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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321606/reevaluation-of-the-dentary-structures-of-caenagnathid-oviraptorosaurs-dinosauria-theropoda
#1
Shuo Wang, Qiyue Zhang, Rui Yang
Among the characters of caenagnathid oviraptorosaurians, the lateral occlusal grooves and ridges on the occlusal surface of the jaw bones often receive special attention. Recent studies demonstrated that ontogenetic edentulism is present in caenagnathids, and therefore the lateral occlusal grooves and ridges are vestigial alveoli and interdental septa, respectively. In the present paper, the dentary structures of caenagnathids were reevaluated based on CT images of Caenagnathiasia sp. IVPP V20377. Several previously unknown features including crateriform vestigial alveoli, the morphology of the dentary interior hollow space, and the paired blind tubes beneath the dentary symphyseal shelf are recognized...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291127/the-vestigial-lung-of-the-coelacanth-and-its-implications-for-understanding-pulmonary-diversity-among-vertebrates-new-perspectives-and-open-questions
#2
Markus Lambertz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245570/-i-desutterella-i-n-gen-a-new-genus-of-luzarinae-orthoptera-grylloidea-phalangopsidae-and-the-first-report-of-the-aracambiae-group-souza-dias-amp-desutter-grandcolas-2014-in-the-amazon
#3
Pedro G B Souza-Dias, Lucas Denadai DE Campos, Francisco DE Assis Ganeo DE Mello
A new genus and two new species of Luzarinae cricket (Grylloidea, Phalangopsidae) are described from the Amazon Rainforest of Brazil and Colombia. Desutterella manauara n. gen. n. sp. and D. colombiana n. gen. n. sp. are described based in characters of external morphology and genitalia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of reduced and pubescent male forewings, with stridulatory vein visible but other areas for sound production and propagation absent, and file teeth very reduced, vestigial. Regarding the male genitalia, Desutterella n...
November 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245551/descriptions-of-three-new-species-of-the-genus-i-symmorphus-i-wesmael-1836-hymenoptera-vespidae-eumeninae-from-south-korea-with-an-updated-revised-key-to-far-eastern-species
#4
Jeong-Kyu Kim
Three new species of the genus Symmorphus Wesmael, 1836 are described with materials from South Korea and Far eastern Russia: Symmorphus kurzenkoi Kim sp. nov., S. truncatoclypeus Kim sp. nov., S. yamanei Kim sp. nov. All are members of the subgenus Symmorphus Wesmael 1836. S. kurzenkoi Kim sp. nov. is likely to be closely related to Symmorphus fuscipes in having well developed and completely closed propodeal submedian carina, but is clearly different from the latter in the shape of metasomal tergum 1 that is not markedly narrowed toward base...
November 17, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245525/-i-schistura-i-i-larketensis-i-a-new-cavernicolous-fish-teleostei-nemacheilidae-from-meghalaya-northeast-india
#5
Hrishikesh Choudhury, D Khlur B Mukhim, Sudem Basumatary, Deisakee P Warbah, Dandadhar Sarma
Schistura larketensis, a new species of cavernicolous loach, is described from Khung, a limestone cave in Meghalaya, India. The species differs from Schistura papulifera, its only troglomorphic congener from northeast India, in having a smooth ventral surface of the head, the presence of a small cylindrical axillary pelvic lobe, and the presence of three pores in the supratemporal canal of the cephalic lateral-line system. Apart from these differences, the species can be immediately distinguished from all other species of Schistura from the Brahmaputra River and neighboring basins by the complete absence (or only vestigial presence) of eyes...
November 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181994/urachal-remnant-causing-umbilical-in-drawing-during-micturition
#6
A J Martin, L McDonald, M Gopal
The urachus is a vestigial remnant of the allantois, which is normally obliterated during fetal life to become the median umbilical ligament, which runs between the urinary bladder and umbilicus in adults. Failure of obliteration leaves a tubular urachal remnant, which may present with disease. We report a unique case of a urachal remnant causing umbilical pain and in-drawing on micturition in a nine-year-old boy. There was no urine discharge from the umbilicus and in-drawing did not occur on defecation. His urinary stream was normal...
November 28, 2017: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166655/how-well-do-you-know-your-mutation-complex-effects-of-genetic-background-on-expressivity-complementation-and-ordering-of-allelic-effects
#7
Christopher H Chandler, Sudarshan Chari, Alycia Kowalski, Lin Choi, David Tack, Michael DeNieu, William Pitchers, Anne Sonnenschein, Leslie Marvin, Kristen Hummel, Christian Marier, Andrew Victory, Cody Porter, Anna Mammel, Julie Holms, Gayatri Sivaratnam, Ian Dworkin
For a given gene, different mutations influence organismal phenotypes to varying degrees. However, the expressivity of these variants not only depends on the DNA lesion associated with the mutation, but also on factors including the genetic background and rearing environment. The degree to which these factors influence related alleles, genes, or pathways similarly, and whether similar developmental mechanisms underlie variation in the expressivity of a single allele across conditions and among alleles is poorly understood...
November 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140758/personal-accounts-of-poverty-a-thematic-analysis-of-social-media
#8
Mary A Caplan, Gregory Purser, Peter A Kindle
The field of social work seeks to enhance human well-being by addressing the needs of people living in poverty. Three billion people around the world use the internet daily, and 65% of them use social media. This article qualitatively identifies emergent themes about the lived experiences of poverty from people who reported either being poor or having have been poor, using selected social media posts (N = 1,495) on the website Reddit. We found that the experiences of poverty bring arduousness and hardship, which necessitates an arsenal of survival strategies and skills...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114853/the-evolution-of-the-manus-of-early-theropod-dinosaurs-is-characterized-by-high-inter-and-intraspecific-variation
#9
Daniel E Barta, Sterling J Nesbitt, Mark A Norell
The origin of the avian hand, with its reduced and fused carpals and digits, from the five-fingered hands and complex wrists of early dinosaurs represents one of the major transformations of manus morphology among tetrapods. Much attention has been directed to the later part of this transition, from four- to three-fingered taxa. However, earlier anatomical changes may have influenced these later modifications, possibly paving the way for a later frameshift in digit identities. We investigate the five- to four-fingered transition among early dinosaurs, along with changes in carpus morphology...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078687/endobronchial-thermoplasty-for-asthma
#10
REVIEW
Felix Zamora, Roy Cho, Madhuri Rao, Heidi Gibson, H Erhan Dincer
Asthma is an incurable chronic disease affecting approximately 24 million people in the United States. The hallmark features of asthma are reversible airflow obstruction, airway hyperresponsiveness, airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and excessive mucus secretion. Clinical symptoms include episodic or persistent breathlessness, wheezing, cough, or chest tightness/pressure. Forty-five percent of asthmatics continue to have yearly exacerbations and the disease is responsible for approximately 3,600 annual deaths...
2017: Journal of visualized surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045586/vestigial-aortic-inter-leaflet-triangle-resulting-in-severe-aortic-regurgitation
#11
Kikuko Obase, Roberto M Lang, Yumiko Kimura, Takashi Miura, Kiyoyuki Eishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990569/-history-of-the-thymus-from-an-accident-of-evolution-to-the-programming-of-immunological-self-tolerance
#12
Vincent Geenen
This synthesis presents the most important disruptions of conceptions about the thymus since its discovery in Antique Greece. For centuries, the thymus was considered as a vestigial organ, and its role in T-lymphocyte differentiation has been proposed only in the 1960's. Most recent studies attribute to the thymus an essential and unique role in the programming of central immunological self-tolerance. The basal mechanism implicated in this function is the transcription in thymic epithelium of genes encoding precursors of self-antigens...
June 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973883/heterochronic-truncation-of-odontogenesis-in-theropod-dinosaurs-provides-insight-into-the-macroevolution-of-avian-beaks
#13
Shuo Wang, Josef Stiegler, Ping Wu, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Dongyu Hu, Amy Balanoff, Yachun Zhou, Xing Xu
Beaks are innovative structures characterizing numerous tetrapod lineages, including birds, but little is known about how developmental processes influenced the macroevolution of these important structures. Here we provide evidence of ontogenetic vestigialization of alveoli in two lineages of theropod dinosaurs and show that these are transitional phenotypes in the evolution of beaks. One of the smallest known caenagnathid oviraptorosaurs and a small specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Sapeornis both possess shallow, empty vestiges of dentary alveoli...
October 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931837/endocast-of-the-late-triassic-carnian-dinosaur-saturnalia-tupiniquim-implications-for-the-evolution-of-brain-tissue-in-sauropodomorpha
#14
Mario Bronzati, Oliver W M Rauhut, Jonathas S Bittencourt, Max C Langer
The evolutionary history of dinosaurs might date back to the first stages of the Triassic (c. 250-240 Ma), but the oldest unequivocal records of the group come from Late Triassic (Carnian - c. 230 Ma) rocks of South America. Here, we present the first braincase endocast of a Carnian dinosaur, the sauropodomorph Saturnalia tupiniquim, and provide new data regarding the evolution of the floccular and parafloccular lobe of the cerebellum (FFL), which has been extensively discussed in the field of palaeoneurology...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928009/oropharyngeal-epignathus-with-partial-facial-duplication-report-of-a-rare-case
#15
M Herath, B S M S Siriwardena, R D Jayasinghe, D K Dias
Foetal oral teratoma or epignathus is a rare benign condition that originates in the oropharyngeal region. The term 'teratoma' refers to a mass composed of poorly organized tissues derived from each of the three germ layers. Epignathus may occur when one twin ceases development during gestation and becomes vestigial to the fully formed dominant twin. The reported incidence of epignathus is approximately 1:35,000 to 1:200,000 live births. A unique case of partial facial duplication with gross histological and radiological evidence of partial duplication of the facial elements and organs is presented herein...
September 16, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919247/the-effect-of-directed-photic-stimulation-of-the-pineal-on-experimental-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Gregory L Willis, Christopher B Freelance
The role of the circadian system in Parkinson's disease (PD) is a topic of increasing scientific interest. This has emerged from recent studies demonstrating an altered response of PD patients to treatment in relation to the phase of the light/dark cycle and from other work defining the functional significance of melanocytes in PD: a cell type that the nigro-striatal dopamine (NSD) system and circadian system both contain. The present study was undertaken to determine the sensitivity of the pineal, as the final common pathway of the circadian system, to light delivered directly to the pineal via surgical implantation of LEDs...
December 1, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893003/spectrum-of-mri-appearance-of-mayer-rokitansky-kuster-hauser-mrkh-syndrome-in-primary-amenorrhea-patients
#17
Deb Kumar Boruah, Shantiranjan Sanyal, Bidyut Bikash Gogoi, Kangkana Mahanta, Arjun Prakash, Antony Augustine, Sashidhar Achar, Hiranya Baishya
INTRODUCTION: Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser (MRKH) synd-rome is a malformation in female genital tract due to interrupted embryonic development of para-mesonephric ducts leading to uterine and proximal vagina aplasia or hypoplasia. AIM: To analyse the MRI findings in females suspected of MRKH syndrome in a primary amenorrhea workup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study comprising of 11 patients of MRKH syndrome presented in a tertiary care centre from March 2016 to February 2017 evaluated in 1...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883413/the-ca2-influx-through-the-mammalian-skeletal-muscle-dihydropyridine-receptor-is-irrelevant-for-muscle-performance
#18
Anamika Dayal, Kai Schrötter, Yuan Pan, Karl Föhr, Werner Melzer, Manfred Grabner
Skeletal muscle excitation-contraction (EC) coupling is initiated by sarcolemmal depolarization, which is translated into a conformational change of the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), which in turn activates sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release to trigger muscle contraction. During EC coupling, the mammalian DHPR embraces functional duality, as voltage sensor and L-type Ca2+ channel. Although its unique role as voltage sensor for conformational EC coupling is firmly established, the conventional function as Ca2+ channel is still enigmatic...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870996/vestigial-like-3-is-a-novel-ets1-interacting-partner-and-regulates-trigeminal-nerve-formation-and-cranial-neural-crest-migration
#19
Emilie Simon, Nadine Thézé, Sandrine Fédou, Pierre Thiébaud, Corinne Faucheux
Drosophila Vestigial is the founding member of a protein family containing a highly conserved domain, called Tondu, which mediates their interaction with members of the TEAD family of transcription factors (Scalloped in Drosophila). In Drosophila, the Vestigial/Scalloped complex controls wing development by regulating the expression of target genes through binding to MCAT sequences. In vertebrates, there are four Vestigial-like genes, the functions of which are still not well understood. Here, we describe the regulation and function of vestigial-like 3 (vgll3) during Xenopus early development...
October 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828570/the-cryptomonad-nucleomorph
#20
Geoffrey I McFadden
The cryptomonad nucleomorph is a vestigial nucleus of a eukaryotic red alga engulfed by a phagotrophic protist and retained as a photosynthetic endosymbiont. This review recounts the initial discovery and subsequent characterisation of the cryptomonad nucleomorph focusing on the key role of Peter Sitte and his protégés in our understanding of secondary endosymbiosis to create complex plastids, one of the major transition events in the evolution of life on Earth.
September 2017: Protoplasma
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