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Jovana Trbojević Ivić, Nenad Milosavić, Aleksandra Dimitrijević, Marija Gavrović Jankulović, Dejan Bezbradica, Dušan Kolarski, Dušan Veličković
A commercial preparation of Candida rugosa lipases (CRL) was tested for the production of capsinoids by esterification of vanillyl alcohol (VA) with free fatty acids (FA) and coconut oil (CO) as acyl donors. Screening of FA chain length indicated that C8-C12 FA (the most common FA found in CO triglycerides) are the best acyl-donors, yielding 80-85% of their specific capsinoids. Hence, when CO, which is rich in these FA, was used as the substrate, a mixture of capsinoids (vanillyl caprylate, vanillyl decanoate and vanillyl laurate) was obtained...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Mahesh Kandula, K B Sunil Kumar, Sivanesan Palanichamy, Ashok Rampal
Mesalamine (5-ASA) is one of the drugs indicated as first line therapy in ulcerative colitis for induction and maintenance of remission. Sulfasalazine and formulations of 5-ASA (pH-dependent and controlled release formulations) were developed to minimize the systemic absorption and maximize the delivery of the mesalamine to colon. Although, its efficacy and safety is well documented there are approximately 30% nonresponders to 5-ASA therapy. This necessitates the need for novel therapeutic options to improve the efficacy and safety of the currently available 5-ASA therapy...
October 4, 2016: International Immunopharmacology
Devi Lekshmi Sheela, Puthiyaveetil Abdulla Nazeem, Arunaksharan Narayanankutty, Jeksy Jos Manalil, Achuthan C Raghavamenon
The coconut oil (CO) contains 91 % of saturated fatty acids in which 72 % are medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like lauric, capric and caprylic acids. In contrast to animal fat, coconut oil has no cholesterol. Despite this fact, CO is sidelined among other vegetable oils due to the health hazards attributed to the saturated fatty acids. Though various medicinal effects of CO have been reported including the hypolipidemic activity, people are still confused in the consumption of this natural oil. In silico analyses and wet lab experiments have been carried out to identify the hypolipidemic properties of MCFAs and phenolic acids in CO by using different protein targets involved in cholesterol synthesis...
September 27, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Liqin Ye, Chunxiang Yang, Weidong Li, Jiangbo Hao, Meng Sun, Jingru Zhang, Zhongshuang Zhang
The types and amounts of volatiles in denucleated fruit of 30 Chinese dwarf cherry germplasms were determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to assess the genotypic variation. Eighty-five volatiles were identified; hexyl acetate, 4-penten-1-yl acetate, prenyl acetate, (Z)-pent-2-enyl hexanoate, geranyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, (3Z)-3,7-dimethylocta-1,3,6-triene, geraniol, pent-2-enyl butanoate, ethyl caprylate, butyl hexanoate, and linalool were the main volatiles...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Ying-Jan Weng, Anne Husebekk, Björn Skogen, Mette Kjaer, Liang-Tzung Lin, Thierry Burnouf
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a severe disease that is caused by maternal alloantibodies generated during pregnancy or at delivery as a result of incompatibility between maternal and fetal human platelet antigens (HPAs) inherited from the father. Antibody-mediated immune suppression using anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulins is thought to be able to prevent FNAIT caused by HPA-1a. A fractionation process to prepare anti-HPA-1a immunoglobulin (Ig) G (IgG) from human plasma was therefore developed...
2016: PloS One
Anita Umerska, Viviane Cassisa, Nada Matougui, Marie-Laure Joly-Guillou, Matthieu Eveillard, Patrick Saulnier
Lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) are a new generation of biomimetic nanocarriers obtained via a phase inversion temperature method and have an oily core of medium-chain triglycerides that is surrounded by a shelf containing a lipophilic surfactant (lecithin) and a hydrophilic surfactant macrogol 15-hydroxystearate. The aim of the present study was to produce LNCs with antibacterial activity by replacing lecithin with other lipophilic surface active compounds, namely medium-chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides, which are known to have antimicrobial properties...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Hongming He, Haobo Han, Hui Shi, Yuyang Tian, Fuxing Sun, Yang Song, Quanshun Li, Guangshan Zhu
Enhancing the activity and stability of enzymes and improving their reusability are critical challenges in the field of enzyme immobilization. Here we report a facile and efficient biomimetic mineralization to embed thermophilic lipase QLM in zeolite imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8). Systematic characterization indicated that the entrapment of lipase molecules was successfully achieved during the crystal growth of ZIF-8 with an enzyme loading of ∼72.2 ± 1.88 mg/g lipase@ZIF-8, and the enzymes could facilitate the construction of framework building blocks...
September 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
B Martínez-Vallespín, W Vahjen, J Zentek
Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been suggested as an alternative to the use of antibiotics in animal nutrition with promising results. First, we studied the sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis and an enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strain against caprylic (C8), capric (C10) and lauric (C12) acids. A porcine in vitro model using the porcine cell line IPEC-J2 was used to test the effects of MCFAs on structural and immunological traits without and with a concomitant challenge with E. coli or S. Enteritidis...
October 2016: Cytotechnology
Lígia N M Ribeiro, Michelle Franz-Montan, Márcia C Breitkreitz, Ana C S Alcântara, Simone R Castro, Viviane A Guilherme, Raquel M Barbosa, Eneida de Paula
In dental practice, local anesthesia causes pain, fear, and stress, and is frequently the reason that patients abandon treatment. Topical anesthetics are applied in order to minimize the discomfort caused by needle insertion and injection, and to reduce the symptoms of superficial trauma at the oral mucosa, but there are still no efficient commercially available formulations. Factorial design is a multivariate data analysis procedure that can be used to optimize the manufacturing processes of lipid nanocarriers, providing valuable information and minimizing development time...
October 10, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
George Rigos, Ivona Mladineo, Chrysa Nikoloudaki, Anamarija Vrbatovic, Dimitra Kogiannou
We have evaluated the therapeutic effect of a compound mixture of caprylic acid (200 mg/kg fish), organic iron (0.2% of diet) and mannan oligosaccharide (0.4% of diet) in gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata Linnaeus, infected with Sparicotyle chrysophrii Beneden et Hesse, 1863 in controlled conditions. One hundred and ten reared and S. chrysophrii-free fish (197 g) located in a cement tank were infected by the parasite two weeks following the addition of 150 S. chrysophrii-infected fish (70 g). Growth parameters and gill parasitic load were measured in treated against control fish after a ten-week-period...
2016: Folia Parasitologica
S Hogan, M Zapotoczna, N T Stevens, H Humphreys, J P O'Gara, E O'Neill
Staphylococci are a leading cause of catheter-related infections (CRIs) due to biofilm formation. CRIs are typically managed by either device removal or systemic antibiotics, often in combination with catheter lock solutions (CLSs). CLSs provide high concentrations of the antimicrobial agent at the site of infection. However, the most effective CLSs against staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and suitability of two newly described antimicrobial agents, ML:8 and Citrox, as CLSs against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms...
October 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Liang Guo, Yuyan Liang, Xuelan Chen, Wei Xu, Kesheng Wu, Hua Wei, Yonghua Xiong
Self-assembled iron oxide nanocomposites are good magnetic nano-adsorbents that can be prepared using simple methods. Four types of organic acid-functionalised (oleic acid, undecenoic acid, caprylic acid or hexanoic acid) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised through a one-pot chemisorption method for the removal of tetracycline (TC) from aqueous solution. The undecenoic acid-coated MNPs (UA-MNPs) exhibited the highest adsorption efficiency and can be easily retrieved with a low-gradient magnetic separator (0...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Nikhil Kateja, Harshit Agarwal, Aditya Saraswat, Manish Bhat, Anurag S Rathore
Coiled Flow Inverter Reactor (CFIR) has recently been explored for facilitating continuous operation of several unit operations involved in downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals such as viral inactivation and protein refolding. The application of CFIR for continuous precipitation of clarified cell culture supernatant has been explored. The pH based precipitation is optimized in the batch mode and then in the continuous mode in CFIR using a design of experiments (DOE) study. Improved clearance of host cell DNA (52× vs...
October 2016: Biotechnology Journal
C G Venturinil, A Bruinsmann, C P Oliveira, R V Contri, A R Pohlmann, S S Guterres
An innovative nanocapsule formulation for parenteral administration using selected vegetable oils (mango, jojoba, pequi, oat, annatto, calendula, and chamomile) was developed that has the potential to encapsulate various drugs. The vegetable oil-loaded nanocapsules were prepared by interfacial deposition and compared with capric/caprylic triglyceride-loaded lipid core nanocapsules. The major objective was to investigate the effect of vegetable oils on particle size distribution and physical stability and to determine the hemolytic potential of the nanocapsules, considering their applicability for intravenous administration...
February 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Alisa Gricajeva, Vida Bendikienė, Lilija Kalėdienė
Present work was undertaken to discover new lipolytic enzymes as well as novel bacterial strains for applications in biotechnology. One of the isolated strains identified as Bacillus stratosphericus L1 produced extracellular lipase (LipBST) which was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Purified mature enzyme had a molecular mass of 19kDa. Recombinant protein showed an activity of 6244.5U/mg at pH 9, 35°C. It was stable in the range of 35-55°C and retained more than 60% activity after incubation for 4h...
July 5, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Fiona McCartney, John P Gleeson, David J Brayden
Intestinal permeation enhancers (PEs) are key components in ∼12 oral peptide formulations in clinical trials for a range of molecules, primarily insulin and glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs. The main PEs comprise medium chain fatty acid-based systems (sodium caprate, sodium caprylate, and N-[8-(2-hydroxybenzoyl) amino] caprylate (SNAC)), bile salts, acyl carnitines, and EDTA. Their mechanism of action is complex with subtle differences between the different molecules. With the exception of SNAC and EDTA, most PEs fluidize the plasma membrane causing plasma membrane perturbation, as well as enzymatic and intracellular mediator changes that lead to alteration of intestinal epithelial tight junction protein expression...
April 2016: Tissue Barriers
Michael Fossler, John Zhu, Claus Roehrborn, Paul McAleese, Michael Manyak
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dutasteride is currently marketed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), either as monotherapy or as a fixed-dose combination with tamsulosin. As part of the project to develop the fixed-dose combination product, alternative formulations of dutasteride were prepared by GSK, and their pharmacokinetic properties were investigated. METHODS: Two single-centre, open-label, active-comparator, randomised, three-period crossover studies were performed. The first study evaluated the relative bioavailability of dutasteride 0...
September 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Jennifer Heimall, Junliang Chen, Joseph A Church, Rhonda Griffin, Isaac Melamed, Gary I Kleiner
PURPOSE: This phase 4, multicenter, open-labeled, single-sequence, crossover study in pediatric patients (ages 2 to 16) with primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) evaluated the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability for subcutaneously (SC) administered 10 % caprylate/chromatography purified human immune globulin injection (IGIV-C, GAMUNEX®) compared with intravenously (IV) administered IGIV-C. METHODS: This study included a screening phase, run-in phase (where required), IV treatment phase, SC treatment phase, and end of study/early termination visit...
August 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Hui Ren, Zhen Xing, Jiebing Yang, Wei Jiang, Gang Zhang, Jun Tang, Quanshun Li
Developing an efficient immobilized enzyme is of great significance for improving the operational stability of enzymes in poly(ε-caprolactone) synthesis. In this paper, a thermophilic esterase AFEST from the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus was successfully immobilized on the epoxy support Sepabeads EC-EP via covalent attachment, and the immobilized enzyme was then employed as a biocatalyst for poly(ε-caprolactone) synthesis. The enzyme loading and recovered activity of immobilized enzyme was measured to be 72 mg/g and 10...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yongling Chen, Guiying Peng, Yuzhen Han, Tingting Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To research the algae-inhibitory effect and mechanism of a plant source n-caprylic acid extracted from coconut oil on M. aeruginosa. METHODS: The M. aeruginosa were treated with 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μL/L densities of coconut oil n-caprylic acid respectively. And the change of algal density, cell permeability and antioxidant ability were measured. RESULTS: The greater the concentration of coconut oil n-caprylic acid, the stronger the inhibition on M...
March 2016: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
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