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David A Gray, Scherezade Hormozi, Fritz R Libby, Randy W Cohen
Vestigial morphological traits are common and well known in a variety of taxa. Identification of vestigial genes has illustrated the potential for evolutionary reversals and the re-expression of atavistic traits. Here we induce expression of a behavioural sexual signal, male calling song, in a cricket species, Gryllus ovisopis, which lacks a functional calling song. We successfully used acetylcholine injections in the frontal space of the head of male crickets to activate cerebral command neurons for cricket calling, and we recorded calling songs with a temporal chirp pattern similar to that of G...
May 2018: Biology Letters
Marilyn Mathew
In response to the question 'Who is My Jung?', this paper describes the profound personal impact of Jung's creative / artistic approach to the unconscious, beginning with my discovery of The Red Book at the age of twelve. Echoing the flow of my own dream-life, I trace the course of two analyses through the alchemical process of solutio, which began with numinous dreams of tidal waves and plunged us into inter- and intra-psychic analytic relationships that evoked vestigial memories of our first aquatic world in utero...
June 2018: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Robert A Syme, Anke Martin, Nathan A Wyatt, Julie A Lawrence, Mariano J Muria-Gonzalez, Timothy L Friesen, Simon R Ellwood
Pyrenophora teres , P. teres f. teres (PTT) and P. teres f. maculata (PTM) cause significant diseases in barley, but little is known about the large-scale genomic differences that may distinguish the two forms. Comprehensive genome assemblies were constructed from long DNA reads, optical and genetic maps. As repeat masking in fungal genomes influences the final gene annotations, an accurate and reproducible pipeline was developed to ensure comparability between isolates. The genomes of the two forms are highly collinear, each composed of 12 chromosomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Ana Mesquita, José Vidoedo, Miguel Maia, João Vasconcelos, João Almeida Pinto, Abreu De Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Hibernoma is a very rare benign tumor that arises from vestigial remnants of fetal brown adipose cells and usually manifests as a slowly growing, painless soft-tissue mass. It mainly occurs in adults, in the third and fourth decade of life, slightly more in women and is commonly seen in the subcutaneous regions of the back, neck, thighs and retroperitoneum. It was originally described in 1906 by Merkel, who named it "pseudolipoma". In 1914, Gery derived the name hibernoma from the tumor's histological similarity to brown fat in hibernating animals...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Yuta Mashimo, Yoko Matsumura, Rolf G Beutel, Laban Njoroge, Ryuichiro Machida
A new species of order Zoraptera, Zorotypus asymmetristernum Mashimo, n. sp., is described from Kakamega, Kenya, with its major diagnostic features and characteristics of the egg described and illustrated. The new species represents the sixth zorapteran species from the Afrotropic ecozone. A brief discussion on vestigial eye spots of apteron individuals and a key to the species of the Afrotropic ecozone are provided.
March 4, 2018: Zootaxa
Ho Jin Yang, Ji Eun Seo, Bum Sik Min, Andrei V Grischenko, Dennis P Gordon
The cribrilinid Bryozoa of Korea are described for the first time. Eight species are recognized, distributed in five genera: Cribrilina, Reginella, Jullienula, Figularia and Puellina. Juxtacribrilina n. subgen. is recognized as comprising a group of species within Cribrilina characterized, inter alia, by having adventitious avicularia, reduced and/or vestigial ooecia, a pair of proportionately long protective latero-oral costae that cross the front of the ooecium and fuse in the midline, and a cribrimorph ancestrula...
January 31, 2018: Zootaxa
Carlos Manuel de BorbÓn, MarÍa inÉs Zamar
A key is provided to 27 species of Frankliniella recorded from Argentina and Chile. Two new species are described from Argentina: Frankliniella inesae sp. n. from Baccharis [Asteraceae] and Frankliniella juancarlosi sp. n. from Junellia [Verbenaceae]. Two species are newly recorded from Argentina: Frankliniella condei John and Frankliniella longipennis (Moulton). Pore plates on sternite III of females and a vestigial craspedum on tergite VII are used as diagnostic characters.
January 5, 2018: Zootaxa
Temesgen Mekonnen
Background: Congenital duplication of lower extremity, either complete or incomplete is extremely rare. Only 26 cases had been reported till 2010, of which only 5 cases had feature of complete duplication. Theories have been proposed that the cause of this abnormality includes maternal factors like diabetes and usage of teratogenic drugs. Duplication of lower extremity may mimic that of vestigial parasitic twin; phenotypically, it appears as an individual with extra appendage or limbs...
January 2018: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
Taro Nojiri, Ingmar Werneburg, Nguyen Truong Son, Vuong Tan Tu, Takenori Sasaki, Yu Maekawa, Daisuke Koyabu
Cochlear morphology has been regarded as one of the key traits to understand the origin and evolution of echolocation in bats, given its functionality and performance for receiving echolocation sonar. While numerous researchers have compared adult-stage morphology, few have studied the prenatal development of the cochlea. Here, we provide the first detailed three-dimensional description of the prenatal cranial development in bats, using Rhinolophus thomasi as a model, with particular interest to the petrosal which houses the cochlea...
June 2018: Journal of Morphology
Ryan R Kerney, James Hanken, David C Blackburn
Direct-developing amphibians form limbs during early embryonic stages, as opposed to the later, often postembryonic limb formation of metamorphosing species. Limb patterning is dramatically altered in direct-developing frogs, but little attention has been given to direct-developing salamanders. We use expression patterns of two genes, sox9 and col2a1, to assess skeletal patterning during embryonic limb development in the direct-developing salamander Plethodon cinereus. Limb patterning in P. cinereus partially resembles that described in other urodele species, with early formation of digit II and a generally anterior-to-posterior formation of preaxial digits...
March 12, 2018: Evolution & Development
Yoann Stussi, Sylvain Delplanque, Seline Coraj, Gilles Pourtois, David Sander
Despite its evolutionary and clinical significance, appetitive conditioning has been rarely investigated in humans. It has been proposed that this discrepancy might stem from the difficulty in finding suitable appetitive stimuli that elicit strong physiological responses. However, this might also be due to a possible lack of sensitivity of the psychophysiological measures commonly used to index human appetitive conditioning. Here, we investigated whether the postauricular reflex-a vestigial muscle microreflex that is potentiated by pleasant stimuli relative to neutral and unpleasant stimuli-may provide a valid psychophysiological indicator of appetitive conditioning in humans...
March 9, 2018: Psychophysiology
Lygie Esquirol, Thomas S Peat, Matthew Wilding, Jian-Wei Liu, Nigel G French, Carol J Hartley, Hideki Onagi, Thomas Nebl, Christopher J Easton, Janet Newman, Colin Scott
Cyanuric acid is a metabolic intermediate of s -triazines, such as atrazine (a common herbicide) and melamine (used in resins and plastics). Cyanuric acid is mineralized to ammonia and carbon dioxide by the soil bacterium Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP via three hydrolytic enzymes (AtzD, AtzE, and AtzF). Here, we report the purification and biochemical and structural characterization of AtzE. Contrary to previous reports, we found that AtzE is not a biuret amidohydrolase, but instead it catalyzes the hydrolytic deamination of 1-carboxybiuret...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Axel H Newton, Frantisek Spoutil, Jan Prochazka, Jay R Black, Kathryn Medlock, Robert N Paddle, Marketa Knitlova, Christy A Hipsley, Andrew J Pask
The Tasmanian tiger or thylacine ( Thylacinus cynocephalus ) was an iconic Australian marsupial predator that was hunted to extinction in the early 1900s. Despite sharing striking similarities with canids, they failed to evolve many of the specialized anatomical features that characterize carnivorous placental mammals. These evolutionary limitations are thought to arise from functional constraints associated with the marsupial mode of reproduction, in which otherwise highly altricial young use their well-developed forelimbs to climb to the pouch and mouth to suckle...
February 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Xiaowu Liu, Chuize Kong, Zhe Zhang
Bladder cancer (BCa) is the most common urological cancer, and more and more evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in BCa pathogenesis. Aberrant miR-130b expression has been reported in several types of cancers. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of miR-130b on BCa progression. miR‑130b expression in BCa cell lines and tissues was detected using real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and vestigial-like protein 4 (VGLL4) expression in tissue specimens and BCa cells that had been transfected with miR-130b mimics and inhibitors was detected using western blotting...
May 2018: Oncology Reports
S Fateixa, M Raposo, H I S Nogueira, T Trindade
An important feature in the fabrication of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platforms is, together with the high efficiency, to allow the rapid collection and analysis of a vestigial analyte. Conventional substrates based on rigid solid materials or metal hydrosols are not suitable for sample extraction, limiting their application in areas such as water quality monitoring. Herein, we have developed a strategy to fabricate SERS active substrates (Ag/LCP) based on liquid-crystal polymer (LCP) textile fibers decorated with Ag nanoparticles (NPs)...
May 15, 2018: Talanta
Gabrielle Wheway, Liliya Nazlamova, John T Hancock
The presence of single, non-motile "primary" cilia on the surface of epithelial cells has been well described since the 1960s. However, for decades these organelles were believed to be vestigial, with no remaining function, having lost their motility. It wasn't until 2003, with the discovery that proteins responsible for transport along the primary cilium are essential for hedgehog signaling in mice, that the fundamental importance of primary cilia in signal transduction was realized. Little more than a decade later, it is now clear that the vast majority of signaling pathways in vertebrates function through the primary cilium...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Chang Xue, Hai Hong Wang, Jun Zhu, Jun Zhou
Transcriptional cofactor Vestigial-like 4 (VGLL4) was considered to take part in the early stage of development. Different from human, three paralogs of vgll4 were found in zebrafish, which were vgll4a, vgll4b and vgll4l. However, the expression patterns of the three paralogs during zebrafish development remains unknown. In this study, we used in situ hybridization to elucidate the temporal and spatial expression of zebrafish vgll4 paralogs during normal embryonic and larval development. Similar expression was shown in certain areas at similar stages for the three paralogs...
June 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
D Martín-Vega, A Garbout, F Ahmed, L M Ferrer, J Lucientes, D D Colwell, M J R Hall
Oestrid flies (Diptera: Oestridae) do not feed during the adult stage as they acquire all necessary nutrients during the parasitic larval stage. The adult mouthparts and digestive tract are therefore frequently vestigial; however, morphological data on the alimentary canal in adult oestrid flies are scarce and a proper visualization of this organ system within the adult body is lacking. The present work visualizes the morphology of the alimentary canal in adults of two oestrid species, Oestrus ovis L. and Hypoderma lineatum (de Villiers), with the use of non-invasive micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and compares it with the highly developed alimentary canal of the blow fly Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy (Diptera: Calliphoridae)...
February 16, 2018: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Will T Schneider, Christian Rutz, Berthold Hedwig, Nathan W Bailey
The evolutionary loss of sexual traits is widely predicted. Because sexual signals can arise from the coupling of specialized motor activity with morphological structures, disruption to a single component could lead to overall loss of function. Opportunities to observe this process and characterize any remaining signal components are rare, but could provide insight into the mechanisms, indirect costs and evolutionary consequences of signal loss. We investigated the recent evolutionary loss of a long-range acoustic sexual signal in the Hawaiian field cricket Teleogryllus oceanicus Flatwing males carry mutations that remove sound-producing wing structures, eliminating all acoustic signalling and affording protection against an acoustically-orientating parasitoid fly...
February 2018: Biology Letters
Brian V Brown
Background: Flies of the family Phoridae (Insecta: Diptera) are amongst the most diverse insects in the world, with an incredible array of species, structures and life histories. Wiithin their structural diversity is the world's smallest fly, Euryplatea nanaknihali Brown, 2012. New information: A second minute, limuloid female phorid parasitoid fly (Diptera: Phoridae) is described. Known from a single specimen from a site near Manaus, Brazil, Megapropodiphora arnoldi gen...
2018: Biodiversity Data Journal
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