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foot biomechanics

Monica A Daley
Birds are a diverse and agile lineage of vertebrates that all use bipedal locomotion for at least part of their life. Thus birds provide a valuable opportunity to investigate how biomechanics and sensorimotor control are integrated for agile bipedal locomotion. This review summarizes recent work using terrain perturbations to reveal neuromechanical control strategies used by ground birds to achieve robust, stable and agile running. Early experiments in running guinea fowl aimed to reveal the immediate intrinsic mechanical response to an unexpected drop ('pothole') in terrain...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Corine L Creech, Priscilla Zinyemba, Eric T Choi, Andrew J Meyr
The transmetatarsal amputation is considered a durable procedure with respect to limb salvage when managing the consequences of diabetic foot disease. The success of the procedure is, in part, determined by the preoperative appreciation of arterial and functional status. The objectives of the present investigation were to determine the length of the remaining first metatarsal required during transmetatarsal amputation to preserve the anastomotic connection of the deep plantar perforating artery and subsequent "vascular arch" of the foot and the insertion of the tibialis anterior tendon...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Yang Liu, Binghong Gao, Jiru Li, Zuchang Ma, Yining Sun
The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes on foot-stretcher height were associated with characteristics of better rowing performance. Ten male rowers performed a 200 m rowing trial at their racing rate at each of three foot-stretcher heights. A single scull was equipped with an accelerometer to collect boat acceleration, an impeller with embedded magnets to collect boat speed, specially designed gate sensors to collect gate force and angle, and a compact string potentiometer to collect leg drive length...
June 7, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Kohei Watanabe, Motoki Kouzaki, Toshio Moritani
Biomechanical and neurophysiological mechanisms of age-related gait dysfunction have not been fully understood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between region-specific electromyography (EMG) response of the rectus femoris (RF) muscle and lower extremity kinematics during swing phase of gait for the elderly. For thirteen elderly men (age: mean 71.3 years, standard deviation 5.7 years), multi-channel surface EMG from the proximal to distal regions of the RF muscle and lower extremity kinematics were measured during normal gait on a treadmill...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Changxiao Yu, Shirui Shao, Julien S Baker, Yaodong Gu
Background: The table tennis serve involves complex spatial movements combined with biomechanial characteristics. Although the differences in lower-limb biomechanial characteristics to a great extent influence the translational and spinning velocity of the ball when using the different styles of table tennis serve, few researchers have studied their mechanics. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the differences in lower-limb activity between the squat and standing serves during a table tennis short serve...
2018: PeerJ
Jennifer R Yong, Amy Silder, Kate L Montgomery, Michael Fredericson, Scott L Delp
Tibial stress fractures are a common and debilitating injury that occur in distance runners. Runners may be able to decrease tibial stress fracture risk by adopting a running pattern that reduces biomechanical parameters associated with a history of tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that converting to a forefoot striking pattern or increasing cadence without focusing on changing foot strike type would reduce injury risk parameters in recreational runners. Running kinematics, ground reaction forces and tibial accelerations were recorded from seventeen healthy, habitual rearfoot striking runners while running in their natural running pattern and after two acute retraining conditions: (1) converting to forefoot striking without focusing on cadence and (2) increasing cadence without focusing on foot strike...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Hiroshi Nakajima, Sumiko Yamamoto, Junji Katsuhira
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes often develop diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which is a distal symmetric polyneuropathy, so foot function on the non-amputated side is expected to affect gait in vascular trans-tibial amputees. However, there is little information on the kinematics and kinetics of gait or the effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in vascular trans-tibial amputees. This study aimed to clarify these effects, including the biomechanics of the ankle on the non-amputated side...
May 9, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Hosein Kouhzad Mohammadi, Mohammad Mehravar, Khosro Khademi Kalantari, Sedighe Sadat Naimi, Alireza Akbarzadeh Baghban, Farshad Okhovatian, Asghar Rezasoltani, Mohammad Ali Mohseni Bandpei, Navid Taheri
BACKGROUND: Pronated of the foot is one of the important factors contributing to musculoskeletal problems affecting the lower extremities. It is known that in a pronated foot, excessive mechanical load is applied to the lower limb structures which may result in altered biomechanics and muscle activation patterns. The aim of this study was to determine changes in the muscle activation pattern of the lower extremities in individuals with pronated, compared to normal, feet, using the voluntary response index (VRI)...
April 2018: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
Farzaneh Yazdani, Mohsen Razeghi, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Hadi Raeisi Shahraki, Milad Salimi Bani
Despite the theoretical link between foot hyperpronation and biomechanical dysfunction of the pelvis, the literature lacks evidence that confirms this assumption in truly hyperpronated feet subjects during gait. Changes in the kinematic pattern of the pelvic segment were assessed in 15 persons with hyperpronated feet and compared to a control group of 15 persons with normally aligned feet during the stance phase of gait based on biomechanical musculoskeletal simulation. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected while participants walked at a comfortable self-selected speed...
May 1, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Tarak Srivastava, Sundaram Hariharan, Uri S Alon, Ellen T McCarthy, Ram Sharma, Ashraf El-Meanawy, Virginia J Savin, Mukut Sharma
Kidney donors face a small but definite risk of end-stage renal disease 15-30 years postdonation. The development of proteinuria, hypertension with gradual decrease in kidney function in the donor after surgical resection of 1 kidney has been attributed to hyperfiltration. Genetic variations, physiological adaptations, and co-morbidities exacerbate the hyperfiltration-induced loss of kidney function in the years following donation. A focus on glomerular hemodynamics and capillary pressure has led to the development of drugs that target the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), but these agents yield mixed results in transplant recipients and donors...
May 29, 2018: Transplantation
Fabian Mager, Jim Richards, Malika Hennies, Eugen Dötzel, Ambreen Chohan, Alex Mbuli, Felix Capanni
Forefoot stiffness has been shown to influence joint biomechanics. However, little or no data exists on metatarsophalangeal stiffness. Twenty-four healthy rearfoot strike runners were recruited from a staff and student population at the University of Central Lancashire. Five repetitions of shod, self-selected speed level walking and jogging were performed. Kinetic and kinematic data were collected using retro-reflective markers placed on the lower limb and foot, to create a three-segment foot model using the Calibrated Anatomical System Technique...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Hong-Yun Li, Ru-Shou Zhou, Zi-Ying Wu, Yutong Zhao, Shi-Yi Chen, Ying-Hui Hua
PURPOSE: To compare the biomechanical characteristics of suture-button fixation versus ligament reconstruction using semitendinosus tendon autograft in treatment of syndesmotic injury in cadaver biomechanical study. METHODS: Eight matched pairs of human cadaveric lower-extremities were measured intact, then following simulated syndesmosis injury by cutting the anterior tibiofibular ligament (AITFL), the distal 15 cm of the interosseous membrane (IO), and the deltoid ligament...
May 24, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Kannit Pongpipatpaiboon, Masahiko Mukaino, Fumihiro Matsuda, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Junya Yamada, Kazuhiro Tsuchiyama, Eiichi Saitoh
BACKGROUND: Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are frequently used to improve gait stability, toe clearance, and gait efficiency in individuals with hemiparesis. During the swing phase, AFOs enhance lower limb advancement by facilitating the improvement of toe clearance and the reduction of compensatory movements. Clinical monitoring via kinematic analysis would further clarify the changes in biomechanical factors that lead to the beneficial effects of AFOs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the actual impact of AFOs on toe clearance, and determine the best strategy to achieve toe clearance (including compensatory movements) during the swing phase...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Matthieu Ollivier, Julie Falguières, Martine Pithioux, Philippe Boisrenoult, Phillippe Beaufils, Nicolas Pujol
PURPOSE: The purpose of this cadaver research project was to describe the biomechanical consequences of anterior intermeniscal ligament (AIML) resection on menisci function under load conditions in full extension and 60° of flexion. METHODS: Ten unpaired fresh frozen cadaveric knees were dissected leaving the knee joint intact with its capsular and ligamentous attachments. The femur and tibia were sectioned 15 cm from the joint line and mounted onto the loading platform...
May 19, 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Francesco Manfreda, Paolo Ceccarini, Marco Corzani, Rosario Petruccelli, Pierluigi Antinolfi, Giuseppe Rinonapoli, Auro Caraffa
We report the case of a 66-year-old male patient with massive ossification of the distal portion of the Achilles tendon, as a late consequence of a surgical release for club foot conducted in his childhood. The singularity of the case report derives from its clinical features: the bone mass was of abnormal dimensions, almost substituting the entire tendon; the condition had always been asymptomatic, without deficits in range of motion, in absence of either pain or biomechanical defects with age. In fact, the condition was diagnosed just recently as a consequence of a tear...
2018: SAGE Open Medical Case Reports
James Becker, Stanley James, Louis Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
Background: A navicular stress fracture (NSF) is a common and high-risk injury in distance runners. It is not clear whether there are differences in foot structure and function between runners who have and those who have not sustained an NSF. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study compared foot structure, range of motion, and biomechanics between runners with a history of unilateral NSFs and runners who had never sustained this injury. The hypothesis was that runners with a history of NSFs will have less dorsiflexion and subtalar range of motion in a clinical examination and greater rearfoot eversion and higher eversion velocity while running than either the noninvolved feet or healthy controls...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Biren A Patel, Tea Jashashvili, Stephanie H Bui, Kristian J Carlson, Nicole L Griffin, Ian J Wallace, Caley M Orr, Randall L Susman
When measured as a ratio of mean midshaft diameter to bone length, the OH 8 fossil hominin foot exhibits a metatarsal (Mt) robusticity pattern of 1 > 5 > 3 > 4 > 2, which differs from the widely perceived "common" modern human pattern (1 > 5 > 4 > 3 > 2); African apes generally exhibit a third pattern (1 > 2 > 3 > 4 > 5). Largely because of the relative ranking of Mt2 and Mt5, OH 8 metatarsals structurally resemble the pattern exhibited by bipedal humans more than the pattern of quadrupedal and climbing African apes...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Kevin G Hatala, David A Perry, Stephen M Gatesy
Recent discoveries have made hominin tracks an increasingly prevalent component of the human fossil record, and these data have the capacity to inform long-standing debates regarding the biomechanics of hominin locomotion. However, there is currently no consensus on how to decipher biomechanical variables from hominin tracks. These debates can be linked to our generally limited understanding of the complex interactions between anatomy, motion, and substrate that give rise to track morphology. These interactions are difficult to study because direct visualization of the track formation process is impeded by foot and substrate opacity...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Matthew Carroll, Mark Boocock, Nicola Dalbeth, Sarah Stewart, Christopher Frampton, Keith Rome
BACKGROUND: The foot and ankle are frequently affected in tophaceous gout, yet kinematic and kinetic changes in this region during gait are unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate ankle biomechanical characteristics in people with tophaceous gout using three-dimensional gait analysis. METHODS: Twenty-four participants with tophaceous gout were compared with 24 age-and sex-matched control participants. A 9-camera motion analysis system and two floor-mounted force plates were used to calculate kinematic and kinetic parameters...
April 17, 2018: Gait & Posture
Young Yi, Woo-Chun Lee
Hallux valgus is a slowly progressing complex 3-dimensional biomechanical process. Therefore, precise understanding of 3-dimensional deformity is essential for satisfactory clinical result. Uniplanar correction on anteroposterior view of foot would be insufficient, and rotation on frontal plane as well as sagittal alignment should also be well corrected. This article will review the 3-dimensional components of bony displacement in different surgical methods for hallux valgus correction.
June 2018: Foot and Ankle Clinics
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