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Elisabetta Esposito, Alessandra Pecorelli, Maddalena Sguizzato, Markus Drechsler, Paolo Mariani, Federica Carducci, Franco Cervellati, Rita Cortesi, Giuseppe Valacchi
BACKGROUND: Wound healing is a biological process that can get in a state of pathologic inflammation, requiring the use of specific medications able to promote proper tissue repair. OBJECTIVE: The study describes the production and characterization of nanoparticle based gel for wound healing treatment designed to deliver hyaluronic acid and retinyl palmitate onto the skin. METHOD: Tristearin solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers based on a tristearin and caprylic/capric triglyceride mixture were produced and characterized...
May 18, 2018: Current Drug Delivery
Jannatul Ferdouse, Yuki Yamamoto, Seiga Taguchi, Yumiko Yoshizaki, Kazunori Takamine, Hiroshi Kitagaki
In the manufacture of sake, Japanese traditional rice wine, sake yeast is fermented with koji, which is steamed rice fermented with the non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae . During fermentation, sake yeast requires lipids, such as unsaturated fatty acids and sterols, in addition to substances provided by koji enzymes for fermentation. However, the role of sphingolipids on the brewing characteristics of sake yeast has not been studied. In this study, we revealed that glycosylceramide, one of the sphingolipids abundant in koji, affects yeast fermentation...
2018: PeerJ
Anja Trapp, Alexander Faude, Natalie Hörold, Sven Schubert, Sabine Faust, Thilo Grob, Stefan Schmidt
New emerging technologies delivering benefits in terms of process robustness and economy are an inevitable prerequisite for monoclonal antibody purification processes intensification. Caprylic acid was proven as an effective precipitating agent enabling efficient precipitaton of product- and process-related impurities while leaving the antibody in solution. This purification step at mild acidic pH was therefore introduced in generic antibody platform approaches after Protein A capture and evaluated for its impact regarding process robustness and antibody stability...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biotechnology
Batul Diwan, Pratima Gupta
AIMS: Oleaginous yeasts were isolated from five different rotten fruits and their oleaginous behaviour was characterized with varying carbon source and concentration (C/N) to pave the path for their future applicabilities. METHODS & RESULTS: Sixteen yeasts were isolated, those accumulating around 20% of their cell dry weights as lipids were screened out and identified as Candida tropicalis and Pichia kudriavzevii. Amongst glucose, maltose, and sucrose, glucose was found favorable carbon source in terms of biomass yield and lipid content...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Tine A Baekdal, Mette Thomsen, Viera Kupčová, Cilie W Hansen, Thomas W Anderson
Semaglutide is a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog that has been co-formulated with the absorption enhancer, sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate, for oral administration. This trial (NCT02016911) investigated whether hepatic impairment affects the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral semaglutide. Subjects were classified into groups: normal hepatic function (n = 24), and mild (n = 12), moderate (n = 12), or severe (n = 8) hepatic impairment according to Child-Pugh criteria, and received once-daily oral semaglutide (5 mg for 5 days followed by 10 mg for 5 days)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Wenqian Li, Hao Shi, Huaihai Ding, Liangliang Wang, Yu Zhang, Xun Li, Fei Wang
This paper first describes characterization of two thermostable esterases (ThLip1 and ThLip2) from the thermophilic bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM 571. The recombinant esterase ThLip1 was active at 80 °C, pH 6.5 and maintained approx. 85% of original activity after 2 h incubation at 75 °C. Kinetic parameters, Km , Vmax and kcat /Km for 4-Nitrophenyl caprylate (pNPC) were 3.52 ± 0.47 mM, 191.18 ± 1.82 μmol min-1 mg-1 and 20.80 ± 0.07 mM-1  s-1 , respectively...
April 20, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
Kohei Miyata, Masami Ukawa, Kohta Mohri, Kozue Fujii, Mako Yamada, Sohei Tanishita, Satoshi Higashitarumi, Seiya Ishizaki, Hironori Kumagai, Kyohei Ochiai, Ken-Ichiro Hiwatari, Kazufumi Tsubaki, Koichi Shigeno, Etsuo Tobita, Hideo Kobayashi, Shinji Sakuma
Peptide and protein drugs, which are categorized as biologics, exhibit poor membrane permeability. This pharmacokinetic disadvantage has largely restricted the development of non-invasive dosage forms of biologics that deliver into systemic circulation. We have been investigating the potential use of cell-penetrating peptide-linked polymers as a novel absorption enhancer to overcome this challenge. Since our previous study revealed that biocompatible poly(N-vinylacetamide-co-acrylic acid) modified with D-octaarginine, a typical cell-penetrating peptide, enhanced in vitro permeation of biomolecules such as plasmid DNA and bovine serum albumin through cell membranes, the present study evaluated if the polymers enhanced in vivo absorption of biologics applied on the mucosa...
April 12, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Charlotte Granhall, Flemming L Søndergaard, Mette Thomsen, Thomas W Anderson
BACKGROUND: Semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, has been co-formulated with the absorption enhancer sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate (SNAC) as a tablet for oral administration. This trial (NCT02014259) investigated the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability of oral semaglutide in subjects with and without renal impairment. METHODS: Subjects were categorised as having normal renal function (n = 24), mild (n = 12), moderate (n = 12) or severe (n = 12) renal impairment, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) requiring haemodialysis (n = 11) and received once-daily oral semaglutide (5 mg for 5 days followed by 10 mg for 5 days) in the fasting state, followed by 30 min fasting after dosing...
April 6, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Eleni C Pappa, Thomas G Bontinis, Maria Tasioula-Margari, John Samelis
The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4 o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact αs - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan
The increase in crop productivity is an urgent need of the time to reduce scarcity of food in underdeveloped countries. Several biological, chemical and physical methods have been applied to promote crop yield. Application of magnetic field (MF) is an emerging physical method used to increase plant growth and yield. The reports on MF pretreatment-induced nutritional changes in harvested seeds are scarce. We previously identified the optimal frequency of MF to improve plant growth and yield as 1500 nT at 10...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Francisco Vásquez-Garay, Regis Teixeira Mendonça, Steven W Peretti
An innovative chemoenzymatic catalytic system for functionalizing lignin from Organosolv and Kraft pulping processes to obtain oxirane rings was investigated. Novozym435 (immobilized C. antarctica lipase B: CalB) was used to catalyze the peroxidation of caprylic acid to peroxycaprylic acid, which in turn reacted with unsaturated CC bonds to form the oxirane ring. The conversion of OH groups to oxirane rings (epoxides) reached 90% and 55% after 12 h for the two processes, respectively. The residual enzyme activity over the time course of the reactions indicated transient denaturing due to association with the lignin substrate (10-50%) as well as irreversible denaturation due to exposure to hydrogen peroxide...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Henrique A T Grecco, Alessandro B Amorim, Mayra A D Saleh, Marcos L P Tse, Filipe G Telles, Gabriela M Miassi, Guilherme M Pimenta, Dirlei A Berto
Two experiments (E) were carried out to evaluate the effects of fumaric acid and an acidifier blend [composed by calcium formate, calcium lactate and medium-chain fatty acids (capric and caprylic)] in piglet diets containing colistin (40 ppm) or halquinol (120 ppm) on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1), organs relative weight, pH values, intestinal morphometry and microbiota (E2). In E1, 192 and E2, 24 piglets weaned at 21-day-old were randomly assigned to blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments [absence or presence of fumaric acid x absence or presence of acidifier blend], six replicates of eight (E1) and one piglet per pen (E2)...
January 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
A Bedford, H Yu, M Hernandez, E J Squires, S Leeson, J Gong
Butyric acid is the primary energy source for colonocytes, and has shown potential as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics, due to its antimicrobial activity and positive effects on production performance traits of broiler chickens. SILOhealth 104 (SILO S.P.A., Florence, Italy) is a commercial product mainly containing mono- and di-glycerides of butyrate with a small portion of propionic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acid mono- and di-glycerides. Its effects on broiler performance and carcass composition have yet to be evaluated...
April 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Fatemeh Rahrovani, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Amir-Hooshang Ehsani, Ali Esrafili, Hamed Mohammadi, Ehsan Ghaedi, Mahnaz Zarei, Mahmoud Djalali
BACKGROUND: Skin cancers are the most prevalent malignancy worldwide and Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) include the major type of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Fatty acids (FA) have a structural role in cell membranes and play an important role for many physiological and pathological immunologic pathways. Several prospective studies have been conducted on circulating fatty acids and the risk of prostate, breast and other cancers. The present study aimed to determine the saturated fatty acid composition differences of red blood cells (RBCs) in BCC patients and healthy control...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Sumei Ling, Shiwei Xiao, Chengjie Xie, Rongzhi Wang, Linmao Zeng, Ke Wang, Danping Zhang, Xiulan Li, Shihua Wang
Brevetoxin-1 (BTX-1), a marine toxin mostly produced by the dinoflagellatae Karenia brevis , has caused the death of marine organisms and has had numerous toxicological effects on human health. Hence, it is very necessary to develop a rapid, economical, and reliable immunoassay method for BTX-1 detection. In this study, two kinds of complete antigen were synthesized using the succinic anhydride and isobutyl chloroformate two-step methods. Conjugate BTX-1-OVA was used as an antigen for mice immunization, and BTX-1-BSA for measuring the titer of the produced antibodies...
February 8, 2018: Toxins
Janna Frombach, Anna Sonnenburg, Björn-Dirk Krapohl, Torsten Zuberbier, Matthias Peiser, Ralf Stahlmann, Maximilian Schreiner
Allergic contact dermatitis is a widespread health disorder and occupational skin disease. Hence, screening for contact-sensitizing chemicals is highly relevant to toxicology, dermatology, and occupational medicine. The use of animal tests for this purpose is constrained by ethical considerations, need for high-throughput screening, and legislation (e.g., for cosmetics in the European Union). T cell activation is the final and most specific key event of the "adverse outcome pathway" for skin sensitization and therefore a promising target for the development of in vitro sensitization assays...
April 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Stephan Harm, Claudia Schildböck, Jens Hartmann
INTRODUCTION: Human serum albumin (HSA) is a monomeric multi-domain protein that possesses an extraordinary binding capacity. It plays an important role in storing and transporting endogenous substances, metabolites, and drugs throughout the human circulatory system. Clinically, HSA is used to treat a variety of diseases such as hypovolemia, shock, burns, hemorrhage, and trauma in critically ill patients. Pharmaceutical-grade HSA contains the stabilizers sodium caprylate and N-acetyltryptophanate to protect the protein from oxidative stress and to stabilize it for heat treatment which is applied for virus inactivation...
2018: PloS One
Joke Vandeweghe, Eveline Decoster, Hilde Lapeere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Pinjing He, Wenhao Han, Liming Shao, Fan Lü
Background: This study aimed at producing C6-C8 medium-chain carboxylates (MCCAs) directly from gaseous CO using mixed culture. The yield and C2-C8 product composition were investigated when CO was continuously fed with gradually increasing partial pressure. Results: The maximal concentrations of n -caproate, n -heptylate, and n -caprylate were 1.892, 1.635, and 1.033 mmol L-1 , which were achieved at the maximal production rates of 0.276, 0.442, and 0.112 mmol L-1 day-1 , respectively...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Nataša Z Bubić Pajić, Marija N Todosijević, Gordana M Vuleta, Nebojša D Cekić, Vladimir D Dobričić, Sonja R Vučen, Bojan R Čalija, Milica Ž Lukić, Tanja M Ilić, Snežana D Savić
Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
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