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pedal mechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317554/chimpanzee-and-human-midfoot-motion-during-bipedal-walking-and-the-evolution-of-the-longitudinal-arch-of-the-foot
#1
Nicholas B Holowka, Matthew C O'Neill, Nathan E Thompson, Brigitte Demes
The longitudinal arch of the human foot is commonly thought to reduce midfoot joint motion to convert the foot into a rigid lever during push off in bipedal walking. In contrast, African apes have been observed to exhibit midfoot dorsiflexion following heel lift during terrestrial locomotion, presumably due to their possession of highly mobile midfoot joints. This assumed dichotomy between human and African ape midfoot mobility has recently been questioned based on indirect assessments of in vivo midfoot motion, such as plantar pressure and cadaver studies; however, direct quantitative analyses of African ape midfoot kinematics during locomotion remain scarce...
March 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263926/dopamine-depletion-impairs-gait-automaticity-by-altering-cortico-striatal-and-cerebellar-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Moran Gilat, Peter T Bell, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Matthew J Georgiades, Julie M Hall, Courtney C Walton, Simon J G Lewis, James M Shine
Impairments in motor automaticity cause patients with Parkinson's disease to rely on attentional resources during gait, resulting in greater motor variability and a higher risk of falls. Although dopaminergic circuitry is known to play an important role in motor automaticity, little evidence exists on the neural mechanisms underlying the breakdown of locomotor automaticity in Parkinson's disease. This impedes clinical management and is in great part due to mobility restrictions that accompany the neuroimaging of gait...
March 3, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196415/hierarchical-assembly-of-tough-bioelastomeric-egg-capsules-is-mediated-by-a-bundling-protein
#3
Jun Jie Loke, Akshita Kumar, Shawn Hoon, Chandra Verma, Ali Miserez
Marine snail egg capsules are shock-absorbing bioelastomers made from precursor "egg case proteins" (ECPs) that initially lack long-range order. During capsule formation, these proteins self-assemble into coiled-coil filaments that subsequently align into microscopic layers, a multiscale process which is crucial to the capsules' shock-absorbing properties. In this study, we show that the self-assembly of ECPs into their functional capsule material is mediated by a bundling protein that facilitates the aggregation of coiled-coil building blocks and their gelation into a prefinal capsule prior to final stabilization...
March 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155264/surgical-and-endovascular-venous-arterialization-ready-to-take-on-the-desert-by-storm
#4
Michiel A Schreve, Çağdaş Ünlü, Steven Kum, Yih K Tan
Patients with critical limb ischemia have a poor life expectancy, and aggressive revascularization is accepted to maintain their independence in the end stage of life. Bypass surgery and, more recently, endovascular interventions with angioplasty and stenting have become the treatment of choice to prevent amputation and resolve rest pain. Up to 20% of patients with critical limb ischemia are not suitable candidates for a vascular intervention because of extensive occlusions of the outflow in the crural and pedal vessels...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077872/structural-basis-for-nutrient-acquisition-by-dominant-members-of-the-human-gut-microbiota
#5
Amy J Glenwright, Karunakar R Pothula, Satya P Bhamidimarri, Dror S Chorev, Arnaud Baslé, Susan J Firbank, Hongjun Zheng, Carol V Robinson, Mathias Winterhalter, Ulrich Kleinekathöfer, David N Bolam, Bert van den Berg
The human large intestine is populated by a high density of microorganisms, collectively termed the colonic microbiota, which has an important role in human health and nutrition. The survival of microbiota members from the dominant Gram-negative phylum Bacteroidetes depends on their ability to degrade dietary glycans that cannot be metabolized by the host. The genes encoding proteins involved in the degradation of specific glycans are organized into co-regulated polysaccharide utilization loci, with the archetypal locus sus (for starch utilisation system) encoding seven proteins, SusA-SusG...
January 19, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000312/motor-adaptations-to-unilateral-quadriceps-fatigue-during-a-bilateral-pedaling-task
#6
N-P Brøchner Nielsen, F Hug, A Guével, V Fohanno, J Lardy, S Dorel
This study was designed to investigate how motor coordination adapts to unilateral fatigue of the quadriceps during a constant-load bilateral pedaling task. We first hypothesized that this local fatigue would not be compensated within the fatigued muscles leading to a decreased knee extension power. Then, we aimed to determine whether this decrease would be compensated by between-joints compensations within the ipsilateral leg and/or an increased contribution of the contralateral leg. Fifteen healthy volunteers were tested during pedaling at 350 W before and after a fatigue protocol consisting of 15 minutes of electromyostimulation on the quadriceps muscle...
December 20, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990234/can-fes-augmented-active-cycling-training-improve-locomotion-in-post-acute-elderly-stroke-patients
#7
Elisabetta Peri, Emilia Ambrosini, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Giancarlo Ferrigno, Claudia Nava, Valentina Longoni, Marco Monticone, Simona Ferrante
Recent studies advocated the use of active cycling coupled with functional electrical stimulation to induce neuroplasticity and enhance functional improvements in stroke adult patients. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether the benefits induced by such a treatment are superior to standard physiotherapy. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial has been performed on post-acute elderly stroke patients. Patients underwent FES-augmented cycling training combined with voluntary pedaling or standard physiotherapy...
June 13, 2016: European Journal of Translational Myology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856712/rates-of-performance-loss-and-neuromuscular-activity-in-men-and-women-during-cycling-evidence-for-a-common-metabolic-basis-of-muscle-fatigue
#8
Christopher W Sundberg, Sandra K Hunter, Matthew W Bundle
The durations that muscular force and power outputs can be sustained until failure fall predictably on an exponential decline between an individual's 3-s burst maximum to the maximum performance they can sustain aerobically. The exponential time constants describing these rates of performance loss are similar across individuals, suggesting that a common metabolically based mechanism governs muscle fatigue; however, these conclusions come from studies mainly on men. To test whether the same physiological understanding can be applied to women, we compared the performance-duration relationships and neuromuscular activity between seven men [23...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746738/the-physiological-mechanisms-of-performance-enhancement-with-sprint-interval-training-differ-between-the-upper-and-lower-extremities-in-humans
#9
Christoph Zinner, David Morales-Alamo, Niels Ørtenblad, Filip J Larsen, Tomas A Schiffer, Sarah J Willis, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Mario Perez-Valera, Robert Boushel, Jose A L Calbet, Hans-Christer Holmberg
To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differences in adaptation of arm and leg muscles to sprint training, over a period of 11 days 16 untrained men performed six sessions of 4-6 × 30-s all-out sprints (SIT) with the legs and arms, separately, with a 1-h interval of recovery. Limb-specific VO2peak, sprint performance (two 30-s Wingate tests with 4-min recovery), muscle efficiency and time-trial performance (TT, 5-min all-out) were assessed and biopsies from the m. vastus lateralis and m. triceps brachii taken before and after training...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736025/thermally-induced-intra-carboxyl-proton-shuttle-in-a-molecular-rack-and-pinion-cascade-achieving-macroscopic-crystal-deformation
#10
You-Gui Huang, Yoshihito Shiota, Sheng-Qun Su, Shu-Qi Wu, Zi-Shuo Yao, Guo-Ling Li, Shinji Kanegawa, Soonchul Kang, Takashi Kamachi, Kazunari Yoshizawa, Katsuhiko Ariga, Osamu Sato
Proton transport via dynamic molecules is ubiquitous in chemistry and biology. However, its use as a switching mechanism for properties in functional molecular assemblies is far less common. In this study, we demonstrate how an intra-carboxyl proton shuttle can be generated in a molecular assembly akin to a rack-and-pinion cascade via a thermally induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal phase transition. In a triply interpenetrated supramolecular organic framework (SOF), a 4,4'-azopyridine (azpy) molecule connects to two biphenyl-3,3',5,5'-tetracarboxylic acid (H4 BPTC) molecules to form a functional molecular system with switchable mechanical properties...
November 14, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664385/assessment-of-anoxia-tolerance-and-photoperiod-dependence-of-gabaergic-polarity-in-the-pond-snail-lymnaea-stagnalis
#11
Leslie T Buck, Hilary C Bond, Aqsa Malik
The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is reported to be anoxia-tolerant and if the tolerance mechanism is similar to that of the anoxia-tolerant painted turtle, GABA should play an important role. A potentially confounding factor investigating the role of GABA in anoxia tolerance are reports that GABA has both inhibitory and excitatory effects within L. stagnalis central ganglion. We therefore set out to determine if seasonality or photoperiod has an impact on: 1) the anoxia-tolerance of the intact pond snail, and 2) the response of isolated neuroganglia cluster F neurons to exogenous GABA application...
January 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27651150/investigating-motor-initiation-and-inhibition-deficits-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-freezing-of-gait-using-a-virtual-reality-paradigm
#12
Matthew J Georgiades, Moran Gilat, Kaylena A Ehgoetz Martens, Courtney C Walton, Patrick G Bissett, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
Freezing of gait (FOG) is a common, disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is associated with deficits in motor initiation and inhibition. Understanding of underlying neurobiological mechanisms has been limited by difficulties in eliciting and objectively characterizing such gait phenomena in the clinical setting. However, recent work suggests that virtual reality (VR) techniques might offer the potential to study motor control. This study utilized a VR paradigm to explore deficits in motor initiation and stopping performance, including stop failure in PD patients with (Freezers, 31) and without (Non-Freezers, 23) FOG, and healthy age-matched Controls (15)...
November 19, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27636740/neuraxial-anesthesia-reduces-lymphatic-flow-proof-of-concept-in-first-in-human-study
#13
Jonathan G Hiller, Hilmy M Ismail, Michael S Hofman, Kailash Narayan, Shakher Ramdave, Bernhard J Riedel
Dilation of lymphatic vessels may contribute to iatrogenic dissemination of cancer cells during surgery. We sought to determine whether neuraxial anesthesia reduces regional lymphatic flow. Using nuclear lymphoscintigraphy, 5 participants receiving spinal anesthesia for brachytherapy had lower extremity lymph flow at rest compared with flow under conditions of spinal anesthesia. Six limbs were analyzed. Four limbs were excluded because of failure to demonstrate lymph flow (1 patient, 2 limbs), colloid injection error (1 limb), and undiagnosed deep vein thrombosis (1 limb)...
September 15, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544621/quantifying-achilles-tendon-force-in-vivo-from-ultrasound-images
#14
Taylor J M Dick, Allison S Arnold, James M Wakeling
This study evaluated a procedure for estimating in vivo Achilles tendon (AT) force from ultrasound images. Two aspects of the procedure were tested: (i) accounting for subject-specific AT stiffness and (ii) accounting for changes in the relative electromyographic (EMG) intensities of the three triceps surae muscles. Ten cyclists pedaled at 80rpm while a comprehensive set of kinematic, kinetic, EMG, and ultrasound data were collected. Subjects were tested at four crank loads, ranging from 14 to 44Nm (115 to 370W)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27439394/an-association-between-membranoproliferative-glomerulonephritis-and-metastatic-colorectal-carcinoma-a-case-report
#15
Samuel Chan, Kimberley A Oliver, Nicholas A Gray
BACKGROUND: Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is a common pattern of glomerular injury in monoclonal gammopathy, but has only rarely been associated with solid organ tumors, mainly lung, renal, gastric, breast, and prostate. There have been two reported cases of membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum, although the association may be coincidental. We report a case where nephrotic syndrome due to membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis developed in a patient with colorectal carcinoma and elucidate some of the pathophysiological mechanisms underpinning this presentation...
July 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413175/total-intravenous-anaesthesia-using-propofol-and-sufentanil-allows-controlled-long-term-ventilation-in-rabbits-without-neuromuscular-blocking-agents
#16
Verena Reupke, Karoline Walliser, Thorsten Perl, Sarah Kimmina, Anke Schraepler, Michael Quintel, Nils Kunze-Szikszay
The aim of this study was to evaluate a total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) protocol using propofol and sufentanil without neuromuscular blocking agents (NBAs) for a non-recovery lung pathology study in rabbits including 10 h of pressure-controlled ventilation. TIVA was started with 20 mg/kg/h propofol and 0.5 µg/kg/h sufentanil. The depth of anaesthesia was assessed by reflex testing and monitoring of spontaneous movements or respiratory efforts. Vital parameters were monitored to assess the effects of the TIVA protocol...
July 13, 2016: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398810/excited-state-decay-in-the-photoisomerization-of-azobenzene-a-new-balance-between-mechanisms
#17
Josep Casellas, Michael J Bearpark, Mar Reguero
The mechanism of the photoisomerization of azobenzene has been studied by means of multiconfigurational ab initio calculations. Our results show that it is necessary to account for the dynamic electron correlation in the location of the critical points (CASPT2 optimizations) to obtain a correct description of the topography of the potential energy surfaces of the low-energy singlet excited states. Using this methodology, we have found that the state populated by the initial excitation is the S2 (ππ*) state, which decays very efficiently to the S1 (nπ*) state at a pedal-like non-rotated geometry...
July 11, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27334823/neuronal-projections-from-the-haller-s-organ-and-palp-sensilla-to-the-synganglion-of-amblyomma-americanum%C3%A2
#18
Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges, Andrew Yongsheng Li, Pia Untalan Olafson, Robert Renthal, Gary Roy Bauchan, Kimberly Hutchison Lohmeyer, Adalberto Angel Pérez de León
The present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an Ixodidae tick species. The tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed Amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. A neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. The synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. Neuronal arborizations from the Haller's organ were confined to the olfactory lobes and the first pedal ganglion...
June 14, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304521/neuronal-projections-from-the-haller-s-organ-and-palp-sensilla-to-the-synganglion-of-amblyomma-americanum%C3%A2
#19
Lígia Miranda Ferreira Borges, Andrew Yongsheng Li, Pia Untalan Olafson, Robert Renthal, Gary Roy Bauchan, Kimberly Hutchison Lohmeyer, Adalberto Angel Pérez de León
The present study was conducted to elucidate the neuronal pathways between peripheral olfactory and taste sensilla and the synganglion in an Ixodidae tick species. The tarsus of the front legs (olfactory nerves) and the fourth palpal segment (gustatory nerves) of unfed Amblyomma americanum males and females were excised. A neuronal tracer, dextran tetramethylrhodamine, was used for filling of the sensory neurons. The synganglion preparations were examined using a confocal microscope. Neuronal arborizations from the Haller's organ were confined to the olfactory lobes and the first pedal ganglion...
June 14, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27260247/heart-rate-regulation-during-cycle-ergometer-exercise-via-event-driven-biofeedback
#20
Ahmadreza Argha, Steven W Su, Branko G Celler
This paper is devoted to the problem of regulating the heart rate response along a predetermined reference profile, for cycle-ergometer exercises designed for training or cardio-respiratory rehabilitation. The controller designed in this study is a non-conventional, non-model-based, proportional, integral and derivative (PID) controller. The PID controller commands can be transmitted as biofeedback auditory commands, which can be heard and interpreted by the exercising subject to increase or reduce exercise intensity...
March 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
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