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Himanshi Kapoor, Nalini Yadav, Madhu Chopra, Sushil Chandra Mahapatra, Veena Agrawal
Glioblastoma has been reckoned as the prime cause of death due to brain tumours, being most invasive and lethal. Available treatment options, i.e. surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapies are not effective in improving prognosis, so an alternate therapy is insistent. Plant based drugs are efficient due to their synergistic action, multi-targeted approach and least side effects. Present investigation reports the strong anti-tumorous potential of Nardostachys jatamansi rhizome extract (NJRE) on U87 MG glioblastoma cells...
October 19, 2016: Current Cancer Drug Targets
Geoffrey Ian McFadden, Ellen Yeh
Parasites such as Plasmodium and Toxoplasma possess a vestigial plastid homologous to the chloroplasts of algae and plants. The plastid (known as the apicoplast; for apicomplexan plastid) is non-photosynthetic and very much reduced, but has clear endosymbiotic ancestry including a circular genome that encodes RNAs and proteins and a suite of bacterial biosynthetic pathways. Here we review the initial discovery of the apicoplast, and recount the major new insights into apicoplast origin, biogenesis and function...
October 20, 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Chin Jian Yang, Lisa E Kursel, Anthony J Studer, Madelaine E Bartlett, Clinton J Whipple, John F Doebley
The effects of an allelic substitution at a gene often depend critically on genetic background, the genotype at other genes in the genome. During the domestication of maize from its wild ancestor (teosinte), an allelic substitution at teosinte branched (tb1) caused changes in both plant and ear architecture. The effects of tb1 on phenotype were shown to depend on multiple background loci including one called enhancer of tb1.2 (etb1.2) We mapped etb1.2 to a YABBY class transcription factor (ZmYAB2.1) and showed that the maize alleles of ZmYAB2...
October 11, 2016: Genetics
Mouna Sghir, Mohamed Guedria, Marwa Maraoui, Wafa Haj Hamad, Wafa Said, Saida Jerbi, Wassia Kessomtini
OBJECTIVE: The femur aplasia is a congenital developmental defect of the femur often associated with malformations of the pelvis and lower limb. There are all intermediaries between the short femur and vestigial femoral. The total femur absence (agenesis) is rare. We report a case of a child followed in our Physical Medicine Department for proximal bilateral femoral agenesis. OBSERVATIONS: This is M.S., a 5 years old child, addressed for a waddling gait and a deformation of the trunk...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Caitlin G Robinson, Taylor C Duke, Ashley W Allison
True human tails are rare vestigial structures that are typically removed in childhood. Here a case is presented in which an inconspicuous sacrococcygeal tail was incidentally discovered in late adulthood. A 56-year-old man with no significant past medical history presented to a dermatology clinic with a chief complaint of a hyperpigmented lesion on his central back. However, on full body skin exam, a separate flesh-colored 0.7 cm x 0.5 cm appendage was discovered in the midline sacrococcygeal region. This lesion had been present and unchanged since childhood...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Jamie J Kwan, Logan W Donaldson
BACKGROUND: CASKIN2 is a neuronal signaling scaffolding protein comprised of multiple ankyrin repeats, two SAM domains, and one SH3 domain. The CASKIN2 SH3 domain for an NMR structural determination because its peptide-binding cleft appeared to deviate from the repertoire of aromatic enriched amino acids that typically bind polyproline-rich sequences. RESULTS: The structure demonstrated that two non-canonical basic amino acids (K290/R319) in the binding cleft were accommodated well in the SH3 fold...
2016: BMC Structural Biology
Abhay Kumar Singh, Georgios Pantouris, Sebastian Borosch, Siripong Rojanasthien, Thomas Yoonsang Cho
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a master regulator of proinflammatory cytokines and plays pathological roles when not properly regulated in rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, atherosclerosis, asthma and cancer. Unlike canonical cytokines, MIF has vestigial keto-enol tautomerase activity. Most of the current MIF inhibitors were screened for the inhibition of this enzymatic activity. However, only some of the enzymatic inhibitors inhibit receptor-mediated biological functions of MIF, such as cell recruitment, through an unknown molecular mechanism...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Zaira Rizopoulos, Kai Matuschewski, Joana Haussig
Malarial parasites have evolved complex regulation of heme supply and disposal to adjust to heme-rich and -deprived host environments. In addition to its own pathway for heme biosynthesis, Plasmodium likely harbors mechanisms for heme scavenging from host erythrocytes. Elaborate compartmentalization of de novo heme synthesis into three subcellular locations, including the vestigial plastid organelle, indicates critical roles in life cycle progression. In this study, we systematically profile the essentiality of heme biosynthesis by targeted gene deletion of enzymes in early steps of this pathway...
September 6, 2016: Infection and Immunity
Xiang-Rong Zhao, Chao Gao, Yong Zhang, Lei Kong, Wei Qu, Jia Li, Yong-Sheng Gao, Yong-Hua Yu
BACKGROUND: The urachus is a vestigial tubular structure that connects the urinary bladder to the allantois during early embryonic development. Urachal carcinoma develops in the urachus, which is an embryological remnant of the urogenital sinus and allantois. The estimated annual incidence of urachal carcinoma in the general population is 0.01% of all cancers in adults. Moreover, urachal carcinoma accounts for 0.34% to 0.7% of all bladder carcinoma cases. And breast metastasis is extremely rarer...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Kamaljeet Singh, C James Sung, W Dwayne Lawrence, M Ruhul Quddus
Mesonephric ducts regress in genotypic females, leaving behind few remnants. These vestigial structures are often recognized in the mesosalpinx and paracervical regions. We report here 3 cases of female-to-male transgenders who underwent hysterectomy following testosterone treatment. Both female and male genital structures were identified on histologic examination. Although the morphologic appearances of the specimens were unremarkable, histologically 1 case revealed a well-formed fallopian tube as well as an epididymis and 2 cases showed prostate glands to be present in the cervical squamous epithelium...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Go-Woon Kim, Jong-Hoon Won, Ok-Kyung Lee, Sang-Soo Lee, Jeong-Hoon Han, Orkhon Tsogtbaatar, Sujin Nam, Yeon Kim, Kyung-Ok Cho
ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteases with thrombospondin motif) family consists of secreted proteases, and is shown to cleave extracellular matrix proteins. Their malfunctions result in cancers and disorders in connective tissues. We report here that a Drosophila ADAMTS named Sol narae (Sona) promotes Wnt/Wingless (Wg) signaling. sona loss-of-function mutants are lethal and rare escapers had malformed appendages, indicating that sona is essential for fly development and survival. sona exhibited positive genetic interaction with wntless (wls) that encodes a cargo protein for Wg...
2016: Scientific Reports
C Simerly, C Castro, C Hartnett, C C Lin, M Sukhwani, K Orwig, G Schatten
The fertilizing sperm's lengthiest unchartered voyage is through the longest, least-investigated organ in a man's body - the Epididymis. Over six meters long in men, ~80 meters in stallions and over one-hundred times a mouse's body length, there are few functions known aside from sperm storage and nutrition. While spermatogenesis is completed in the testes, here we demonstrate sperm centriole reduction occurs within the epididymis. Investigations of GFP-CENTR mice and controls demonstrate both the presence of centriole pairs in the upper caput region of the epididymis and, the destruction, first, of the distal and, then, of the proximal centriole as the sperm transits to the cauda and vas deferens in preparation for its climactic release...
2016: Scientific Reports
P Mendes, R Martinho, S Leite, A Leite-Moreira, A Lourenço, M Moreira-Rodrigues
OBJECTIVE: Phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (Pnmt) is required for the conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine. Bao et al (2007) described that Pnmt-knockout (Pnmt-KO) mice have an increased ratio of left ventricular (LV) posterior wall thickness to internal dimensions (LVPW/LVID) but not overall cardiac hypertrophy. Pnmt-KO mice showed normal resting blood pressure (BP) but became hypertensive during treadmill exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiac morphological and functional alterations after chronic exercise in Pnmt-KO mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
J A Buckland-Nicks
The adipose fin of salmonids, once widely regarded as vestigial and lacking in function, was shown to be important to swimming efficiency in juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta. Examination with confocal microscopy of adipose fins of S. trutta stained with various antibodies targeting the nervous system revealed several large nerves entering the fin and anastomosing throughout its length. The branching nerves form a plexus with specific patterns of fine terminal branches in the leading and trailing edges. A network of astrocyte-like cells (ALCs) that is linked through cell processes to nerves and structural collagen reacted positively with antibodies to glial cells...
October 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
Christian B Willberg, Keith E Garrison, R Brad Jones, Duncan A Meiklejohn, Gerald Spotts, Teri J Liegler, Mario A Ostrowski, Annika C Karlsson, Frederick M Hecht, Douglas F Nixon
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0010249.].
2016: PloS One
F Castro-Poças, Tarcísio Araújo, André Coelho, Donzilia Silva, Isabel Pedroto
A 69-year-old female with unremarkable past history underwent endoscopy for dyspepsia. She denied weight loss or anorexia. Upper endoscopy revealed a bulge in the lesser curvature and posterior wall of the stomach with 4-5 cm. Endoscopic ultrasound was performed which showed a heterogeneous lesion, anechogenic in the major part, with a floating membrane inside, the greatest diameter of 90.8 × 17.2 mm, originated in the left liver lobe. Surgical resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed a cystic lesion with an acellular thick fibrous wall, surrounded by a conspicuous inflammatory reaction...
2016: Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Liting Lim, Claire P Sayers, Christopher D Goodman, Geoffrey I McFadden
Apicoplasts are vestigial plastids in apicomplexan parasites like Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria. Apicomplexan parasites are dependant on their apicoplasts for synthesis of various molecules that they are unable to scavenge in sufficient quantity from their host, which makes apicoplasts attractive drug targets. Proteins known as plastid phosphate translocators (pPTs) are embedded in the outer apicoplast membrane and are responsible for the import of carbon, energy and reducing power to drive anabolic synthesis in the organelle...
2016: PloS One
Weihai Li, Kefan Li, Rongfeng Wang, Ding Yang
The pharate larval stage of Paraleuctra tianmushana Li & Yang is described for the first time. The yellowish-brown larvae of this species are characterized by a slender abdomen lacking setae and a unique pattern of dark pigmentation on the head, pronotum, and abdominal terga. Additionally, vestigial cervical gills in this species are present, a character not present in known Nearctic species.
2016: Zootaxa
S K Pati, T Thackeray, A Khaire
Five new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crabs, Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp., Ghatiana splendida n. sp., Gubernatoriana alcocki Pati n. sp., Gubernatoriana thackerayi Pati n. sp., and Gubernatoriana waghi Pati n. sp. are described from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and Goa states of India. Ghatiana atropurpurea n. sp. can be differentiated from other species of Ghatiana Pati & Sharma, 2014 by the shape and colour of its carapace, and the sigmoid-shaped male first pleopod (G1). Ghatiana splendida n. sp...
2016: Zootaxa
R David Andrew, Yi-Ting Hsieh, C Devin Brisson
We examined in live coronal slices from rat and mouse which brain regions generate potassium-triggered spreading depolarization (SDKt). This technique simulates cortical spreading depression, which underlies migraine aura in the intact brain. An SDKt episode was evoked by increasing bath [K(+)]o and recorded as a propagating front of elevated light transmittance representing transient neuronal swelling in gray matter of neocortex, hippocampus, striatum, and thalamus. In contrast, SDKt was not imaged in hypothalamic nuclei or brainstem with exception of those nuclei near the dorsal brainstem surface...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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