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adverse effects of ART

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775399/dolutegravir-and-rilpivirine-for-the-maintenance-treatment-of-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infection
#1
Jose L Casado, Marta Monsalvo, Aurora M Rojo, María Fontecha, Miguel A Rodriguez-Sagrado
Triple combinations of antiretroviral (ART) drugs are the standard treatment for HIV infection, but the challenges include long-term side effects, high costs, and adherence. The recent advent of potent and well tolerated ART has renewed the interest for newer ART strategies. A dual regimen with the combination of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV), two well tolerated, metabolic-friendly, and potent drugs could offer additional benefits. Areas covered: A review of recent randomized trials and observational cohorts concerning the use of a dual therapy with DTG plus RPV as a switching strategy in patients with viral suppression...
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747664/adverse-effects-in-children-exposed-to-maternal-hiv-and-antiretroviral-therapy-during-pregnancy-in-brazil-a-cohort-study
#2
Adriane M Delicio, Giuliane J Lajos, Eliana Amaral, Fernanda Cavichiolli, Marina Polydoro, Helaine Milanez
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) in pregnancy was associated with a drastic reduction in HIV mother-to-child transmission (MTCT), although it was associated with neonatal adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the neonatal effects to maternal ART. METHODS: This study was a cohort of newborns from HIV pregnant women followed at the CAISM/UNICAMP Obstetric Clinic from 2000 to 2015. The following adverse effects were evaluated: anemia, thrombocytopenia, liver function tests abnormalities, preterm birth, low birth weight and congenital malformation...
May 10, 2018: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737220/emerging-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-hiv-1-infection
#3
Mohammad A Rai, Sam Pannek, Carl J Fichtenbaum
There are 36.7 million people living with HIV with 20.9 million having access to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) remain the 'backbone' of ART. However, the currently available nine NRTIs and five non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) have significant side effects and resistance profiles. Areas covered: We summarize the mechanisms of resistance and other limitations of the existing NRTIs/NNRTIs. GS-9131, MK-8591, Elsulfavirine and Doravirine are four new agents that are furthest along in development...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719210/cell-encapsulation-overcoming-barriers-in-cell-transplantation-in-diabetes-and-beyond
#4
Marco Farina, Jenolyn F Alexander, Usha Thekkedath, Mauro Ferrari, Alessandro Grattoni
Cell-based therapy is emerging as a promising strategy for treating a wide range of human diseases, such as diabetes, blood disorders, acute liver failure, spinal cord injury, and several types of cancer. Pancreatic islets, blood cells, hepatocytes, and stem cells are among the many cell types currently used for this strategy. The encapsulation of these "therapeutic" cells is under intense investigation to not only prevent immune rejection but also provide a controlled and supportive environment so they can function effectively...
April 29, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719195/sarcoidosis-a-state-of-the-art-review-from-the-thoracic-society-of-australia-and-new-zealand
#5
Hasib Ahmadzai, Shuying Huang, Chris Steinfort, James Markos, Roger Ka Allen, Denis Wakefield, Margaret Wilsher, Paul S Thomas
Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease of unknown aetiology, characterised by non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. It most commonly manifests in the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes but can affect any organ. This summary of an educational resource provided by the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand outlines the current understanding of sarcoidosis and highlights the need for further research. Our knowledge of the aetiology and immunopathogenesis of sarcoidosis remains incomplete. The enigma of sarcoidosis lies in its immunological paradox of type 1 T helper cell-dominated local inflammation co-existing with T regulatory-induced peripheral anergy...
May 7, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708851/radial-artery-or-saphenous-vein-grafts-in-coronary-artery-bypass-surgery
#6
Mario Gaudino, Umberto Benedetto, Stephen Fremes, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Art Sedrakyan, John D Puskas, Gianni D Angelini, Brian Buxton, Giacomo Frati, David L Hare, Philip Hayward, Giuseppe Nasso, Neil Moat, Miodrag Peric, Kyung J Yoo, Giuseppe Speziale, Leonard N Girardi, David P Taggart
Background The use of radial-artery grafts for coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) may result in better postoperative outcomes than the use of saphenous-vein grafts. However, randomized, controlled trials comparing radial-artery grafts and saphenous-vein grafts have been individually underpowered to detect differences in clinical outcomes. We performed a patient-level combined analysis of randomized, controlled trials to compare radial-artery grafts and saphenous-vein grafts for CABG. Methods Six trials were identified...
April 30, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706926/modulating-the-oxytocin-system-during-the-perinatal-period-a-new-strategy-for-neuroprotection-of-the-immature-brain
#7
REVIEW
Manuela Zinni, Marina Colella, Aline Rideau Batista Novais, Olivier Baud, Jérôme Mairesse
Oxytocin is a neurohypophysal hormone known for its activity during labor and its role in lactation. However, the function of oxytocin (OTX) goes far beyond the peripheral regulation of reproduction, and the central effects of OTX have been extensively investigated, since it has been recognized to influence the learning and memory processes. OTX has also prominent effects on social behavior, anxiety, and autism. Interaction between glucocorticoids, OTX, and maternal behavior may have long-term effects on the developmental program of the developing brain subjected to adverse events during pre and perinatal periods...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699855/-original-strategy-for-prevention-of-recurrent-symptomatic-urinary-tract-infections-in-patients-with-neurogenic-bladder-bacterial-interference-state-of-the-art
#8
L Falcou, B Davido, A Even, F Bouchand, J Salomon, A Sotto, P Denys, A Dinh
PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common complication in patients with neurogenic bladder. The long-term use of antibiotic drugs induces an increase in antimicrobial resistance and adverse drug reactions. Bacterial interference is a new concept to prevent recurrent UTI which consists in a bladder colonization with low virulence bacteria. We performed a literature review on this emerging therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Literature review of bacterial interference to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection in neurological population...
April 23, 2018: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698556/more-frequent-use-of-health-care-services-among-distressed-compared-with-nondistressed-survivors-of-lymphoma-and-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-results-from-the-population-based-profiles-registry
#9
Lindy P J Arts, Simone Oerlemans, Lidwine Tick, Ad Koster, Henk T J Roerdink, Lonneke V van de Poll-Franse
BACKGROUND: Follow-up care for a growing population of survivors of lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) together with the adverse effects these survivors may experience as a result of their cancer and treatment have led to more pressure being placed on health care services. The objectives of the current study were to: 1) compare the use of medical care services by survivors with that of a normative population; 2) evaluate the use of medical and psychosocial care services among distressed and nondistressed survivors; and 3) identify associated sociodemographic and clinical factors...
April 26, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697138/follicular-flushing-during-oocyte-retrieval-in-assisted-reproductive-techniques
#10
REVIEW
Ektoras X Georgiou, Pedro Melo, Julie Brown, Ingrid E Granne
BACKGROUND: Follicular aspiration under transvaginal ultrasound guidance is routinely performed as part of assisted reproductive technology (ART) to retrieve oocytes for in vitro fertilisation (IVF). However, controversy as to whether follicular flushing following aspiration yields a larger number of oocytes and hence is associated with greater potential for pregnancy than aspiration only is ongoing. OBJECTIVES: To assess the safety and efficacy of follicular flushing as compared with aspiration only performed in women undergoing ART...
April 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696442/the-best-of-both-worlds-a-hybrid-approach-for-optimal-pre-and-intraoperative-identification-of-sentinel-lymph-nodes
#11
G H KleinJan, E van Werkhoven, N S van den Berg, M B Karakullukcu, H J M A A Zijlmans, J A van der Hage, B A van de Wiel, T Buckle, W M C Klop, S Horenblas, R A Valdés Olmos, H G van der Poel, F W B van Leeuwen
PURPOSE: Hybrid image-guided surgery technologies such as combined radio- and fluorescence-guidance are increasingly gaining interest, but their added value still needs to be proven. In order to evaluate if and how fluorescence-guidance can help realize improvements beyond the current state-of-the-art in sentinel node (SN) biopsy procedures, use of the hybrid tracer indocyanine green (ICG)-99m Tc-nancolloid was evaluated in a large cohort of patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective trial was conducted (n = 501 procedures) in a heterogeneous cohort of 495 patients with different malignancies (skin malignancies, oral cavity cancer, penile cancer, prostate cancer and vulva cancer)...
April 25, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677072/state-of-the-art-role-of-the-dendritic-cell-in-induction-of-allograft-tolerance
#12
Sarah J Rosen, Paul E Harris, Mark A Hardy
Despite decades of research, the induction and maintenance of long-term allograft tolerance without immunosuppression remains an elusive goal in the field of solid organ and cell transplantation. Immunosuppressive medications frequently prevent or minimize acute cellular rejection but have failed to halt anti-donor antibody production and chronic organ rejection. Past efforts aimed at promoting lasting allograft tolerance have focused primarily on peripheral T cell depletion, augmentation of regulatory T cells, or induction via simultaneous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and facilitation of donor chimerism...
April 19, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676641/toxic-and-genomic-influences-of-inhaled-nanomaterials-as-a-basis-for-predicting-adverse-outcome
#13
Penny Nymark, Pekka Kohonen, Vesa Hongisto, Roland C Grafström
An immense variety of different types of engineered nanomaterials are currently being developed and increasingly applied to consumer products. Importantly, engineered nanomaterials may pose unexplored adverse health effects because of their small size. Particularly in occupational settings, the dustiness of certain engineered nanomaterials involves risk of inhalation and influences on lung function. These facts call for quick and cost-effective safety testing practices, such as that obtained through multiparametric high-throughput screening using cultured human lung cells...
April 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672676/a-trial-of-a-single-tablet-regimen-of-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-and-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-for-the-initial-treatment-of-hiv-2-infection-in-a-resource-limited-setting-48-week-results-from-senegal-west-africa
#14
Selly Ba, Dana N Raugi, Robert A Smith, Fatima Sall, Khadim Faye, Stephen E Hawes, Papa Salif Sow, Moussa Seydi, Geoffrey S Gottlieb
Background: There is an urgent need for safe and effective ART for HIV-2 infection. We undertook the first clinical trial of a single-tablet-regimen containing elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (E/C/F/TDF) to assess its effectiveness in HIV-2-infected individuals in Senegal, West Africa. Methods: HIV-2-infected, ART-naïve adults with WHO stage 3-4 disease or CD4 counts below 750 cells/mm3 were eligible for this 48 week, open-label trial...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664415/model-based-optimal-multipolar-stimulation-without-a-priori-knowledge-of-nerve-structure-application-to-vagus-nerve-stimulation
#15
Melissa Dali, Olivier Rossel, David Andreu, Laure Laporte, Alfredo Hernandez, Jeremy Laforet, Eloi Marijon, Albert Hagège, Maureen Clerc, Christine Henry, David Guiraud
OBJECTIVE: Multipolar cuff electrode can selectively stimulate areas of peripheral nerves and therefore enable to control independent functions. However, the branching and fascicularization are known for a limited set of nerves and the specific organization remains subject-dependent. This paper presents a general modeling and optimization methods in the context of multipolar stimulation using a cuff electrode without a priori knowledge of the nerve structure. Vagus nerve stimulation experiments based on the optimization results were then investigated...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652762/distribution-and-performance-of-cardiovascular-risk-scores-in-a-mixed-population-of-hiv-infected-and-community-based-hiv-uninfected-individuals-in-uganda
#16
Anthony N Muiru, Prossy Bibangambah, Linda Hemphill, Ruth Sentongo, June-Ho Kim, Virginia A Triant, David R Bangsberg, Alexander C Tsai, Jeffrey N Martin, Jessica E Haberer, Yap Boum, Jorge Plutzky, Peter W Hunt, Samson Okello, Mark J Siedner
BACKGROUND: The utility and validity of CVD risk scores are not well-studied in sub-Saharan Africa. We compared and correlated CVD risk scores with carotid intima media thickness (c-IMT) among HIV-infected and uninfected people in Uganda. METHODS: We first calculated CVD risk using the 1) Framingham laboratory-based score; 2) Framingham non-laboratory score (FRS-BMI); 3) Reynolds risk score; 4) American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association score; and 5) the Data-collection on Adverse Effects of Anti-HIV Drugs score...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649818/the-risk-of-human-papillomavirus-infection-for-spontaneous-abortion-spontaneous-preterm-birth-and-pregnancy-rate-of-assisted-reproductive-technologies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
Yi-Quan Xiong, Yun Mo, Qiao-Ming Luo, Shu-Ting Huo, Wen-Qiao He, Qing Chen
AIMS: To estimate the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection on spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB), pregnancy rate of females undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART), and spontaneous abortion of ART pregnancy. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched until December 16, 2016. The OR or relative risk (RR) with its corresponding 95% CI were selected as effect size. Subgroup analysis of HPV genotype infection (high-risk HPV [HR-HPV] or indiscriminate genotype) was performed...
April 12, 2018: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643011/the-effect-of-antiretroviral-intensification-with-dolutegravir-on-residual-virus-replication-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-double-blind-trial
#18
Thomas A Rasmussen, James H McMahon, J Judy Chang, Jennifer Audsley, Ajantha Rhodes, Surekha Tennakoon, Ashanti Dantanarayana, Tim Spelman, Tina Schmidt, Stephen J Kent, Vincent Morcilla, Sarah Palmer, Julian H Elliott, Sharon R Lewin
BACKGROUND: Whether ongoing virus replication occurs in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) is unclear; therefore, whether residual virus replication is a barrier to achieving a cure for HIV is also unknown. We aimed to establish whether ART intensification with dolutegravir would reveal or affect residual virus replication in HIV-infected individuals on suppressive treatment. METHODS: In this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial, we enrolled HIV-infected adults (aged 18 years and older) receiving combination ART (at least three agents) for at least 3 years from the Alfred Hospital and Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, Melbourne, VIC, Australia...
May 2018: Lancet HIV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627875/realizing-women-living-with-hiv-s-reproductive-rights-in-the-era-of-art-the-negative-impact-of-non-consensual-hiv-disclosure-on-pregnancy-decisions-amongst-women-living-with-hiv-in-a-canadian-setting
#19
Putu Duff, Mary Kestler, Patience Chamboko, Melissa Braschel, Gina Ogilvie, Andrea Krüsi, Julio Montaner, Deborah Money, Kate Shannon
To better understand the structural drivers of women living with HIV's (WLWH's) reproductive rights and choices, this study examined the structural correlates, including non-consensual HIV disclosure, on WLWH's pregnancy decisions and describes access to preconception care. Analyses drew on data (2014-present) from SHAWNA, a longitudinal community-based cohort with WLWH across Metro-Vancouver, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression was used to model the effect of non-consensual HIV disclosure on WLWH's pregnancy decisions...
April 7, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623779/long-term-use-of-darunavir-ritonavir-containing-regimens-in-daily-practice-in-belgium-retrospective-observational-cohort-data-of-1701-hiv-patients
#20
Stéphane De Wit, Eric Florence, Linos Vandekerckhove, Bernard Vandercam, Jean-Christophe Goffard, Eric Van Wijngaerden, Michel Moutschen, Remy Demeester, Pushpike Thilakarathne, Hilde Piryns
Background Once daily (QD) ritonavir or cobicistat-boosted darunavir (DRV/b), in combination with other antiretrovirals (ARVs), is recommended as a first-line option for human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients in European and USA guidelines. The objective of this study was to analyse the outcomes of DRV/r QD-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens in real-life settings. Methods This is an observational, non-interventional, non-comparative, retrospective, multicentre cohort study. Data were collected from the databases of eight Belgian AIDS Reference Centres...
April 6, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
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