity and brain repair. In mammals, it is mostly restricted to specific brain regions and specific physiological functions. The function and evolutionary history of mammalian adult neurogenesis has been elusive so far. The largest neurogenic site in mammals (subventricular zone, SVZ) generates neurons destined to populate the olfactory bulb. The SVZ neurogenic activity appears to be related to the dependence of the species on olfaction since it occurs at high rates throughout life in animals strongly dependent on this function for their survival...
February 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202455/in-the-interface-of-caesalpinioids-and-mimosoids-comparative-floral-development-elucidates-shared-characters-in-dimorphandra-mollis-and-pentaclethra-macroloba-leguminosae
#18
Thais C De Barros, Giseli D Pedersoli, Juliana V Paulino, Simone P Teixeira
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Pentaclethra and Dimorphandra (Leguminosae) have long been considered a possible enigmatic link between caesalpinioids and mimosoids because they both have an imbricate calyx and heteromorphic androecium, floral features that are rare among mimosoids but common among caesalpinioids. This study compared the developing flowers of Dimorphandra mollis and Pentaclethra macroloba to determine whether the shared floral conditions also have the same ontogenetic origin. METHODS: Buds of different sizes and flowers were processed for surface (scanning electron microscopy) and histological (light microscopy) examination...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196665/complement-s-hidden-arsenal-new-insights-and-novel-functions-inside-the-cell
#19
REVIEW
M Kathryn Liszewski, Michelle Elvington, Hrishikesh S Kulkarni, John P Atkinson
A key component of both innate and adaptive immunity, new understandings of the complement system are expanding its roles beyond that traditionally appreciated. Evidence is accumulating that complement has an intracellular arsenal of components that provide not only immune defense, but also assist in key interactions for host cell functions. Although early work has primarily centered on T cells, the intracellular complement system likely functions in many if not most cells of the body. Some of these functions may trace their origins to the primitive complement system that began as a primeval form of C3 likely tasked for protection from intracellular pathogen invasion...
April 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186860/traumatic-rib-injury-patterns-imaging-pitfalls-complications-and-treatment
#20
Brett S Talbot, Christopher P Gange, Apeksha Chaturvedi, Nina Klionsky, Susan K Hobbs, Abhishek Chaturvedi
The ribs are frequently affected by blunt or penetrating injury to the thorax. In the emergency department setting, it is vital for the interpreting radiologist to not only identify the presence of rib injuries but also alert the clinician about organ-specific injury, specific traumatic patterns, and acute rib trauma complications that require emergent attention. Rib injuries can be separated into specific morphologic fracture patterns that include stress, buckle, nondisplaced, displaced, segmental, and pathologic fractures...
March 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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