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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636618/de-novo-transcriptome-of-the-mayfly-cloeon-viridulum-and-transcriptional-signatures-of-prometabola
#1
Qin Si, Juan-Yan Luo, Ze Hu, Wei Zhang, Chang-Fa Zhou
Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) display many primitive characters and a unique type of metamorphosis (Prometabola). However, information on the genomes and transcriptomes of this insect group is limited. The RNA sequencing study presented here generated the first de novo transcriptome assembly of Cloeon viridulum (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), and compared gene expression signatures among the young larva (YL), mature larva (ML), subimago (SI), and imago (IM) stages of this mayfly. The transcriptome, based on 88 Gb of sequence data, comprised a set of 81,185 high quality transcripts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633988/a-cross-clade-h5n1-influenza-a-virus-neutralizing-monoclonal-antibody-binds-to-a-novel-epitope-within-the-vestigial-esterase-domain-of-hemagglutinin
#2
Subha Sankar Paul, Chee-Keng Mok, Tze-Minn Mak, Oi-Wing Ng, James Odame Aboagye, Teddy John Wohlbold, Florian Krammer, Yee-Joo Tan
The sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus have raised public health concerns. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against hemagglutinin (HA) have been increasingly used successfully for therapeutic purposes. Previously, MAb 9F4, generated against clade 1 H5N1 HA, was observed to have cross-clade neutralizing efficacy and inhibited viral entry by preventing the pH-mediated conformational change of HA. Furthermore, mouse-human chimeric MAb 9F4 was found to retain high degrees of neutralizing activity...
June 17, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620997/morphology-and-evolution-of-the-oral-shield-in-marsupial-neonates-including-the-newborn-monito-del-monte-dromiciops-gliroides-marsupialia-microbiotheria-pouch-young
#3
Nanette Y Schneider, Yamila Gurovich
Newborn marsupials can be arranged into three grades of developmental complexity based on their external form, as well as based on their organ systems and their cytology. The dasyurids are considered the least developed marsupials at birth, while didelphids and peramelids are intermediate, and macropods are the most developed. Currently there is still little information on caenolestid and microbiotherid development at birth. Developmental stages can be graded as G1, G2 and G3, with G1 being the least developed at birth, and G3 the most developed...
July 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615656/the-ccaat-binding-complex-controls-respiratory-gene-expression-and-iron-homeostasis-in-candida-glabrata
#4
Antonin Thiébaut, Thierry Delaveau, Médine Benchouaia, Julia Boeri, Mathilde Garcia, Gaëlle Lelandais, Frédéric Devaux
The CCAAT-binding complex (CBC) is a heterotrimeric transcription factor which is widely conserved in eukaryotes. In the model yeast S. cerevisiae, CBC positively controls the expression of respiratory pathway genes. This role involves interactions with the regulatory subunit Hap4. In many pathogenic fungi, CBC interacts with the HapX regulatory subunit to control iron homeostasis. HapX is a bZIP protein which only shares with Hap4 the Hap4Like domain (Hap4L) required for its interaction with CBC. Here, we show that CBC has a dual role in the pathogenic yeast C...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609960/revision-of-the-subgenus-i-niphetoscapha-i-heller-of-i-gymnopholus-i-heller%C3%A2-coleoptera-curculionoidea-entiminae-eupholini-and-a-new-species-with-epizoic-symbiosis-from-west-new-guinea
#5
Alexander Riedel, Agust Kilmaskossu
The subgenus Niphetoscapha Heller 1914 of Gymnopholus Heller 1901 is revised. It is characterized by the morphology of the elytral apex and the asymmetrical tip of the penis. Vestigial wings and a fused elytral suture indicate flightlessness. Gymnopholus (Niphetoscapha) inexspectatus sp. n. is described as new, exhibiting a distinct epizoic symbiosis with algae otherwise known from the subgenus Symbiopholus Gressitt 1966. The four species of Niphetoscapha inhabit the central mountain range of West New Guinea: Gymnopholus audax Gressitt 1966, G...
April 18, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597591/morphological-variation-in-anuran-limbs-constraints-and-novelties
#6
Marissa Fabrezi, Javier Goldberg, Mariana Chuliver Pereyra
Anurans have three primary types of locomotion: walking, jumping, and swimming. Additionally, they may dig, climb, grasp, etc. All adult anurans have four limbs, with four fingers on the hands and five toes on the feet. We summarized and updated knowledge on the interspecific variation within anuran limbs, then discuss how developmental constraints (e.g., in size) and novelties may have influenced anuran diversification through the locomotion. We analyze morphological variation from limb bud stages up to the final limb form resulting from certain skeletal organization and growth...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589837/description-of-a-new-quadrigyrid-acanthocephalan-from-kashmir-with-notes-on-metal-analysis-and-histopathology-and-a-key-to-species-of-the-subgenus-acanthosentis-from-the-indian-subcontinent
#7
Omar M Amin, Richard A Heckmann, Ummer Rashid Zargar
Acanthogyrus (Acanthosentis) kashmirensis n. sp. is described from recently collected acanthocephalan specimens in the Jhelum River in northern Kashmir that are conspecific with Neoechinorhynchus kashmirensis Fotedar & Dhar, 1977 originally described in an unpublished Ph.D. thesis in 1972 from 4 species of cyprinid fishes, Tor tor Hamilton, Bangana diplostoma (Heckel) [syn. Labeo diplostoma Heckel] , Labeo rohita Hamilton and Ptychobarbus sp. Steindachner. The poor unpublished diagnosis was followed by one uninformative abstract in a scientific meeting in 1977...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559354/rna-seq-reveals-conservation-of-function-among-the-yolk-sacs-of-human-mouse-and-chicken
#8
Tereza Cindrova-Davies, Eric Jauniaux, Michael G Elliot, Sungsam Gong, Graham J Burton, D Stephen Charnock-Jones
The yolk sac is phylogenetically the oldest of the extraembryonic membranes. The human embryo retains a yolk sac, which goes through primary and secondary phases of development, but its importance is controversial. Although it is known to synthesize proteins, its transport functions are widely considered vestigial. Here, we report RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) data for the human and murine yolk sacs and compare those data with data for the chicken. We also relate the human RNA-seq data to proteomic data for the coelomic fluid bathing the yolk sac...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551691/meckel-s-diverticulum-a-congenital-defect-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-underestimated-in-differential-diagnostics-own-experience
#9
Jolanta Pietrzak, Anna Obuchowicz, Dariusz Majda, Andrzej Kiedos
Meckel's diverticulum is a vestigial remnant of the omphalomesenteric duct. It is the most frequent defect of the gastrointestinal tract and is present in approx. 2% of the population: more often in boys than in girls, at a 3:1 ratio. Meckel's diverticulum causes clinical symptoms only in 4-6% of individuals. It is situated approximately 60-100 cm away from the Bauhin's valve. The wall of Meckel's diverticulum consists of all layers typical of the small intestine. It is usually approx. 2-3 cm long, but it can reach lengths of over 10 centimetres...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529333/a-vestigial-pathway-for-sex-differences-in-immune-regulation
#10
Yun Liang, J Michelle Kahlenberg, Johann E Gudjonsson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 22, 2017: Cellular & Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491275/outflow-tract-septation-and-the-aortic-arch-system-in-reptiles-lessons-for-understanding-the-mammalian-heart
#11
Robert E Poelmann, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot, Marcel W M Biermans, Anne I Dolfing, Armand Jagessar, Sam van Hattum, Amanda Hoogenboom, Lambertus J Wisse, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Merijn A G de Bakker, Freek J Vonk, Tatsuya Hirasawa, Shigeru Kuratani, Michael K Richardson
BACKGROUND: Cardiac outflow tract patterning and cell contribution are studied using an evo-devo approach to reveal insight into the development of aorto-pulmonary septation. RESULTS: We studied embryonic stages of reptile hearts (lizard, turtle and crocodile) and compared these to avian and mammalian development. Immunohistochemistry allowed us to indicate where the essential cell components in the outflow tract and aortic sac were deployed, more specifically endocardial, neural crest and second heart field cells...
2017: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490954/pretarsus-structure-in-relation-to-climbing-ability-in-the-ants-brachyponera-sennaarensis-and-daceton-armigerum
#12
Johan Billen, Mohammed S Al-Khalifa, Rogério R Silva
We studied the external and internal pretarsus structure of the ants Brachyponera sennaarensis and Daceton armigerum in relation to their very different climbing ability. B. sennaarensis is a ground-dwelling species that is not able to climb vertical smooth walls. They have a pair of straight pretarsal claws with an average claw tip angle of 56 degrees, while the ventral tarsal surface lacks fine hairs that touch the substrate. They have no adhesive pad on the vestigial arolium, while the arolium gland is very small...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479708/juxtaoral-organ-of-chievitz-an-innocuous-organ-to-be-known
#13
Sushma Basavaraj Bommanavar, K N Hema, Rajendra Baad
The Juxtaoral Organ of Chievitz is a normal anatomical structure located within the soft tissue in the buccotemporal fascia on the medial surface of the ascending ramus. This enigmatic vestigial structure is considered to be of neuroepithelial origin with no known function. As a matter of fact, JOOC is one of the most treacherous pitfalls in surgical pathology with respect to lesions in the head and neck area. Hence the basic aim of this short communication is to reveal the importance about this organ and enlighten the oral pathologist about this histopathological structure, thus preventing extensive and unnecessary investigations...
January 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472134/fluoride-export-fex-proteins-from-fungi-plants-and-animals-are-single-barreled-channels-containing-one-functional-and-one-vestigial-ion-pore
#14
Tetyana Berbasova, Sunitha Nallur, Taylor Sells, Kathryn D Smith, Patricia B Gordon, Susan Lori Tausta, Scott A Strobel
The fluoride export protein (FEX) in yeast and other fungi provides tolerance to fluoride (F-), an environmentally ubiquitous anion. FEX efficiently eliminates intracellular fluoride that otherwise would accumulate at toxic concentrations. The FEX homolog in bacteria, Fluc, is a 'double-barreled' channel formed by dimerization of two identical or similar subunits. FEX in yeast and other eukaryotes is a monomer resulting from covalent fusion of the two subunits. As a result, both potential fluoride pores are created from different parts of the same protein...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417039/a-true-human-tail-in-a-neonate-case-report-and-literature-review
#15
Mahesh K Pillai, Smitha T Nair
A true human tail is a benign vestigial caudal cutaneous structure composed of adipose, connective tissue, muscle, vessels, nerves and mechanoreceptors. A true human tail can be distinguished from a pseudotail as the latter is commonly associated with underlying spinal dysraphism, which requires specialised management. True human tails are very rare, with fewer than 40 cases reported to date. We report a healthy one-day-old male newborn who was referred to the Bharath Hospital, Kottayam, Kerala, India, in 2014 with a cutaneous appendage arising from the lumbosacral region...
February 2017: Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405712/emergence-of-new-srnas-in-enteric-bacteria-is-associated-with-low-expression-and-rapid-evolution
#16
Fenil R Kacharia, Jess A Millar, Rahul Raghavan
Non-coding small RNAs (sRNAs) are critical to post-transcriptional gene regulation in bacteria. However, unlike for protein-coding genes, the evolutionary forces that shape sRNAs are not understood. We investigated sRNAs in enteric bacteria and discovered that recently emerged sRNAs evolve at significantly faster rates than older sRNAs. Concomitantly, younger sRNAs are expressed at significantly lower levels than older sRNAs. This process could potentially facilitate the integration of newly emerged sRNAs into bacterial regulatory networks...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Molecular Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405393/lung-anatomy-and-histology-of-the-extant-coelacanth-shed-light-on-the-loss-of-air-breathing-during-deep-water-adaptation-in-actinistians
#17
Camila Cupello, François J Meunier, Marc Herbin, Gaël Clément, Paulo M Brito
Lungs are specialized organs originated from the posterior pharyngeal cavity and considered as plesiomorphic for osteichthyans, as they are found in extant basal actinopterygians (i.e. Polypterus) and in all major groups of extant sarcopterygians. The presence of a vestigial lung in adult stages of the extant coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae is the result of allometric growth during ontogeny, in relation with long-time adaptation to deep water. Here, we present the first detailed histological and anatomical description of the lung of Latimeria chalumnae, providing new insights into its arrested differentiation in an air-breathing complex, mainly represented by the absence of pneumocytes and of compartmentalization in the latest ontogenetic stages...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384845/biometrics-of-pyramidalis-muscle-and-its-clinical-importance
#18
Sushant Swaroop Das, Sandeep Saluja, Neelam Vasudeva
INTRODUCTION: Pyramidalis is classified as a vestigial muscle which is frequently present. It is muscle of the anterior abdominal wall. It is thought to tense the linea alba. It has been used as a surgical landmark, source of muscle stem cells and in various surgical procedures. AIM: The aim of this study was to describe the morphometry and morphology of pyramidalis muscle in an adult Indian population and its correlation with the clinical significance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cadaveric study on 25 formalin fixed cadavers (males-17, females-8) was conducted in context with prevalence, morphology and morphometry of pyramidalis muscle...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373032/comparative-morphology-of-the-prothoracic-leg-in-heliconian-butterflies-tracing-size-allometry-podite-fusions-and-losses-in-ontogeny-and-phylogeny
#19
Gilson R P Moreira, Denis S Silva, Gislene L Gonçalves
Prothoracic legs of heliconian butterflies (Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae, Heliconiini) are reduced in size compared to mesothoracic and metathoracic legs. They have no apparent function in males, but are used by females for drumming on host plants, a behavior related to oviposition site selection. Here, taking into account all recognized lineages of heliconian butterflies, we described their tarsi using optical and scanning electron microscopy and searched for podite fusions and losses, and analyzed allometry at the static, ontogenetic and phylogenetic levels...
April 20, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355472/drag-reduction-in-a-natural-high-frequency-swinging-micro-articulation-mouthparts-of-the-honey-bee
#20
Guanya Shi, Jianing Wu, Shaoze Yan
Worker-bee mouthparts consist of the glossa, the galeae and the vestigial labial palp, and it is these structures that enable bees to feed themselves. The articulation joints, 60∼70 µm in diameter, are present on the tip of the labial palp and are covered with olfactory sensilla, allowing movements between the segments. Using a specially designed high-speed camera system, we discovered that the articulation joint could swing in the nectar at a frequency of ∼50 Hz, considerably higher than the usual motion frequency of mammalian joints...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
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