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Eleni C Pappa, Thomas G Bontinis, Maria Tasioula-Margari, John Samelis
The microbiological quality of and changes in the main physicochemical parameters, together with the evolution of proteolysis, lipolysis and volatile profiles of soft Xinotyri, a traditional Greek acid-curd cheese (pH≈4.4, moisture 65%, salt 1%) made from raw (RMC) or pasteurized (PMC) goat's milk without starters, were evaluated during aerobic storage at 4o C for 60 days. No statistically significant differences between the total nitrogen (TN) and nitrogen fraction (% of TN) contents, the degradation of intact αs - or β-caseins, total free amino acid (FAA) contents, and the ratio of hydrophilic and hydrophobic peptides in the water-soluble fraction of RMC and PMC were found...
December 2017: Food Technology and Biotechnology
Ramalingam Radhakrishnan
The increase in crop productivity is an urgent need of the time to reduce scarcity of food in underdeveloped countries. Several biological, chemical and physical methods have been applied to promote crop yield. Application of magnetic field (MF) is an emerging physical method used to increase plant growth and yield. The reports on MF pretreatment-induced nutritional changes in harvested seeds are scarce. We previously identified the optimal frequency of MF to improve plant growth and yield as 1500 nT at 10...
March 2018: Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants: An International Journal of Functional Plant Biology
Francisco Vásquez-Garay, Regis Teixeira Mendonça, Steven W Peretti
An innovative chemoenzymatic catalytic system for functionalizing lignin from Organosolv and Kraft pulping processes to obtain oxirane rings was investigated. Novozym435 (immobilized C. antarctica lipase B: CalB) was used to catalyze the peroxidation of caprylic acid to peroxycaprylic acid, which in turn reacted with unsaturated CC bonds to form the oxirane ring. The conversion of OH groups to oxirane rings (epoxides) reached 90% and 55% after 12 h for the two processes, respectively. The residual enzyme activity over the time course of the reactions indicated transient denaturing due to association with the lignin substrate (10-50%) as well as irreversible denaturation due to exposure to hydrogen peroxide...
May 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Henrique A T Grecco, Alessandro B Amorim, Mayra A D Saleh, Marcos L P Tse, Filipe G Telles, Gabriela M Miassi, Guilherme M Pimenta, Dirlei A Berto
Two experiments (E) were carried out to evaluate the effects of fumaric acid and an acidifier blend [composed by calcium formate, calcium lactate and medium-chain fatty acids (capric and caprylic)] in piglet diets containing colistin (40 ppm) or halquinol (120 ppm) on performance, diarrhea incidence (E1), organs relative weight, pH values, intestinal morphometry and microbiota (E2). In E1, 192 and E2, 24 piglets weaned at 21-day-old were randomly assigned to blocks with 2x2 factorial arrangement of treatments [absence or presence of fumaric acid x absence or presence of acidifier blend], six replicates of eight (E1) and one piglet per pen (E2)...
February 19, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
A Bedford, H Yu, M Hernandez, E J Squires, S Leeson, J Gong
Butyric acid is the primary energy source for colonocytes, and has shown potential as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics, due to its antimicrobial activity and positive effects on production performance traits of broiler chickens. SILOhealth 104 (SILO S.P.A., Florence, Italy) is a commercial product mainly containing mono- and di-glycerides of butyrate with a small portion of propionic, caprylic, capric, and lauric acid mono- and di-glycerides. Its effects on broiler performance and carcass composition have yet to be evaluated...
February 14, 2018: Poultry Science
Fatemeh Rahrovani, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht, Amir-Hooshang Ehsani, Ali Esrafili, Hamed Mohammadi, Ehsan Ghaedi, Mahnaz Zarei, Mahmoud Djalali
BACKGROUND: Skin cancers are the most prevalent malignancy worldwide and Basal Cell Carcinoma (BCC) include the major type of nonmelanoma skin cancers. Fatty acids (FA) have a structural role in cell membranes and play an important role for many physiological and pathological immunologic pathways. Several prospective studies have been conducted on circulating fatty acids and the risk of prostate, breast and other cancers. The present study aimed to determine the saturated fatty acid composition differences of red blood cells (RBCs) in BCC patients and healthy control...
February 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Sumei Ling, Shiwei Xiao, Chengjie Xie, Rongzhi Wang, Linmao Zeng, Ke Wang, Danping Zhang, Xiulan Li, Shihua Wang
Brevetoxin-1 (BTX-1), a marine toxin mostly produced by the dinoflagellatae Karenia brevis, has caused the death of marine organisms and has had numerous toxicological effects on human health. Hence, it is very necessary to develop a rapid, economical, and reliable immunoassay method for BTX-1 detection. In this study, two kinds of complete antigen were synthesized using the succinic anhydride and isobutyl chloroformate two-step methods. Conjugate BTX-1-OVA was used as an antigen for mice immunization, and BTX-1-BSA for measuring the titer of the produced antibodies...
February 8, 2018: Toxins
Janna Frombach, Anna Sonnenburg, Björn-Dirk Krapohl, Torsten Zuberbier, Matthias Peiser, Ralf Stahlmann, Maximilian Schreiner
Allergic contact dermatitis is a widespread health disorder and occupational skin disease. Hence, screening for contact-sensitizing chemicals is highly relevant to toxicology, dermatology, and occupational medicine. The use of animal tests for this purpose is constrained by ethical considerations, need for high-throughput screening, and legislation (e.g., for cosmetics in the European Union). T cell activation is the final and most specific key event of the "adverse outcome pathway" for skin sensitization and therefore a promising target for the development of in vitro sensitization assays...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Stephan Harm, Claudia Schildböck, Jens Hartmann
INTRODUCTION: Human serum albumin (HSA) is a monomeric multi-domain protein that possesses an extraordinary binding capacity. It plays an important role in storing and transporting endogenous substances, metabolites, and drugs throughout the human circulatory system. Clinically, HSA is used to treat a variety of diseases such as hypovolemia, shock, burns, hemorrhage, and trauma in critically ill patients. Pharmaceutical-grade HSA contains the stabilizers sodium caprylate and N-acetyltryptophanate to protect the protein from oxidative stress and to stabilize it for heat treatment which is applied for virus inactivation...
2018: PloS One
Joke Vandeweghe, Eveline Decoster, Hilde Lapeere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Contact Dermatitis
Pinjing He, Wenhao Han, Liming Shao, Fan Lü
Background: This study aimed at producing C6-C8 medium-chain carboxylates (MCCAs) directly from gaseous CO using mixed culture. The yield and C2-C8 product composition were investigated when CO was continuously fed with gradually increasing partial pressure. Results: The maximal concentrations of n-caproate, n-heptylate, and n-caprylate were 1.892, 1.635, and 1.033 mmol L-1, which were achieved at the maximal production rates of 0.276, 0.442, and 0.112 mmol L-1 day-1, respectively...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Nataša Z Bubić Pajić, Marija N Todosijević, Gordana M Vuleta, Nebojša D Cekić, Vladimir D Dobričić, Sonja R Vučen, Bojan R Čalija, Milica Ž Lukić, Tanja M Ilić, Snežana D Savić
Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value...
December 20, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
Priscilla Porto-Figueira, José A Figueira, Pedro Berenguer, José S Câmara
The effect of ripening on the evolution of the volatomic pattern from endemic Vaccinium padifolium L. (Uveira) berries was investigated using headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography/quadrupole-mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) and multivariate statistical analysis (MVA). The most significant HS-SPME parameters, namely fibre polymer, ionic strength and extraction time, were optimized in order to improve extraction efficiency. Under optimal experimental conditions (DVB/CAR/PDMS fibre coating, 40°C, 30min extraction time and 5g of sample amount), a total of 72 volatiles of different functionalities were isolated and identified...
April 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Sarah M Kozak, Stephanie R B Brown, Yustyna Bobak, Dennis J D'Amico
Dairy product recalls and dairy-related illnesses are often the result of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes, which can occur throughout the dairy production and supply chains. The use of antimicrobial compounds is one practical approach for controlling pathogen survival and growth in foods. The goal of this study was to use fluid milk as a model system to identify listeristatic or listericidal treatments that show promise for application in fluid milk and for further evaluation in other dairy products (e...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Balaji Venkatesagowda, Ebenezer Ponugupaty, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker, Robert F H Dekker
The coconut kernel-associated fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae VBE1, was grown on coconut cake with added coconut oil as lipase inducer under solid-state fermentation conditions. The extracellular-produced lipases were purified and resulted in two enzymes: lipase A (68,000 Da)-purified 25.41-fold, recovery of 47.1%-and lipase B (32,000 Da)-purified 18.47-fold, recovery of 8.2%. Both lipases showed optimal activity at pH 8.0 and 35 °C, were activated by Ca2+, exhibited highest specificity towards coconut oil and p-nitrophenyl palmitate, and were stable in iso-octane and hexane...
December 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wei Jiang, Xinghuo Wang, Jiebing Yang, Haobo Han, Quanshun Li, Jun Tang
We reported a facile, economic and green method based on biomimetic mineralization to acquire lipase-inorganic hybrid nanoflower, which was then employed as a biocatalyst for biodiesel production. In the hybrid nanoflower, enzyme molecules and Cu2+ ions were utilized as the organic and inorganic components, respectively. The morphology of nanoflower and the distribution and loading of proteins were systematically characterized by scanning electron microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, which indicated the successful encapsulation of lipase in the hybrid nanoflower...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
M Venkateswar Reddy, S Venkata Mohan, Young-Cheol Chang
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) are saturated monocarboxylic acids and can be used as antimicrobials, corrosion inhibitors, precursors in biodiesel, and bioplastic production. In the present study, MCFA production was evaluated with acetate and ethanol using the bacteria Clostridium kluyveri. Effects of substrate, electron donor, and methane inhibitor on MCFA production were evaluated. Bacteria successfully converted the ethanol and acetate to butyrate (C4), caproate (C6), and caprylate (C8) by chain elongation process...
December 16, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Zora Ćetković, Sandra Cvijić, Dragana Vasiljević
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to formulate simvastatin (SV)-loaded self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS), and explore the potential of these drug delivery systems to improve SV solubility, and also to identify the optimal place in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract for the release of SV using coupled in vitro/in silico approach. SIGNIFICANCE: In comparison to other published results, this study considered the extensive pre-systemic clearance of SV, which could significantly decrease its systemic and hepatic bioavailability if SV is delivered into the small intestine...
May 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Dalila Moter Benvegnú, Katiane Roversi, Raquel Cristine Silva Barcelos, Fabíola Trevizol, Camila Simonetti Pase, Hecson Jesser Segat, Verônica Tironi Dias, Ana Luiza Savian, Bruna Lopes Piccoli, Jaqueline Piccolo, Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho, Tatiana Emanuelli, Cristiane de Bona da Silva, Ruy Carlos Ruver Beck, Marilise Escobar Burger
Haloperidol is a widely used antipsychotic, despite the severe motor side effects associated with its chronic use. This study was carried out to compare oral dyskinesia induced by different formulations of haloperidol-loaded nanocapsules containing caprylic/capric triglycerides, fish oil or grape seed oil (GSO) as core, as well as free haloperidol. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules formulations were prepared, physicochemical characterized and administered (0.5 mg kg-1 -ip) to rats for 28 days. Oral dyskinesia was evaluated acutely and subchronically and after that cell viability and free radical generation in cortex and substantia nigra...
February 2018: Neurochemical Research
Ketrawee Pantub, Paveena Wongtrakul, Wicharn Janwitayanuchit
Nanostructured lipid carriers loaded salicylic acid (NLCs-SA) were developed and optimized by using the design of experiment (DOE). Box-Behnken experimental design of 3-factor, 3-level was applied for optimization of nanostructured lipid carriers prepared by emulsification method. The independent variables were total lipid concentration (X1 ), stearic acid to Lexol® GT-865 ratio (X2 ) and Tween® 80 concentration (X3 ) while the particle size was a dependent variable (Y). Box-Behnken design could create 15 runs by setting response optimizer as minimum particle size...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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