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Intracranial antiepileptics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859869/neuronal-levels-and-sequence-of-tau-modulate-the-power-of-brain-rhythms
#1
Melanie Das, Sumihiro Maeda, Bozhong Hu, Gui-Qiu Yu, Weikun Guo, Isabel Lopez, Xinxing Yu, Chao Tai, Xin Wang, Lennart Mucke
Neural network dysfunction may contribute to functional decline and disease progression in neurodegenerative disorders. Diverse lines of evidence suggest that neuronal accumulation of tau promotes network dysfunction and cognitive decline. The A152T-variant of human tau (hTau-A152T) increases the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and several other tauopathies. When overexpressed in neurons of transgenic mice, it causes age-dependent neuronal loss and cognitive decline, as well as non-convulsive epileptic activity, which is also seen in patients with AD...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700277/prophylactic-anticonvulsants-in-patients-undergoing-craniotomy-a-single-center-experience
#2
Aydemir Kale
BACKGROUND There is no consensus on the efficacy of seizure prophylaxis in patients undergoing craniotomy. Some studies show that antiepileptic use decreases the risk of seizures, but other studies do not support this. The present study investigated the role of antiepileptic drugs in patient undergoing craniotomy due to various intracranial pathologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective review was performed in adult patients undergoing craniotomy between January 2013 and June 2017. Results of 282 patients who did not have a history of seizures and had craniotomies for various reasons were included...
April 27, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682064/awake-craniotomy-with-noninvasive-brain-mapping-by-3-tesla-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-excision-of-low-grade-glioma-a-case-of-a-young-patient-from-pakistan
#3
Atta Ul Aleem Bhatti, Nasir Khan Jakhrani, Maria Adnan Parekh
The past few years have seen increasing support for gross total resection in the management of low-grade gliomas (LGGs), with a greater extent of resection correlated with better overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to malignant transformation. There is consistent evidence in literature supporting extent of safe resection as a good prognostic indicator as well as positively affecting seizure control, symptomatic relief in pressure symptoms, and longer progression-free and total survival. The operative goal in most LGG cases is to maximize the extent of resection for these benefits while avoiding postoperative neurologic deficits...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623064/predictability-and-resetting-in-a-case-of-convulsive-status-epilepticus
#4
Timothy Hutson, Diana Pizarro, Sandipan Pati, Leon D Iasemidis
In this case study, we present evidence of resetting of brain dynamics following convulsive status epilepticus (SE) that was treated successfully with antiepileptic medications (AEDs). The measure of effective inflow (EI), a novel measure of network connectivity, was applied to the continuously recorded multichannel intracranial stereoelectroencephalographic (SEEG) signals before, during and after SE. Results from this analysis indicate trends of progressive reduction of EI over hours up to the onset of SE, mainly at sites of the epileptogenic focus with reversal of those trends upon successful treatment of SE by AEDs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620012/rapid-antiepileptic-drug-withdrawal-may-obscure-localizing-information-obtained-during-presurgical-eeg-recordings
#5
Yulia Novitskaya, Mandy Hintz, Andreas Schulze-Bonhage
Withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is a standard procedure during presurgical epilepsy assessment. Rapid and, at times, even pre-hospital withdrawal of medication is performed in some centres to enhance the yield of recorded seizures during video-EEG monitoring. AED withdrawal, however, affects the propensity and speed of propagation of epileptic activity, may evoke more severe seizures, and may cause pitfalls in EEG interpretation. We report a case which had been recommended to undergo intracranial EEG recordings in order to clarify apparently discordant MRI findings and ictal EEG patterns when monitoring was performed following complete AED withdrawal...
April 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610036/paradoxical-association-of-symptomatic-local-vasogenic-edema-with-global-cerebral-hypoperfusion-after-direct-revascularization-surgery-for-adult-moyamoya-disease
#6
Ryosuke Tashiro, Miki Fujimura, Shunji Mugikura, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Hidenori Endo, Toshiki Endo, Teiji Tominaga
BACKGROUND: Superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis is the standard treatment for Moyamoya disease (MMD). Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is a potential complication of this procedure and can cause local vasogenic edema and/or delayed intracerebral hemorrhage. Cerebral hypoperfusion is a contradictory postoperative pathophysiological condition implicated in MMD, but its association with symptomatic local vasogenic edema has not been reported. CASE REPORT: A 31-year-old woman with MMD underwent left STA-MCA anastomosis 3 months after a minor completed stroke in bilateral hemispheres...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603777/postoperative-survival-and-early-complications-after-intracranial-surgery-in-dogs
#7
Alexander K Forward, Holger A Volk, Steven De Decker
OBJECTIVE: To describe survival and early postoperative outcome after intracranial surgery in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: Fifty client-owned dogs that underwent intracranial surgery. METHODS: Records were searched and analyzed for dogs that underwent intracranial surgery between 2005 and 2015. Signalment, clinical presentation, neurological deficits, concurrent medical conditions, laboratory data, diagnosis, administration of perioperative glucocorticoids or antiepileptic drugs, and specific imaging, surgical, and anesthetic variables were recorded...
March 30, 2018: Veterinary Surgery: VS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414140/evidence-on-the-efficacy-of-primary-radiosurgery-or-stereotactic-radiotherapy-for-drug-resistant-non-neoplastic-focal-epilepsy-in-adults-a-systematic-review
#8
REVIEW
Daniëlle B P Eekers, Esther N Pijnappel, Olaf E M G Schijns, Albert Colon, Ann Hoeben, Jaap D Zindler, Alida A Postma, Aswin L Hoffmann, Philippe Lambin, Esther G C Troost
PURPOSE: Although the majority of adult epilepsy patients respond well to the current antiepileptic drug treatment, 20-40% of them are drug-resistant. In these patients, resective epilepsy surgery is a curative treatment option, for which, however, only a limited number of patients is eligible. The purpose is to summarize the outcome of radiotherapy for drug-resistant non-neoplastic focal epilepsy and to elucidate its efficacy for seizure outcome and long-term toxicity in adults. METHOD: A systematic literature search was performed in Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and Web of Science...
February 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327143/long-term-control-and-predictors-of-seizures-in-intracranial-meningioma-surgery-a-population-based-study
#9
Hai Xue, Olafur Sveinsson, Jiri Bartek, Petter Förander, Simon Skyrman, Lars Kihlström, Raana Shafiei, Tiit Mathiesen, Torbjörn Tomson
BACKGROUND: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the long-term seizure control and antiepileptic drug (AED) prescriptions, as well as identifying predictors of seizure(s) before and after surgery in a population-based cohort of operated intracranial meningioma patients. METHODS: A total of 113 consecutive adult (> 18 years old) patients with newly diagnosed meningioma operated at the Karolinska University Hospital between 2006 and 2008 were included and followed up until the end of 2015...
March 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316494/risk-of-seizures-before-and-after-neurosurgical-treatment-of-intracranial-meningiomas
#10
Jian Fernandes Seyedi, Christian Bonde Pedersen, Frantz Rom Poulsen
OBJECTIVE: To identify variables associated with the development of pre- and postoperative seizures in patients who underwent surgical resection of intracranial meningiomas, in a patient cohort not routinely treated prophylactically with antiepileptic drugs (AED). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 295 patients that underwent resection of a supratentorial meningioma at Odense University Hospital in between 2007-2015. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify variables significantly correlating with pre- and postoperative seizures...
February 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076420/antiepileptic-treatment-strategy-in-vascular-malformations
#11
Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Konstantinos Margetis, George Stranjalis, Nikolaos Haliasos, Theodoros G Papaioannou, Marios S Themistocleous
BACKGROUND: Antiepileptic treatment strategy plays an important role in the management of intracranial vascular malformations. The intracranial vascular malformations can be divided into cavernous hemangiomas, arteriovenous malformations, developmental venous anomalies and capillary telangiectasias. Seizures and hemorrhage are among their most common clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article is to review the current literature on the antiepileptic treatment in the setting of intracranial vascular malformations and offer an updated view on when antiepileptic drug treatment should be employed for each type of vascular malformation...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076415/antiepileptic-drugs-for-preventing-seizures-in-patients-with-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#12
Pedro Moura Branco, Bernardo Oliveira Ratilal, Joao Costa, Cristina Sampaio
Chronic subdural hematoma (CSH) is an accumulation of blood within the intracranial subdural space. It is associated with minor traumatic events and affects mostly the elderly. CSH can be effectively treated surgically with good outcomes, although the recurrence rate is high. Epileptic seizures are one of the major complications associated with CSH, either in the pre or postoperative period. The incidence rate of new onset seizures after CSH diagnosis ranges between 3% and 23%. However, the benefit of using prophylactic antiepileptic drugs in these patients is controversial with significant variations in clinical practice...
2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070752/-a-surgical-case-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-associated-with-hippocampal-sclerosis-and-traumatic-neocortical-lesion
#13
Yu Kitazawa, Kazutaka Jin, Masaki Iwasaki, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Fumiaki Tanaka, Nobukazu Nakasato
A 26-year-old right-handed woman, with a history of left temporal lobe contusion caused by a fall at the age of 9 months, started to have complex partial seizures with oral automatism at the age of 7 years. The seizures occurred once or twice a month despite combination therapy with several antiepileptic agents. Her history and imaging studies suggested the diagnosis of epilepsy arising from traumatic neocortical temporal lesion. Comprehensive assessment including long-term video EEG monitoring, MRI, FDG-PET, MEG, and neuropsychological evaluation was performed at the age of 26 years...
November 25, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963933/functional-surgery-in-pediatric-drug-resistant-posterior-cortex-epilepsy-electro-clinical-findings-cognitive-and-seizure-outcome
#14
A Sierra-Marcos, M C Fournier-Del Castillo, J Álvarez-Linera, M Budke, M García-Fernández, M A Pérez-Jiménez
PURPOSE: Epilepsies originated from the occipital, parietal and/or the posterior edge of the temporal lobe are grouped together into posterior cortex epilepsy (PCE). Our objective was firstly to describe electro-clinical and imaging findings in the presurgical evaluation of children with PCE, and secondly to identify potential factors associated with surgical and cognitive outcomes. METHOD: From the total of patients referred to the Epilepsy Monitoring Unit of 'Hospital Universitario Niño Jesús' from 2003 to 2016, 55 had drug-resistant PCE...
September 22, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#15
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644064/frequent-vomiting-attacks-in-a-patient-with-lhermitte-duclos-disease-a-rare-pathophysiology-of-cerebellar-lesions
#16
Chika Somagawa, Tomonori Ono, Ryoko Honda, Hiroshi Baba, Takeshi Hiu, Ryujiro Ushijima, Keisuke Toda, Kei Sato, Masahiro Ito, Keisuke Tsutsumi
Lhermitte-Duclos disease (LDD) is a neurological disease caused by a hamartomatous lesion in the cerebellum. Clinically, LDD is commonly associated with progressive space-occupying lesion effects in the posterior fossa, increasing intracranial pressure, occlusive hydrocephalus, and focal neurological deficits of adjacent structures. The authors report the case of a 10-year-old boy with LDD who had been suffering from vomiting attacks (VAs). These VAs had been brief in duration but extremely frequent, and they had been resistant to antiemetic drugs since the early postnatal period...
September 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615425/epilepsy-associated-long-term-mortality-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#17
Jukka Huttunen, Antti Lindgren, Mitja I Kurki, Terhi Huttunen, Juhana Frösen, Timo Koivisto, Mikael von Und Zu Fraunberg, Arto Immonen, Juha E Jääskeläinen, Reetta Kälviäinen
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the epilepsy-associated causes of death and subsequent excess long-term mortality among 12-month survivors of subarachnoid hemorrhage from saccular intracranial aneurysm (SIA-SAH). METHODS: The Kuopio SIA Database (kuopioneurosurgery.fi) includes all SIA-SAH patients admitted to the Kuopio University Hospital from its defined catchment population in Eastern Finland. The study cohort consists of 779 patients, admitted from 1995 to 2007, who were alive at 12 months after SIA-SAH...
July 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540130/corpora-amylacea-mimicking-low-grade-glioma-and-manifesting-as-a-seizure-case-report
#18
Seung J Lee, Minsu Kim, Carlito Lagman, Timothy T Bui, William H Yong, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: Corpora amylacea (CA) are accumulations of polyglucosan bodies typically found in astrocytic foot processes, and rarely, can mimic neoplasm. CA accumulation has also been associated with seizure disorders. We report the first case of a histologically confirmed intracranial, intraparenchymal CA lesion mimicking a low-grade glioma and manifesting as a seizure. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old man presented after a general tonic-clonic (GTC) seizure. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a small lesion in the right mesial temporal lobe with radiologic features of a low-grade glioma...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495218/effects-of-hippocampal-low-frequency-stimulation-in-idiopathic-non-human-primate-epilepsy-assessed-via-a-remote-sensing-enabled-neurostimulator
#19
Thomas A Wozny, Witold J Lipski, Ahmad Alhourani, Efstathios D Kondylis, Arun Antony, R Mark Richardson
Individuals with pharmacoresistant epilepsy remain a large and under-treated patient population. Continued technologic advancements in implantable neurostimulators have spurred considerable research efforts directed towards the development of novel antiepileptic stimulation therapies. However, the lack of adequate preclinical experimental platforms has precluded a detailed understanding of the differential effects of stimulation parameters on neuronal activity within seizure networks. In order to chronically monitor seizures and the effects of stimulation in a freely-behaving non-human primate with idiopathic epilepsy, we employed a novel simultaneous video-intracranial EEG recording platform using a state-of-the-art sensing-enabled, rechargeable clinical neurostimulator with real-time seizure detection and wireless data streaming capabilities...
August 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446744/levetiracetam-pharmacokinetics-in-a-patient-with-intracranial-hemorrhage-undergoing-continuous-veno-venous-hemofiltration
#20
Edward T Van Matre, Scott W Mueller, Douglas N Fish, Robert MacLaren, Luis F Cava, Robert T Neumann, Tyree H Kiser
BACKGROUND Levetiracetam is an antiepileptic drug frequently used in critically ill patients. Levetiracetam is primarily eliminated as a parent compound via glomerular filtration and requires dose adjustment in renal insufficiency, but the literature on patients receiving continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) is scant. CASE REPORT We report the levetiracetam pharmacokinetic profile of a patient being treated with levetiracetam 1000 mg intravenously every 12 h who required continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH)...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
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