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foot biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673934/foot-structure-and-knee-joint-kinetics-during-walking-with-and-without-wedged-footwear-insoles
#1
Ryan T Lewinson, Ryan Madden, Anthony Killick, John W Wannop, J Preston Wiley, Victor M Y Lun, Chirag Patel, Jeremy M LaMothe, Darren J Stefanyshyn
The relationship between static foot structure characteristics and knee joint biomechanics during walking, or the biomechanical response to wedged insoles are currently unknown. In this study, 3D foot scanning, dual X-ray absorptiometry and gait analysis methods were used to determine structural parameters of the foot and assess their relation to knee joint loading and biomechanical response to wedged insoles in 30 patients with knee osteoarthritis. In multiple linear regression models, foot fat content, height of the medial longitudinal arch and static hind foot angle were not associated with the magnitude of the knee adduction moment (R2  = 0...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662779/finite-element-analysis-of-biomechanical-effects-of-total-ankle-arthroplasty-on-the-foot
#2
Yan Wang, Zengyong Li, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Cheng-Kung Cheng, Ming Zhang
Background: Total ankle arthroplasty is gaining popularity as an alternation to ankle arthrodesis for end-stage ankle arthritis. Owing to the complex anatomical characteristics of the ankle joint, total ankle arthroplasty has higher failure rates. Biomechanical exploration of the effects of total ankle arthroplasty on the foot and ankle is imperative for the precaution of postoperative complications. The objectives of this study are (1) to investigate the biomechanical differences of the foot and ankle between the foot with total ankle arthroplasty and the intact foot and (2) to investigate the performance of the three-component ankle prosthesis...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658524/reference-values-of-spatiotemporal-parameters-joint-angles-ground-reaction-forces-and-plantar-pressure-distribution-during-normal-gait-in-young-women
#3
Anna Fryzowicz, Michał Murawa, Jarosław Kabaciński, Agata Rzepnicka, Lechosław B Dworak
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to establish the reference values of spatiotemporal parameters, joint angles, ground reaction forces and plantar pressure distribution collected simultaneously on the same measurement path during normal gait in a homogenous group of young, healthy women. METHODS: The studied group consisted of 28 healthy women aged 21 years on average. The motion capture system BTS Smart-D, 2 AMTI force platforms and Footscan pedobarographic platform were used in this research...
2018: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657819/substrate-texture-affects-female-cricket-walking-response-to-male-calling-song
#4
E J Sarmiento-Ponce, M P F Sutcliffe, B Hedwig
Field crickets are extensively used as a model organism to study female phonotactic walking behaviour, i.e. their attraction to the male calling song. Laboratory-based phonotaxis experiments generally rely on arena or trackball-based settings; however, no attention has been paid to the effect of substrate texture on the response. Here, we tested phonotaxis in female Gryllus bimaculatus , walking on trackballs machined from methyl-methacrylate foam with different cell sizes. Surface height variations of the trackballs, due to the cellular composition of the material, were measured with profilometry and characterized as smooth, medium or rough, with roughness amplitudes of 7...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657116/gaze-and-the-control-of-foot-placement-when-walking-in-natural-terrain
#5
Jonathan Samir Matthis, Jacob L Yates, Mary M Hayhoe
Human locomotion through natural environments requires precise coordination between the biomechanics of the bipedal gait cycle and the eye movements that gather the information needed to guide foot placement. However, little is known about how the visual and locomotor systems work together to support movement through the world. We developed a system to simultaneously record gaze and full-body kinematics during locomotion over different outdoor terrains. We found that not only do walkers tune their gaze behavior to the specific information needed to traverse paths of varying complexity but that they do so while maintaining a constant temporal look-ahead window across all terrains...
April 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651893/differences-among-overhand-three-quarter-and-sidearm-pitching-biomechanics-in-professional-baseball-players
#6
Rafael F Escamilla, Jonathan S Slowik, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig
The purpose of this study was to assess biomechanical differences among overhand, three-quarter, and sidearm arm-slot professional baseball pitchers. It was hypothesized that kinematic-and-kinetic differences would be found among the three groups, with sidearm pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the transverse plane, and overhead pitchers demonstrating greater movement along the sagittal plane. Based upon arm-slot-angle at ball-release, 30-overhand, 156-three-quarter, and 21-sidearm pitchers were tested using a 240-Hz-motion-analysis-system, and 37 kinematic-and-kinetic parameters were calculated...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643516/-preliminary-study-of-robot-assisted-ankle-rehabilitation-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
R L Wang, Z H Zhou, Y C Xi, Q N Wang, N H Wang, Z Huang
OBJECTIVE: To propose a kind of robotic ankle-foot rehabilitation system for children with cerebral palsy and to preliminarily verify its feasibility in clinical application. METHODS: A robot assisted ankle-foot rehabilitation system was specially designed and developed for children with cerebral palsy and a preliminary clinical study was conducted in Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Peking University First Hospital. Modified Tardieu Scale and joint biomechanical properties (ankle plantar flexion resistance torque under different ankle dorsiflexion angles) were measured to analyze the muscle tone and soft tissue compliance of the ankle plantar flexors pre- and post-robotic training intervention...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625413/a-novel-approach-for-the-detection-and-exploration-of-joint-coupling-patterns-in-the-lower-limb-kinetic-chain
#8
Kevin Deschamps, Maarten Eerdekens, Jurre Geentjens, Lieselot Santermans, Lien Steurs, Bart Dingenen, Maarten Thysen, Filip Staes
BACKGROUND: A comprehensive perspective on foot and lower limb joint coupling is lacking since previous studies did not consider the multi-articular nature of the foot and lower limb neither accounted for biomechanical heterogeneity. RESEARCH QUESTION: The current manuscript describes a novel methodological process for detection and exploration of joint coupling patterns in the lower limb kinetic chain. METHODS: The first stage of the methodological process encompasses the measurement of 3D joint kinematics of the foot and lower limb kinetic chain during dynamic activities...
March 31, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609157/acute-and-mid-term-six-week-effects-of-an-ankle-foot-orthosis-on-biomechanical-parameters-clinical-outcomes-and-physical-activity-in-knee-osteoarthritis-patients-with-varus-malalignment
#9
Maik Sliepen, Elsa Mauricio, Dieter Rosenbaum
BACKGROUND: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a painful disease commonly caused by high loads on the articular cartilage. Orthotic interventions aim to reduce mechanical loading, thereby alleviating pain. Traditional orthotics appear effective, but high drop-out rates have been reported over prolonged periods. RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a novel ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) on gait parameters, physical function and activity of KOA patients...
March 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603350/establishment-of-an-in-vivo-turkey-model-for-the-study-of-flexor-tendon-repair
#10
Assaf Kadar, Haoyu Liu, Alyssa M Vrieze, Thomas R Meier, Andrew R Thoreson, Peter C Amadio, Steven L Moran, Chunfeng Zhao
Flexor tendon injuries are common and pose a clinical challenge for functional restoration. The purpose of our study was to assess the adequacy of the turkey as a large animal model for flexor tendon injuries in vivo. Twenty-four male turkeys underwent surgical flexor tendon cut and repair. Turkeys were allocated to 5 groups postoperatively: 1) foot casted in extension and sacrificed after 3 weeks, 2) foot casted in extension and sacrificed after 6 weeks, 3) foot casted in flexion and sacrificed after 3 weeks, 4) foot casted in flexion and sacrificed after 6 weeks, and 5) foot casted in flexion for 6 weeks and then free roaming allowed for an additional 3 weeks before sacrifice...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602475/concurrent-validation-of-an-inertial-measurement-system-to-quantify-kicking-biomechanics-in-four-football-codes
#11
Stephanie Blair, Grant Duthie, Sam Robertson, William Hopkins, Kevin Ball
Wearable inertial measurement systems (IMS) allow for three-dimensional analysis of human movements in a sport-specific setting. This study examined the concurrent validity of a IMS (Xsens MVN system) for measuring lower extremity and pelvis kinematics in comparison to a Vicon motion analysis system (MAS) during kicking. Thirty footballers from Australian football (n = 10), soccer (n = 10), rugby league and rugby union (n = 10) clubs completed 20 kicks across four conditions. Concurrent validity was assessed using a linear mixed-modelling approach, which allowed the partition of between and within-subject variance from the device measurement error...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580692/modeling-the-two-dimensional-accuracy-of-soccer-kicks
#12
Andrew H Hunter, Michael J Angilletta, Theodore Pavlic, Glen Lichtwark, Robbie S Wilson
In many sports, athletes perform motor tasks that simultaneously require both speed and accuracy for success, such as kicking a ball. Because of the biomechanical trade-off between speed and accuracy, athletes must balance these competing demands. Modelling the optimal compromise between speed and accuracy requires one to quantifyhow task speed affects the dispersion around a target, a level of experimental detail not previously addressed. Using soccer penalties as a system, we measured two-dimensional kicking error over a range of speeds, target heights, and kicking techniques...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576960/effect-of-fatigue-and-gender-on-kinematics-and-ground-reaction-forces-variables-in-recreational-runners
#13
Bruno Bazuelo-Ruiz, Juan V Durá-Gil, Nicolás Palomares, Enrique Medina, Salvador Llana-Belloch
The presence of fatigue has been shown to modify running biomechanics. Overall in terms of gender, women are at lower risk than men for sustaining running-related injuries, although it depends on the factors taken into account. One possible reason for these differences in the injury rate and location might be the dissimilar running patterns between men and women. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of fatigue and gender on the kinematic and ground reaction forces (GRF) parameters in recreational runners...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562832/kinematic-and-kinetic-differences-between-left-and-right-handed-professional-baseball-pitchers
#14
Alek Z Diffendaffer, Glenn S Fleisig, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
While 10% of the general population is left-handed, 27% of professional baseball pitchers are left-handed. Biomechanical differences between left- and right-handed college pitchers have been previously reported, but these differences have yet to be examined at the professional level. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare pitching biomechanics between left- and right-handed professional pitchers. It was hypothesised that there would be significant kinematic and kinetic differences between these two groups...
March 21, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561862/lower-limb-muscle-co-contraction-and-joint-loading-of-flip-flops-walking-in-male-wearers
#15
Tony Lin-Wei Chen, Duo Wai-Chi Wong, Zhi Xu, Qitao Tan, Yan Wang, Ameersing Luximon, Ming Zhang
Flip-flops may change walking gait pattern, increase muscle activity and joint loading, and predispose wearers to foot problems, despite that quantitative evidence is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine the lower limb muscle co-contraction and joint contact force in flip-flops gait, and compare with those of barefoot and sports shoes walking. Ten healthy males were instructed to perform over-ground walking at self-selected speed under three footwear conditions: 1) barefoot, 2) sports shoes, and 3) thong-type flip-flops...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559550/surface-friction-alters-the-agility-of-a-small-australian-marsupial
#16
Rebecca Wheatley, Christofer J Clemente, Amanda C Niehaus, Diana O Fisher, Robbie S Wilson
Movement speed can underpin an animal's probability of success in ecological tasks. Prey often use agility to outmanoeuvre predators, however faster speeds increase inertia and reduce agility. Agility is also constrained by grip, as the foot must have sufficient friction with the ground to apply the forces required for turning. Consequently, ground surface should affect optimum turning speed. We tested the speed-agility trade-off in buff-footed antechinus ( Antechinus mysticus ) on two different surfaces. Antechinus used slower turning speeds over smaller turning radii on both surfaces, as predicted by the speed-agility trade-off...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544347/towards-patient-specific-medializing-calcaneal-osteotomy-for-adult-flatfoot-a-finite-element-study
#17
Zhongkui Wang, Masamitsu Kido, Kan Imai, Kazuya Ikoma, Shinichi Hirai
Clinically in medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO), foot and ankle surgeons are facing difficulties in choosing appropriate surgical parameters due to the individual differences in deformities among flatfoot patients. Traditional cadaveric studies have provided important information regarding the biomechanical effects of tendons, ligaments, and plantar fascia, but limitations have been reached when dealing with individual differences and tailoring patient-specific surgeries. Therefore, this study aimed at implementing the finite element (FE) method to investigate the effect of different MCO parameters to help foot and ankle surgeons performing patient-specific surgeries...
March 15, 2018: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541162/three-dimensional-quantitative-analysis-of-healthy-foot-shape-a-proof-of-concept-study
#18
Kristina Stanković, Brian G Booth, Femke Danckaers, Fien Burg, Philippe Vermaelen, Saartje Duerinck, Jan Sijbers, Toon Huysmans
Background: Foot morphology has received increasing attention from both biomechanics researches and footwear manufacturers. Usually, the morphology of the foot is quantified by 2D footprints. However, footprint quantification ignores the foot's vertical dimension and hence, does not allow accurate quantification of complex 3D foot shape. Methods: The shape variation of healthy 3D feet in a population of 31 adult women and 31 adult men who live in Belgium was studied using geometric morphometric methods...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528722/biomechanical-evaluation-of-circumtibial-and-transmembranous-routes-for-posterior-tibial-tendon-transfer-for-dropfoot
#19
Emilio Wagner, Pablo Wagner, Diego Zanolli, Rubén Radkievich, Gunther Redenz, Rodrigo Guzman
BACKGROUND: Tibialis posterior tendon transfer is performed when loss of dorsiflexion has to be compensated. We evaluated the circumtibial (CT), above-retinaculum transmembranous (TMAR), and under-retinaculum transmembranous (TMUR) transfer gliding resistance and foot kinematics in a cadaveric foot model during ankle range of motion (ROM). METHODS: Eight cadaveric foot-ankle distal tibia specimens were dissected free of soft tissues on the proximal end, applying an equivalent force to 50% of the stance phase to every tendon, except for the Achilles tendon...
March 1, 2018: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526856/a-wearable-resistive-robot-facilitates-locomotor-adaptations-during-gait
#20
Edward P Washabaugh, Chandramouli Krishnan
BACKGROUND: Robotic-resisted treadmill walking is a form of task-specific training that has been used to improve gait function in individuals with neurological injury, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, or cerebral palsy. Traditionally, these devices use active elements (e.g., motors or actuators) to provide resistance during walking, making them bulky, expensive, and less suitable for overground or in-home rehabilitation. We recently developed a low-cost, wearable robotic brace that generates resistive torques across the knee joint using a simple magnetic brake...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
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