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adverse effects of ART

Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis, Christos Varounis, Marialena Trivella
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
March 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sumona Chaudhury, Gloria K Mayondi, Paige L Williams, Jean Leidner, Roger Shapiro, Modiegi Diseko, Gbolahan Ajibola, Penny Holding, Vicki Tepper, Joseph Makhema, Chipo Petlo, George R Seage, Shahin Lockman, Betsy Kammerer
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting data exist regarding the impact of in utero exposure to maternal combination antiretrovirals. We compared neurodevelopmental outcomes between HIV-exposed/uninfected (HEU) children exposed in utero to 3-drug combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy. DESIGN: Prospective study of child neurodevelopment, nested within two cohorts of HIV-infected mothers and their children in Botswana (one observational, one interventional)...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Leandro Nóbrega, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira
New psychoactive substances (NPS), often referred as 'legal highs' or 'designer drugs', are derivatives and analogs of existing psychoactive drugs that are introduced in the recreational market to circumvent existing legislation on drugs of abuse. This work aims to review the state-of-the-art regarding chemical, molecular pharmacology, and in vitro and in vivo data on toxicokinetics of the potent synthetic cathinone α-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (α-PVP or flakka or zombie drug). Chemical, pharmacological, toxicological, and clinical effects of α-PVP were searched in PubMed (U...
March 14, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Rosario Palacios, M Mayorga, C M González-Domenech, C Hidalgo-Tenorio, C Gálvez, L Muñoz-Medina, J de la Torre, A Lozano, M Castaño, M Omar, Jesús Santos
OBJECTIVES: To analyze the efficacy and safety of dolutegravir/rilpivirine (DTG/RPV) in HIV-infected patients who switched from any other antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Open-label, multicenter study including patients who switched to DTG/RPV between February 2015 and February 2016. Efficacy (HIV RNA <50 copies/mL), adverse events, and metabolic changes at 24 weeks were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 104 participants were included, who switched for the following reasons: toxicity/intolerance (42...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Derek J Chan, Virginia Furner, Don E Smith, Mithilesh Dronavalli, Rohan I Bopage, Jeffrey J Post, Anjali K Bhardwaj
OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence of non-AIDS co-morbidities (NACs) and predictors of adverse health outcomes amongst people living with HIV in order to identify health needs and potential gaps in patient management. DESIGN: Retrospective, non-consecutive medical record audit of patients attending a publicly funded HIV clinic in metropolitan Sydney analysed for predictors of adverse health outcomes. We developed a scoring system based on the validated Charlson score method for NACs, mental health and social issues and confounders were selected using directed acyclic graph theory under the principles of causal inference...
March 8, 2018: AIDS Research and Therapy
Kevin Marron, John F Kennedy, Conor Harrity
Background: Raised intracellular cytokine ratios (CKR) are proposed as a significant risk factor for adverse reproductive outcome. An elevated cytokine ratio, such as between TNFa and/or IFNg to IL-10 is associated with recurrent miscarriage (RM). The use of pharmacological immunomodulators such as TNFα inhibitors in these patients is controversial and not generally recommended due to a lack of conclusive data supporting their use. We evaluated whether the use of anti-oxidants/dietary supplements as an alternative could positively influence CKR's in ART patients...
2018: Fertility Research and Practice
Jens D Lundgren, Alvaro H Borges, James D Neaton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal control of HIV can be achieved by early diagnosis followed by the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Two large randomised trials (TEMPRANO and START) have recently been published documenting the clinical benefits to HIV-positive adults of early ART initiation. Main findings are reviewed with a focus on serious non-AIDS (SNA) conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Data from the two trials demonstrated that initiating ART early in the course of HIV infection resulted in marked reductions in the risk of opportunistic diseases and invasive bacterial infections...
March 5, 2018: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
Md Shahidul Islam
It is important to understand the rationale for appropriate use of different diuretics, alone or in combination, in different heart failure patients, under diverse clinical settings. Clinicians and nurses engaged in heart failure care, must be familiar with different diuretics, their appropriate doses, methods of administration, monitoring of the responses, and the side-effects. Inappropriate use of diuretics, both under-treatment and overtreatment, and poor follow-up can lead to failures, and adverse outcomes...
March 3, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Sabine Mogwitz, Judith Buse, Nicole Wolff, Veit Roessner
More than forty years of research and clinical practice have proven the effectiveness of dopamine receptor antagonists in the pharmacological treatment of tics. A blockade of the striatal dopamine-D2 receptors is mainly responsible for their tic-reducing effect. A broad spectrum of dopamine-modulating agents, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics, but also dopamine receptor agonists are used with an immanent discord between experts about which of them should be considered as first choice. The present article outlines the state of the art on pharmacological treatment of tics with dopamine-modulating agents by giving an systemativ overview of studies on their effectiveness and a critical discussion of their specific adverse effects...
March 2, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Baris Ata, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Ayse Seyhan, William Buckett
BACKGROUND: The female genital tract is not exposed to seminal plasma during standard assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles. However, it is thought that the inflammatory reaction triggered by seminal plasma may be beneficial by inducing maternal tolerance to paternal antigens expressed by the products of conception, and may increase the chance of successful implantation and live birth. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of application of seminal plasma to the female genital tract prior to embryo transfer in ART cycles...
February 28, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carmen Fontela, Jesús Castilla, Regina Juanbeltz, Iván Martínez-Baz, María Rivero, Aisling O'Leary, Natalia Larrea, Ramón San Miguel
OBJECTIVES: The increased survival of HIV-infected individuals has resulted in a premature aging of this population, with the consequent development of premature age-related comorbidities and risk factors. We aimed to describe the prevalence of age-related comorbidities and cardiovascular risk factors in older adults with HIV infection on antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was undertaken in a cohort of HIV patients aged ≥50 years on ART in September 2016 in Spain...
February 28, 2018: Postgraduate Medicine
Soyeon Ahn, Haris Vikalo
RNA viruses replicate with high mutation rates, creating closely related viral populations. The heterogeneous virus populations, referred to as viral quasispecies, rapidly adapt to environmental changes thus adversely affecting efficiency of antiviral drugs and vaccines. Therefore, studying the underlying genetic heterogeneity of viral populations plays a significant role in the development of effective therapeutic treatments. Recent high-throughput sequencing technologies have provided invaluable opportunity for uncovering the structure of quasispecies populations...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
Wei Song, Joseph Seta, Michael K Eichler, Jacobus J Arts, Bronek M Boszczyk, David C Markel, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Weiping Ren
Adverse events have been reported with acrylic bone cements. However, current test standards for acrylic materials fail to characterize the potentially harmful monomers released during the curing stage. In clinical applications, materials are implanted into the human body during this phase. Silicone may be a safer alternative to acrylic cements. Silicone is used in medical applications for its biocompatibility and stability characteristics. Previously, no study has been completed which compares silicone to acrylic cements...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Silvia Martina Ferrari, Ilaria Ruffilli, Marco Centanni, Camilla Virili, Gabriele Materazzi, Magdalini Alexopoulou, Mario Miccoli, Alessandro Antonelli, Poupak Fallahi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lenvatinib is an oral, multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR1-VEGFR3), fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR1-FGFR4), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)α, rearranged during transfection (RET), and v-kit (KIT) signaling networks implicated in tumor angiogenesis. METHOD: Here we review the scientific literature about lenvatinib in the treatment of thyroid cancer...
February 19, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Ning Liang, Yanchun Zhong, Jie Zhou, Bihao Liu, Ruirui Lu, Yezhi Guan, Qi Wang, Chunlin Liang, Yu He, Yuan Zhou, Jianping Song, Jiuyao Zhou
Lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most common and severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus, leading to permanent renal damage and chronic kidney disease. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) serves a protective role against lupus-associated clinical manifestations and medical complications; however, it results in numerous adverse reactions, limiting its long-term use. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effect of HCQ and artemisinin (ART) on LN, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Steve Innes, Kunjal Patel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents may be at increased risk of noninfectious comorbidities later in life. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of noncommunicable diseases (NCD) among HIV-infected adolescents in high-income and lower middle-income countries, and identifies key questions that remain unanswered. We review atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD), chronic bone disease (CBD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and chronic lung disease (CLD)...
February 8, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
K Montjane, S Dlamini, C Dandara
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has fundamentally altered the natural history of HIV/AIDS, sharply reducing HIV-related morbidity and prolonging longevity. However, there seems to be a resurgence in HIV infection rates in some parts of the world that has prompted consideration of pre-exposure prophylaxis (pre-EP) and vaccination. Despite their good viral suppression profiles, most drugs used as part of ART also have unwanted adverse drug reactions/effects (ADRs). In this article we acknowledge the utility of pre-EP in combating HIV transmission, but we also highlight the need to prepare for management of other unexpected outcomes such as ADRs and viral resistance, to ensure the success of the programme...
February 1, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Eugene Kinyanda, Jonathan Levin, Noeline Nakasujja, Harriet Birabwa, Juliet Nakku, Richard Mpango, Heiner Grosskurth, Soraya Seedat, Ricardo Araya, Maryam Shahmanesh, Vikram Patel
BACKGROUND: There is still wide variability in HIV disease course and other HIV related outcomes, attributable in part to psychosocial factors such as major depressive disorder (MDD), a subject that has received little attention in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using a longitudinal cohort of 1099 HIV positive antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve persons, we investigated the impact of MDD on four HIV related negative outcome domains in Uganda. MDD was assessed using a Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV based tool...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Katherine J Lepik, Benita Yip, Ana Ulloa, Lu Wang, Junine Toy, Linda Akagi, Viviane Dias Lima, Silvia Guillemi, Julio S G Montaner, Rolando Barrios
OBJECTIVES: Describe and compare integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) adverse drug reactions (ADRs) for raltegravir, elvitegravir-cobicistat and dolutegravir. DESIGN: Population-based, retrospective cohort. METHODS: Antiretroviral-experienced and naive persons ≥19 years were included if they received their first prescription for raltegravir, elvitegravir-cobicistat or dolutegravir in British Columbia, Canada in 2012-2014, and were followed for two years until 31-Dec-2016...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
Emanuela Corsini, Manuela Casula, Elena Tragni, Valentina Galbiati, Marc Pallardy
Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) are common adverse effects of pharmaceuticals that clinically resemble allergies, and which are becoming an important burden to healthcare systems. Alongside accurate diagnostic techniques, tools which can predict potential drug-inducing hypersensitivity reactions in the pre-clinical phase are critical. Despite the important adverse reactions linked to immune-mediated hypersensitivity, at present, there are no validated or required in vivo or in vitro methods to screen the sensitizing potential of drugs and their metabolites in the pre-clinical phase...
February 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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