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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550713/state-of-the-art-on-oocyte-cryopreservation-in-female-cancer-patients-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#1
REVIEW
Claudia Massarotti, Paola Scaruffi, Matteo Lambertini, Valentino Remorgida, Lucia Del Mastro, Paola Anserini
During the last decades, important advances in therapeutic options have led to increased survival rates in cancer patients; however, cancer treatments are associated with several potential adverse effects including infertility in those diagnosed during their reproductive years. A proper discussion about fertility preservation options before the use of therapies with potential gonadotoxicity (i.e. oncofertility counseling) is standard of care and should be offered to all patients of childbearing age. Temporary ovarian suppression with LH-RH analogs, oocyte and embryo cryopreservation are standard strategies for fertility preservation in female cancer patients...
May 9, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542796/interleukin-2-as-an-adjunct-to-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-positive-adults
#2
REVIEW
Jennifer Onwumeh, Charles I Okwundu, Tamara Kredo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Although antiretroviral drugs have helped to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals, there is still a need to explore other interventions that will help to further reduce the disease burden. One potential strategy is the use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART). IL-2 is a cytokine that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes and may help to boost the immune system...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541799/limited-engraftment-of-donor-microbiome-via-one-time-fecal-microbial-transplantation-in-treated-hiv-infected-individuals
#3
Ivan Vujkovic-Cvijin, Rachel L Rutishauser, Montha Pao, Peter W Hunt, Susan V Lynch, Joseph M McCune, Ma Somsouk
BACKGROUND: Many HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) exhibit persistent systemic inflammation, which predicts morbidity and mortality. ART-treated subjects concurrently exhibit marked compositional alterations in the gut bacterial microbiota and the degree of dysbiosis correlates with systemic inflammation. Whether interventions to modulate the microbiome can affect systemic inflammation is unknown. METHODS: An open-label fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) was delivered by colonoscopy to asymptomatic HIV-infected ART-suppressed individuals without antibiotic pre-treatment...
May 25, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537062/evaluation-of-the-immunogenicity-and-impact-on-the-latent-hiv-1-reservoir-of-a-conserved-region-vaccine-mva-hivconsv-in-antiretroviral-therapy-treated-subjects
#4
REVIEW
Gemma Hancock, Sara Morón-López, Jakub Kopycinski, Maria C Puertas, Eleni Giannoulatou, Annie Rose, Maria Salgado, Emma-Jo Hayton, Alison Crook, Catharine Morgan, Brian Angus, Fabian Chen, Hongbing Yang, Javier Martinez-Picado, Tomas Hanke, Lucy Dorrell
INTRODUCTION: Vaccines may be key components of a curative strategy for HIV-1. We investigated whether a novel immunogen, HIVconsv, designed to re-direct T cell responses to conserved viral epitopes, could impact the HIV-1 reservoir in chronic antiretroviral therapy (ART)-treated subjects when delivered by modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA). METHODS: Nineteen virologically suppressed individuals were randomized to receive vaccinations with MVA.HIVconsv (5.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units, pfu, n = 8; 2...
May 19, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535616/drug-induced-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-the-state-of-the-art
#5
A Fassio, F Bertoldo, L Idolazzi, O Viapiana, M Rossini, D Gatti
Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare adverse event of antiresorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates (BP) and denosumab (DMAb). The diagnosis of ONJ is considered in cases where exposed bone in the maxillofacial region does not heal within 8 weeks in a patient previously treated with an antiresorptive agent. In patients with osteoporosis, ONJ is reported as a very rare adverse event while in oncologic patients with bone metastases or malignant hypercalcemia the incidence is significantly higher (up to the 1-10% of the patients)...
May 22, 2017: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534597/metabolomics-for-improving-pregnancy-outcomes-in-women-undergoing-assisted-reproductive-technologies
#6
REVIEW
Charalampos S Siristatidis, Eleni Sertedaki, Dennis Vaidakis
BACKGROUND: In order to overcome the low effectiveness of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and the high incidence of multiple births, metabolomics is proposed as a non-invasive method to assess oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity, and facilitate a targeted subfertility treatment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of metabolomic assessment of oocyte quality, embryo viability, and endometrial receptivity for improving live birth or ongoing pregnancy rates in women undergoing ART, compared to conventional methods of assessment...
May 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532596/costs-and-cost-efficacy-analysis-of-the-2017-gesida-spanish-national-aids-plan-recommended-guidelines-for-initial-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-adults
#7
Antonio Rivero, José Antonio Pérez-Molina, Antonio Javier Blasco, José Ramón Arribas, Víctor Asensi, Manuel Crespo, Pere Domingo, José Antonio Iribarren, Pablo Lázaro, José López-Aldeguer, Fernando Lozano, Esteban Martínez, Santiago Moreno, Rosario Palacios, Juan Antonio Pineda, Federico Pulido, Rafael Rubio, Jesús Santos, Javier de la Torre, Montserrat Tuset, Josep M Gatell
INTRODUCTION: GESIDA and the Spanish National AIDS Plan panel of experts have recommended preferred (PR), alternative (AR) and other regimens (OR) for antiretroviral therapy (ART) as initial therapy in HIV-infected patients for 2017. The objective of this study was to evaluate the costs and the efficiency of initiating treatment with PR and AR. METHODS: Economic assessment of costs and efficiency (cost-efficacy) based on decision tree analyses. Efficacy was defined as the probability of reporting a viral load <50copies/mL at week 48, in an intention-to-treat analysis...
May 19, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530546/the-role-of-qsar-and-virtual-screening-studies-in-type-2-diabetes-drug-discovery
#8
Simone Q Pantaleão, Drielli G V Fujji, Vinícius G Maltarollo, Danielle da C Silva, Gustavo H G Trossini, Karen C Weber, Luis P B Scott, Kathia M Honorio
BACKGROUND: Due to the increasing number of diabetes cases worldwide, there is an international concern to provide even more effective treatments to control this condition. METHODS: This review brings together a selection of studies that helped to broaden the comprehension of various biological targets and associated mechanisms involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus. RESULTS: Such studies demonstrated that QSAR techniques and virtual screenings have been successfully employed in drug design projects...
May 22, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527625/cosmetic-micromanipulation-of-vitrified-warmed-cleavage-stage-embryos-does-not-improve-art-outcomes-an-ultrastructural-study-of-fragments
#9
Somayyeh Safari, Mohammad Ali Khalili, Zeinab Barekati, Iman Halvaei, Morteza Anvari, Stefania A Nottola
The aim was to study the ultrastructure of cytoplasmic fragments along with the effect of cosmetic micromanipulation (CM) on the morphology and development of vitrified-warmed embryos as well as assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes. A total of 96 frozen embryo transfer (FET) cycles were included in this prospective randomized study. They were divided into three groups of CM (n=32), sham (n=32) and control (n=32). In the CM group, the vitrified- warmed embryos were subjected to fragments and coarse granules removal (cosmetic micromanipulation) after laser assisted zona hatching (LAH); sham group subjected only to LAH and no intervention was taken for the control group...
May 17, 2017: Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526212/3d-deeply-supervised-network-for-automated-segmentation-of-volumetric-medical-images
#10
Qi Dou, Lequan Yu, Hao Chen, Yueming Jin, Xin Yang, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng
While deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) have achieved remarkable success in 2D medical image segmentation, it is still a difficult task for CNNs to segment important organs or structures from 3D medical images owing to several mutually affected challenges, including the complicated anatomical environments in volumetric images, optimization difficulties of 3D networks and inadequacy of training samples. In this paper, we present a novel and efficient 3D fully convolutional network equipped with a 3D deep supervision mechanism to comprehensively address these challenges; we call it 3D DSN...
May 8, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526169/the-second-victim-a-review
#11
REVIEW
B Coughlan, D Powell, M F Higgins
Amongst the lay and media population there is a perception that pregnancy, labour and delivery is always physiological, morbidity and mortality should be "never events" and that error is the only cause of adverse events. Those working in maternity care know that it is an imperfect art, where adverse outcomes and errors will occur. When errors do occur, there is a domino effect with three groups being involved - the patient (first victim), the staff (second victims) and the organization (third victims). If the perceived expectation of patients on all clinicians is that of perfection, then clinicians may suffer the consequences of adverse outcomes in isolation and silence...
June 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525596/antiretroviral-therapy-containing-hiv-protease-inhibitors-enhances-fracture-risk-by-impairing-osteoblast-differentiation-and-bone-quality
#12
Hiroyuki Hirakawa, Hiroyuki Gatanaga, Hiroki Ochi, Toru Fukuda, Satoko Sunamura, Shinichi Oka, Shu Takeda, Shingo Sato
Long-term ART is associated with increased fracture risk, but the mechanism remains elusive. We measured serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine (markers of poor bone quality) in HIV-infected patients treated with protease inhibitors (PIs) or an integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-containing regimens. The results demonstrated significantly higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin and pentosidine in PIs-treated patients. Switching to INSTI resulted in significant decrease in these markers. We also showed impaired bone mechanical properties with higher undercarboxylated osteocalcin level in PIs-treated mice and inhibited osteoblast differentiation in PIs-treated osteogenic cells...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520146/association-of-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-with-primary-allograft-survival-in-hiv-positive-kidney-transplant-recipients
#13
Suzanne M Boyle, Gregory Malat, Meera N Harhay, Dong H Lee, Lisa Pang, Sindhura Talluri, Akshay Sharma, Tiffany E Bias, Karthik Ranganna, Alden M Doyle
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is an anti-retroviral agent frequently used to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). There are concerns regarding its potential to cause acute kidney injury, chronic kidney disease, and proximal tubulopathy. Although TDF can effectively suppress HIV after kidney transplantation, it is unknown whether use of TDF-based anti-retroviral therapy (ART) after kidney transplant (KT) adversely affects allograft survival. METHODS: We examined 104 HIV+ KT recipients at our center between 2001 and 2014...
May 18, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518221/micronutrient-supplementation-in-adults-with-hiv-infection
#14
REVIEW
Marianne E Visser, Solange Durao, David Sinclair, James H Irlam, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: Micronutrient deficiencies are common among adults living with HIV disease, particularly in low-income settings where the diet may be low in essential vitamins and minerals. Some micronutrients play critical roles in maintenance of the immune system, and routine supplementation could therefore be beneficial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review previously published in 2010. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether micronutrient supplements are effective and safe in reducing mortality and HIV-related morbidity of HIV-positive adults (excluding pregnant women)...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508819/128-shades-of-red-objective-remote-assessment-of-radiation-dermatitis-by-augmented-digital-skin-imaging
#15
Richard Partl, Beata Jonko, Stefan Schnidar, Michael Schöllhammer, Max Bauer, Sanchit Singh, Julia Simeckova, Kathrin Wiesner, Andreas Neubauer, Harald Schnidar
The purpose of our investigation was to develop a novel and state of the art digital skin imaging method capable for remote monitoring and objective assessment of Radiation Induced Dermatitis (RID). Therefore, radiation therapy related side effects were assessed by medical experts according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) grade of severity in 20 female breast cancer patients in a clinical trial over the treatment time frame of 25-28 radiation cycles, 50.0-50.4 Gy each. Furthermore the intensity of developed skin erythema was documented by using conventional spectrophotometry plus digital skin imaging...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486791/rare-nox3-variants-confer-susceptibility-to-agranulocytosis-during-thyrostatic-treatment-of-graves-disease
#16
T S Plantinga, P Arts, G H Knarren, A H Mulder, I M Wakelkamp, A R Hermus, L A Joosten, M G Netea, P H Bisschop, W W de Herder, H J Beijers, I J de Bruin, C Gilissen, J A Veltman, A Hoischen, J W Smit, R T Netea-Maier
Agranulocytosis is a rare and serious adverse effect of antithyroid drugs, with unknown etiology. The present study aimed to uncover genetic susceptibility and underlying mechanisms of antithyroid drug-induced agranulocytosis (ATDAC). We studied two independent families with familial Graves' disease, of which several members developed ATDAC. In addition, six sporadic ATDAC patients with Graves' disease were investigated. Whole exome sequencing analysis of affected and unaffected family members was performed to identify genetic susceptibility variants for ATDAC, followed by functional characterization of primary granulocytes from patients and unrelated healthy controls...
May 9, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478716/effect-of-valerian-in-preventing-neuropsychiatric-adverse-effects-of-efavirenz-in-hiv-positive-patients-a-pilot-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#17
Motahareh Ahmadi, Hossein Khalili, Ladan Abbasian, Padideh Ghaeli
BACKGROUND: Several neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz are known. Preventing these adverse effects may improve patients' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of valerian in preventing neuropsychiatric adverse effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive patients. METHOD: In this pilot randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, 51 HIV-positive patients who were receiving efavirenz were recruited into the valerian (n = 25) or placebo (n = 26) group...
June 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465652/magnitude-of-antiretroviral-drug-toxicity-in-adult-hiv-patients-in-ethiopia-a-cohort-study-at-seven-teaching-hospitals
#18
Esayas Kebede Gudina, Alula M Teklu, Asres Berhan, Atsbeha Gebreegziabhier, Teshome Seyoum, Abiy Nega, Girmay Medhin, Amha Kebede, Yibeltal Assefa
BACKGROUND: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) has resulted in significant mortality reduction and improvement in the quality of life. However, this has come at a cost of increased drug toxicity. The objective of this study was to assess the patterns and predictors of ART toxicity in adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study conducted at seven teaching hospitals between September 2009 and December 2013 involving 3921 HIV patients on ART...
February 2017: Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462545/indian-college-of-physicians-icp-position-statement-on-pharmacovigilance
#19
Puneet Dhamija, Sanjay Kalra, Pramod Kumar Sharma, V Kalaiselvan, A Muruganathan, Yatan Pal Singh Balhara, Rajesh Badani, Ganapathi Bantwal, A K Das, Bharati Dhorepatil, Sujoy Ghosh, Tarun Jeloka, Deepak Khandelwal, Milind Y Nadkar, Kuppili Pooja Patnaik, Banshi Saboo, Manisha Sahay, Rakesh Sahay, Mangesh Tiwaskar, A G Unnikrishnan
Pharmacovigilance is the art and science of detection, understanding and prevention of adverse drug reactions and not merely a critical analysis of prescriptions and errors. This field starts with reporting by clinicians of a suspected adverse drug reaction (ADR) to the pharmacologist followed by joint causality analysis and ends at the application of new information by a clinician for benefit of patients. There are a number of ways, which can be utilised for reporting adverse effects using pen and paper format to software applications for smart phones...
March 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458165/use-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-in-assisted-reproductive-technology-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Mohan S Kamath, Priya Bhave Chittawar, Richard Kirubakaran, Mariano Mascarenhas
Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), a glycoprotein, has been used in women undergoing Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). We decided to undertake a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of G-CSF in women with thin endometrium and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) undergoing ART. The outcomes included an increase in endometrial thickness, live birth, clinical pregnancy rates and adverse effects. We included two trials evaluating women with thin endometrium and another two trials evaluating women with RIF...
April 13, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
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