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Taro Nojiri, Ingmar Werneburg, Nguyen Truong Son, Vuong Tan Tu, Takenori Sasaki, Yu Maekawa, Daisuke Koyabu
Cochlear morphology has been regarded as one of the key traits to understand the origin and evolution of echolocation in bats, given its functionality and performance for receiving echolocation sonar. While numerous researchers have compared adult-stage morphology, few have studied the prenatal development of the cochlea. Here, we provide the first detailed three-dimensional description of the prenatal cranial development in bats, using Rhinolophus thomasi as a model, with particular interest to the petrosal which houses the cochlea...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Ryan R Kerney, James Hanken, David C Blackburn
Direct-developing amphibians form limbs during early embryonic stages, as opposed to the later, often postembryonic limb formation of metamorphosing species. Limb patterning is dramatically altered in direct-developing frogs, but little attention has been given to direct-developing salamanders. We use expression patterns of two genes, sox9 and col2a1, to assess skeletal patterning during embryonic limb development in the direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus. Limb patterning in P. cinereus partially resembles that described in other urodele species, with early formation of digit II and a generally anterior-to-posterior formation of preaxial digits...
March 12, 2018: Evolution & Development
Yoann Stussi, Sylvain Delplanque, Seline Coraj, Gilles Pourtois, David Sander
Despite its evolutionary and clinical significance, appetitive conditioning has been rarely investigated in humans. It has been proposed that this discrepancy might stem from the difficulty in finding suitable appetitive stimuli that elicit strong physiological responses. However, this might also be due to a possible lack of sensitivity of the psychophysiological measures commonly used to index human appetitive conditioning. Here, we investigated whether the postauricular reflex-a vestigial muscle microreflex that is potentiated by pleasant stimuli relative to neutral and unpleasant stimuli-may provide a valid psychophysiological indicator of appetitive conditioning in humans...
March 9, 2018: Psychophysiology
Lygie Esquirol, Thomas S Peat, Matthew Wilding, Jian-Wei Liu, Nigel G French, Carol J Hartley, Hideki Onagi, Thomas Nebl, Christopher J Easton, Janet Newman, Colin Scott
Cyanuric acid is a metabolic intermediate of s-triazines, such as atrazine (a common herbicide) and melamine (used in resins and plastics). Cyanuric acid is mineralized to ammonia and carbon dioxide by the soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP via three hydrolytic enzymes (AtzD, AtzE, and AtzF). Here, we report the purification and biochemical and structural characterization of AtzE. Contrary to previous reports, we found that AtzE is not a biuret amidohydrolase, but instead catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of 1-carboxybiuret...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xiaowu Liu, Chuize Kong, Zhe Zhang
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common urological cancer, and more and more evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in BCa pathogenesis. Aberrant miR-130b expression has been reported in several types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of miR-130b on BCa progression. miR‑130b expression in BCa cell lines and tissues was detected using real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and vestigial-like protein 4 (VGLL4) expression in tissue specimens and BCa cells that had been transfected with miR-130b mimics and inhibitors was detected using western blotting...
March 6, 2018: Oncology Reports
S Fateixa, M Raposo, H I S Nogueira, T Trindade
An important feature in the fabrication of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms is, together with the high efficiency, to allow the rapid collection and analysis of a vestigial analyte. Conventional substrates based on rigid solid materials or metal hydrosols are not suitable for sample extraction, limiting their application in areas such as water quality monitoring. Herein, we have developed a strategy to fabricate SERS active substrates (Ag/LCP) based on liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) textile fibers decorated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs)...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Gabrielle Wheway, Liliya Nazlamova, John T Hancock
The presence of single, non-motile "primary" cilia on the surface of epithelial cells has been well described since the 1960s. However, for decades these organelles were believed to be vestigial, with no remaining function, having lost their motility. It wasn't until 2003, with the discovery that proteins responsible for transport along the primary cilium are essential for hedgehog signaling in mice, that the fundamental importance of primary cilia in signal transduction was realized. Little more than a decade later, it is now clear that the vast majority of signaling pathways in vertebrates function through the primary cilium...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Chang Xue, Hai Hong Wang, Jun Zhu, Jun Zhou
Transcriptional cofactor Vestigial-like 4 (VGLL4) was considered to take part in the early stage of development. Different from human, three paralogs of vgll4 were found in zebrafish, which were vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l. However, the expression patterns of the three paralogs during zebrafish development remains unknown. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression of zebrafish vgll4 paralogs during normal embryonic and larval development. Similar expression was shown in certain areas at similar stages for the three paralogs...
February 14, 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Will T Schneider, Christian Rutz, Berthold Hedwig, Nathan W Bailey
The evolutionary loss of sexual traits is widely predicted. Because sexual signals can arise from the coupling of specialized motor activity with morphological structures, disruption to a single component could lead to overall loss of function. Opportunities to observe this process and characterize any remaining signal components are rare, but could provide insight into the mechanisms, indirect costs and evolutionary consequences of signal loss. We investigated the recent evolutionary loss of a long-range acoustic sexual signal in the Hawaiian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus Flatwing males carry mutations that remove sound-producing wing structures, eliminating all acoustic signalling and affording protection against an acoustically-orientating parasitoid fly...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Brian V Brown
Background: Flies of the family Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera) are amongst the most diverse insects in the world, with an incredible array of species, structures and life histories. Wiithin their structural diversity is the world's smallest fly, Euryplatea nanaknihali Brown, 2012. New information: A second minute, limuloid female phorid parasitoid fly (Diptera: Phoridae) is described. Known from a single specimen from a site near Manaus, Brazil, Megapropodiphora arnoldigen...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
Christopher W Lennon, Matthew Stanger, Nilesh K Banavali, Marlene Belfort
Inteins are intervening proteins that undergo an autocatalytic splicing reaction that ligates flanking host protein sequences termed exteins. Some intein-containing proteins have evolved to couple splicing to environmental signals; this represents a new form of posttranslational regulation. Of particular interest is RadA from the archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii, for which long-range intein-extein interactions block splicing, requiring temperature and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) substrate to splice rapidly and accurately...
January 30, 2018: MBio
Lewis B Holmes, Hanah Nasri, Anne-Therese Hunt, M Hassan Toufaily, Marie-Noel Westgate
BACKGROUND: Postaxial polydactyly, type B is the most common type of polydactyly. The vestigial sixth finger is attached by a narrow neurovascular pedicle to the lateral aspect of the hand or foot at the level of the metacarpal-phalangeal joint or the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. The occurrence of this type of polydactyly varies among racial groups, by sex and sidedness. Postaxial polydactyly, type A is a fully developed extra digit on the lateral aspect of the hand or foot with a bifid fifth or sixth metacarpal/metatarsal and is much less common...
January 2018: Birth Defects Research
Jorge A Colombo
The subcortical white matter (SWM) has been traditionally considered as a site for passive-neutral-information transfer through cerebral cortex association and projection fibers. Yet, the presence of subcortical neuronal and glial "interstitial" cells expressing immunolabelled neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and synaptic vesicular proteins, and recent immunohistochemical and electrophysiological observations on the rat visual cortex as well as interactive regulation of myelinating processes support the possibility that SWM nests subcortical, regionally variable, distributed neuronal-glial circuits, that could influence information transfer...
January 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Shuo Wang, Qiyue Zhang, Rui Yang
Among the characters of caenagnathid oviraptorosaurians, the lateral occlusal grooves and ridges on the occlusal surface of the jaw bones often receive special attention. Recent studies demonstrated that ontogenetic edentulism is present in caenagnathids, and therefore the lateral occlusal grooves and ridges are vestigial alveoli and interdental septa, respectively. In the present paper, the dentary structures of caenagnathids were reevaluated based on CT images of Caenagnathiasia sp. IVPP V20377. Several previously unknown features including crateriform vestigial alveoli, the morphology of the dentary interior hollow space, and the paired blind tubes beneath the dentary symphyseal shelf are recognized...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Markus Lambertz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Pedro G B Souza-Dias, Lucas Denadai DE Campos, Francisco DE Assis Ganeo DE Mello
A new genus and two new species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) are described from the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil and Colombia. Desutterella manauara n. gen. n. sp. and D. colombiana n. gen. n. sp. are described based in characters of external morphology and genitalia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of reduced and pubescent male forewings, with stridulatory vein visible but other areas for sound production and propagation absent, and file teeth very reduced, vestigial. Regarding the male genitalia, Desutterella n...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
Jeong-Kyu Kim
Three new species of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836 are described with materials from South Korea and Far eastern Russia: Symmorphus kurzenkoi Kim sp. nov., S. truncatoclypeus Kim sp. nov., S. yamanei Kim sp. nov. All are members of the subgenus Symmorphus Wesmael 1836. S. kurzenkoi Kim sp. nov. is likely to be closely related to Symmorphus fuscipes in having well developed and completely closed propodeal submedian carina, but is clearly different from the latter in the shape of metasomal tergum 1 that is not markedly narrowed toward base...
November 17, 2017: Zootaxa
Hrishikesh Choudhury, D Khlur B Mukhim, Sudem Basumatary, Deisakee P Warbah, Dandadhar Sarma
Schistura larketensis, a new species of cavernicolous loach, is described from Khung, a limestone cave in Meghalaya, India. The species differs from Schistura papulifera, its only troglomorphic congener from northeast India, in having a smooth ventral surface of the head, the presence of a small cylindrical axillary pelvic lobe, and the presence of three pores in the supratemporal canal of the cephalic lateral-line system. Apart from these differences, the species can be immediately distinguished from all other species of Schistura from the Brahmaputra River and neighboring basins by the complete absence (or only vestigial presence) of eyes...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
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