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foot biomechanics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828179/the-subtalar-joint-a-complex-mechanism
#1
Nicola Krähenbühl, Tamara Horn-Lang, Beat Hintermann, Markus Knupp
Subtalar joint anatomy is complex and can vary significantly between individuals.Movement is affected by several adjacent joints, ligaments and periarticular tendons.The subtalar joint has gained interest from foot and ankle surgeons in recent years, but its importance in hindfoot disorders is still under debate.The purpose of this article is to give a general overview of the anatomy, biomechanics and radiographic assessment of the subtalar joint.The influence of the subtalar joint on the evolution of ankle joint osteoarthritis is additionally discussed...
July 2017: EFORT open reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826743/foot-disorders-in-the-elderly-a-mini-review
#2
David Rodríguez-Sanz, Natalia Tovaruela-Carrión, Daniel López-López, Patricia Palomo-López, Carlos Romero-Morales, Emmanuel Navarro-Flores, César Calvo-Lobo
Ageing process is associated with changes to the aspect, biomechanics, structure and function of the foot, it may be related with a marked presence of foot conditions, pain, disability and other overall health problems that constitute a major public health concern. Also, the prevalence of epidemiologic research found an incidence of foot problems which is even higher as a consequence of increasing life expectation. Several studies have also suggested that such foot disorders currently affect between 71 and 87% of older patients and are a frequent cause of medical and foot care...
August 18, 2017: Disease-a-month: DM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814050/segmental-contributions-to-sagittal-plane-whole-body-angular-momentum-when-using-powered-compared-to-passive-ankle-foot-prostheses-on-ramps
#3
Nathaniel T Pickle, Anne K Silverman, Jason M Wilken, Nicholas P Fey
Understanding the effects of an assistive device on dynamic balance is crucial, particularly for robotic leg prostheses. Analyses of dynamic balance commonly evaluate the range of whole-body angular momentum (H). However, the contributions of individual body segments to overall H throughout gait may yield futher insights, specifically for people with transtibial amputation using powered prostheses. We evaluated segment contributions to H using Statistical Parametric Mapping to assess the effects of prosthesis type (powered vs passive) and ramp angle on segmental coordination...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814000/preliminary-study-of-a-robotic-foot-ankle-prosthesis-with-active-alignment
#4
Andrew K LaPre, Ryan D Wedge, Brian R Umberger, Frank C Sup
Robotic prosthetic foot-ankle prostheses typically aim to replace the lost joint with revolute joints aimed at replicating normal joint biomechanics. In this paper, a previously developed robotic ankle prosthesis with active alignment is evaluated. It uses a four-bar mechanism to inject positive power into the gait cycle while altering the kinematics of the ankle joint and pylon segment to reduce loading on the residual limb. In a single-subject biomechanics analysis, there was a 10% reduction in peak limb pressures and evidence of greater gait symmetry in ground reaction forces when active alignment was implemented compared to walking with the daily use prosthesis...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813971/feasibility-study-of-transtibial-amputee-walking-using-a-powered-prosthetic-foot
#5
Martin Grimmer, Matthew Holgate, Jeffrey Ward, Alexander Boehler, Andre Seyfarth
Passive prosthetic feet are not able to provide non-amputee kinematics and kinetics for the ankle joint. Persons with amputations show reduced interlimb symmetry, slower walking speeds, and increased walking effort. To improve ankle range of motion and push off, various powered prosthetic feet were introduced. This feasibility study analyzed if predefined motor reference trajectories can be used to achieve non-amputee ankle biomechanics during walking with the powered prosthetic foot, Walk-Run Ankle. Trajectories were calculated using the desired ankle angle and ankle moment based spring deflection at a given spring stiffness...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813868/relationship-between-assistive-torque-and-knee-biomechanics-during-exoskeleton-walking-in-individuals-with-crouch-gait
#6
Zachary F Lerner, Diane L Damiano, Thomas C Bulea
Crouch or "flexed knee" gait is a pathological gait pattern affecting many individuals with cerebral palsy. One proposed method to alleviate crouch is to provide robotic assistance to knee extension during walking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the magnitude of knee extensor torque affects knee kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activity. Motion capture, ground reaction force and electromyography data were collected while four participants with crouch gait from cerebral palsy walked with assistance from a novel robotic exoskeleton on an instrumented treadmill...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783473/heel-rise-height-deficit-1-year-after-achilles-tendon-rupture-relates-to-changes-in-ankle-biomechanics-6-years-after-injury
#7
Annelie Brorsson, Richard W Willy, Roy Tranberg, Karin Grävare Silbernagel
BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether the height of a heel-rise performed in the single-leg standing heel-rise test 1 year after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) correlates with ankle biomechanics during walking, jogging, and jumping in the long-term. PURPOSE: To explore the differences in ankle biomechanics, tendon length, calf muscle recovery, and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 6 years after ATR between 2 groups that, at 1-year follow-up, had less than 15% versus greater than 30% differences in heel-rise height...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757236/fiber-based-modeling-of-in-situ-ankle-ligaments-with-consideration-of-progressive-failure
#8
Bingbing Nie, Jason L Forman, Matthew B Panzer, Alexander R Mait, John-Paul Donlon, Richard W Kent
Ligament sprains account for a majority of injuries to the foot and ankle complex among athletic populations. The infeasibility of measuring the in situ response and load paths of individual ligaments has precluded a complete characterization of their mechanical behavior via experiment. In the present study a fiber-based modeling approach of in situ ankle ligaments was developed and validated for determining the heterogeneous force-elongation characteristics and the consequent injury patterns. Nine major ankle ligaments were modeled as bundles of discrete elements, corresponding functionally to the structure of collagen fibers...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752791/effect-of-tibial-coronal-inclination-on-hindfoot-kinematics-a-biomechanical-simulation-study
#9
Hiroyuki Seki, Takeo Nagura, Yasunori Suda, Naomichi Ogihara, Kohta Ito, Morio Matsumoto, Masaya Nakamura
Tibial coronal inclination is often recognized in everyday life, but the compensatory kinematic changes to maintain plantigrade of the hindfoot in response to tibial coronal inclination remain unclear. Lower legs and foot specimens obtained from seven human cadavers were loaded vertically with traction of Achilles' tendon in different tibial inclinations: 0° (neutral), 5°, and 10° medial inclination, and 5° and 10° lateral inclination. The orientations of the tibia, talus, and calcaneus were recorded under vertical load by a three-dimensional digitizing stylus...
July 1, 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747517/a-soft-robotic-exosuit-improves-walking-in-patients-after-stroke
#10
Louis N Awad, Jaehyun Bae, Kathleen O'Donnell, Stefano M M De Rossi, Kathryn Hendron, Lizeth H Sloot, Pawel Kudzia, Stephen Allen, Kenneth G Holt, Terry D Ellis, Conor J Walsh
Stroke-induced hemiparetic gait is characteristically slow and metabolically expensive. Passive assistive devices such as ankle-foot orthoses are often prescribed to increase function and independence after stroke; however, walking remains highly impaired despite-and perhaps because of-their use. We sought to determine whether a soft wearable robot (exosuit) designed to supplement the paretic limb's residual ability to generate both forward propulsion and ground clearance could facilitate more normal walking after stroke...
July 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747337/comparisons-of-external-fixator-combined-with-limited-internal-fixation-and-open-reduction-and-internal-fixation-for-sanders-type-2-calcaneal-fractures-finite-element-analysis-and-clinical-outcome
#11
M Pan, L Chai, F Xue, L Ding, G Tang, B Lv
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical stability and clinical outcome of external fixator combined with limited internal fixation (EFLIF) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) in treating Sanders type 2 calcaneal fractures. METHODS: Two types of fixation systems were selected for finite element analysis and a dual cohort study. Two fixation systems were simulated to fix the fracture in a finite element model. The relative displacement and stress distribution were analysed and compared...
July 2017: Bone & Joint Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745438/functional-donor-site-morbidity-longer-than-one-year-after-fibula-free-flap-a-prospective-biomechanical-analysis
#12
Carsten Rendenbach, Ashkan Rashad, Lara Hansen, Carsten Kohlmeier, Moritz L Dyck, Anna Suling, Alexandre T Assaf, Michael Amling, Max Heiland, Johannes Wikner, Bjoern Riecke, Kilian Kreutzer
OBJECTIVES: The fibula free flap is the workhorse procedure for osseous reconstruction. The objective of this study was to investigate long-term functional outcomes of the harvesting site. PATIENTS AND METHODS: About 19 patients (10 male, 9 female, mean age 58.1 years) were available for the long-term analysis 13-51 months after surgery. Jumping mechanography and balance testing on a ground force reaction plate (Leonardo Mechanograph GFRP) were performed before and surgery...
July 26, 2017: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743205/do-baseball-pitchers-improve-mechanics-after-biomechanical-evaluations
#13
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Brett Ivey, Kyle T Aune
The purpose of this study was to determine how often flaws in pitching mechanics identified from biomechanical analysis are corrected. The biomechanics of 46 baseball pitchers were evaluated twice, with an average of 12 months (range 2-48 months) between evaluations. Pitchers were healthy at the time of both evaluations, competing at the high school, college, minor league or Major League level. After warming up, each participant pitched 10 full-effort fastballs. Automated three-dimensional motion analysis was used to compute eight kinematic parameters which were compared with a database of elite professional pitchers...
July 25, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742605/predictors-of-the-biomechanical-effects-of-customized-foot-orthoses-in-adults-with-flat-arched-feet
#14
John B Arnold, Thomas May, Christopher Bishop
OBJECTIVE: To determine the potential presence and characteristics of biomechanical responders to customized foot orthoses during walking in adults with flat-arched feet. DESIGN: Experimental, repeated-measures. SETTING: University clinic and laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Eighteen symptom-free adults with flat-arched feet. INTERVENTIONS: Customized foot orthoses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In-shoe foot biomechanics were measured during walking with and without customized foot orthoses using 3D analysis...
July 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736080/the-effect-of-ankle-foot-orthosis-alignment-on-walking-in-individuals-treated-for-traumatic-lower-extremity-injuries
#15
Starr E Brown, Elizabeth Russell Esposito, Jason M Wilken
Limb salvage surgeries are performed to treat a variety of lower limb pathologies and traumatic injuries. Individuals who have undergone limb salvage surgeries may require an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) to compensate for limb impairments and restore walking ability. Understanding the effects of AFO design parameters on gait biomechanics is important to refine AFO prescription criteria. In this study sagittal plane kinematic and kinetic data, muscle activity and alignment preference were examined as individuals treated for traumatic lower extremity injuries (N=12) walked over level ground with Plantarflexed (PF), Neutral, and Dorsiflexed (DF) aligned AFOs...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731978/differences-in-spatiotemporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#16
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesús Cámara, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
Gómez-Molina, J, Ogueta-Alday, A, Stickley, C, Tobalina, JC, Cabrejas-Ugartondo, J, and García-López, J. Differences in spatiotemporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2169-2175, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in 2 groups according to their training experience: Trained (n = 10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n = 11, healthy untrained participants)...
August 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730921/kinematic-repeatability-of-a-multi-segment-foot-model-for-dance
#17
Sarah L Carter, Nahoko Sato, Luke S Hopper
The purpose of this study was to determine the intra and inter-assessor repeatability of a modified Rizzoli Foot Model for analysing the foot kinematics of ballet dancers. Six university-level ballet dancers performed the movements; parallel stance, turnout plié, turnout stance, turnout rise and flex-point-flex. The three-dimensional (3D) position of individual reflective markers and marker triads was used to model the movement of the dancers' tibia, entire foot, hindfoot, midfoot, forefoot and hallux. Intra and inter-assessor reliability demonstrated excellent (ICC ≥ 0...
July 21, 2017: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720138/plantar-plate-pathology-is-associated-with-erosive-disease-in-the-painful-forefoot-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Heidi J Siddle, Richard J Hodgson, Elizabeth M A Hensor, Andrew J Grainger, Anthony C Redmond, Richard J Wakefield, Philip S Helliwell
BACKGROUND: Disease-related foot pathology is recognised to have a significant impact on mobility and functional capacity in the majority of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The forefoot is widely affected and the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints are the most common site of symptoms. The plantar plates are the fibrocartilaginous distal attachments of the plantar fascia inserting into the five proximal phalanges. Together with the transverse metatarsal ligament they prevent splaying of the forefoot and subluxation of the MTP joints...
July 18, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713254/short-term-effects-of-thoracic-spine-manipulation-on-the-biomechanical-organisation-of-gait-initiation-a-randomized-pilot-study
#19
Sébastien Ditcharles, Eric Yiou, Arnaud Delafontaine, Alain Hamaoui
Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705486/the-influence-of-adipose-tissue-location-on-postural-control
#20
Joanna Cieślińska-Świder, Mariusz Paweł Furmanek, Janusz Wiesław Błaszczyk
A growing body of evidence suggests, that excessive body weight is inseparably connected with postural instability. In none of previous studies, body weight distribution has been considered as a factor, which may affect results of a static posturography. The purpose of the present study is to quantify some center of foot pressure (COP) characteristics in 40 obese women with android type of obesity (waist-to-hip ratio - WHR≥0.85, BMI: 37.5±5.4) and 40 obese women with gynoid type of obesity (WHR<0.85, BMI: 36...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
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