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thermoregulation in the elderly

Ming Fu, Wenguo Weng, Weiwang Chen, Na Luo
Several mathematical models of human thermoregulation have been developed, contributing to a deep understanding of thermal responses in different thermal conditions and applications. In these models, the human body is represented by two interacting systems of thermoregulation: the controlling active system and the controlled passive system. This paper reviews the recent research of human thermoregulation models. The accuracy and scope of the thermal models are improved, for the consideration of individual differences, integration to clothing models, exposure to cold and hot conditions, and the changes of physiological responses for the elders...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
V Brazzelli, S Grassi, S Barruscotti, G Croci, G Borroni
Erythema ab igne (EAI) was a very common disease in the past, when it occurred mainly among people who worked with fire, or in people who had used heat sources in contact with the skin for warming purposes for long time. In the last decades, with the introduction of central heating in the buildings, EAI incidence was remarkably decreased in Western Countries, and it was found almost exclusively among elderly, and in people affected by defects in thermoregulation or alteration of periphery circulation. Recently, a new slight increase of EAI prevalence has been observed, although with some new features...
September 17, 2015: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
Terence J Ryan
As people live beyond 100 years, there is an extended period of impaired quality of life for the increasing numbers of individuals with skin disorders. There is also a growing work force of fit elderly individuals who are able to provide low technology skin care and who can teach self-help if well instructed. The International Society of Dermatology's sub-committee Skin Care for All: Community Dermatology seeks to bring together those who care for skin diseases and those who manage wounds, burns, lymphoedema and neglected tropical diseases affecting the skin for the purpose of skin care...
2015: Military Medical Research
K Westaway, O Frank, A Husband, A McClure, R Shute, S Edwards, J Curtis, D Rowett
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hot days are increasingly common and are often associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Most heat-related illness and heat-related deaths are preventable. COMMENT: Medicines may accentuate the risk of dehydration and heat-related illness, especially in elderly people taking multiple medicines, through the following mechanisms: diuresis and electrolyte imbalance, sedation and cognitive impairment, changed thermoregulation, reduced thirst recognition, reduced sweat production, and hypotension and reduced cardiac output...
August 2015: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
Matthew Morgan, Liliana Schwartz, Johan Duflou
Death due to accidental primary hypothermia in cold climates is relatively common, with previous case series reflecting this. In contrast, hypothermia-related death as a result of an underlying medical cause, such as a brain tumor, is rare. The literature clearly illustrates a theoretical causal relationship between brain neoplasms and hypothermia through the infiltration of the hypothalamus; however, the number of reported cases is minimal. Two cases are presented where autopsy confirmed hypothermia as the cause of death with both cases revealing widespread glioblastoma multiforme in the brain...
March 2015: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Vladimir V Borisov, David C Lin
Age-related deficiencies in thermoregulation diminish the capacity to defend against heat loss under conditions often encountered during activities of daily living (ADL). A potential consequence of these deficiencies is that elderly individuals could have colder lower limbs, which would exacerbate the age-related decline in plantarflexor contractile properties and compromise recovery from a tripping incident. Moreover, a common self-perception among the elderly is that their limbs are cold. However, this impression has never been documented, especially under ADL conditions...
September 2014: Experimental Gerontology
Jennifer Kemp, Olivier Després, Thierry Pebayle, André Dufour
Aging is associated with changes in thermosensitivity and decreases in the functionality of the autonomic thermoregulation. The underlying mechanisms are, however, not fully understood. Elderly subjects may undergo functional changes in the integration process of the thermal sensory system, especially in their thermal adaptation capacities. To verify this hypothesis, we compared thermal evoked responses in younger and older subjects exposed to thermoneutral (27 °C) and warm (30 °C) environments. In the warm environment, the amplitudes of thermal evoked potentials (EPs) were significantly lower in older than in younger subjects, whereas in the thermoneutral environment, the EP amplitudes were similar in both groups...
June 2014: Psychophysiology
Mohamad Rida, Nesreen Ghaddar, Kamel Ghali, Jamal Hoballah
A bioheat model for the elderly was developed focusing on blood flow circulatory changes that influence their thermal response in warm and cold environments to predict skin and core temperatures for different segments of the body especially the fingers. The young adult model of Karaki et al. (Int J Therm Sci 67:41-51, 2013) was modified by incorporation of the physiological thermoregulatory and vasomotor changes based on literature observations of physiological changes in the elderly compared to young adults such as lower metabolism and vasoconstriction diminished ability, skin blood flow and its minimum and maximum values, the sweating values, skin fat thickness, as well as the change in threshold parameter related to core or skin temperatures which triggers thermoregulatory action for sweating, maximum dilatation, and maximum constriction...
November 2014: International Journal of Biometeorology
Melonie Burrows
Osteoporosis is a serious skeletal disease causing an increase in morbidity and mortality through its association with age-related fractures. Although most effort in fracture prevention has been directed at retarding the rate of age-related bone loss and reducing the frequency and severity of trauma among elderly people, evidence is growing that peak bone mass is an important contributor to bone strength during later life. Indeed, there has been a large emphasis on the prevention of osteoporosis through the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood and adolescence...
2007: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
Märtha Sund-Levander, Ewa Grodzinsky
Assessment of body temperature is important for decisions in nursing care, medical diagnosis, treatment and the need of laboratory tests. The definition of normal body temperature as 37°C was established in the middle of the 19th century. Since then the technical design and the accuracy of thermometers has been much improved. Knowledge of physical influence on the individual body temperature, such as thermoregulation and hormones, are still not taken into consideration in body temperature assessment. It is time for a change; the unadjusted mode should be used, without adjusting to another site and the same site of measurement should be used as far as possible...
September 12, 2013: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
Manuel Murbach, Esra Neufeld, Myles Capstick, Wolfgang Kainz, David O Brunner, Theodoros Samaras, Klaas P Pruessmann, Niels Kuster
PURPOSE: This article investigates the safety of radiofrequency induced local thermal hotspots within a 1.5T body coil by assessing the transient local peak temperatures as a function of exposure level and local thermoregulation in four anatomical human models in different Z-positions. METHODS: To quantize the effective thermal stress of the tissues, the thermal dose model cumulative equivalent minutes at 43°C was employed, allowing the prediction of thermal tissue damage risk and the identification of potentially hazardous MR scan-scenarios...
January 2014: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Y Zhao, H Xin, B Dong
Infrared thermography (IRT) was compared with the traditional 4-scale feather scoring (FS, with 1 representing the worst feather coverage and 4 the best) method for assessing feather coverage of laying hens. The feather coverage of 6 body parts (head, dorsal neck, front neck and crop, back, breast, and belly), body surface temperature distribution, and relative change in sensible heat loss of 60 laying hens (Lohmann SL white breed) at 28, 56, or 73 wk of age (20 hens per age group) were compared by using IRT...
February 2013: Poultry Science
Alana Hansen, Peng Bi, Monika Nitschke, Dino Pisaniello, Jonathan Newbury, Alison Kitson
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Many studies world wide have provided evidence that older persons are a sub-population at increased risk of heat-related morbidity and mortality. This article gives an overview of the current state of knowledge of risk factors and provides commentary on the role of health promotion in the prevention of a climate change-related increase in elderly heat casualties. METHODS: A search of peer-reviewed medical and epidemiological literature and community health websites was conducted in order to gain an in-depth understanding of heat-susceptibility in the elderly and preventive strategies...
December 2011: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Chang-Yi Cui, Victoria Childress, Yulan Piao, Marc Michel, Adiv A Johnson, Makoto Kunisada, Minoru S H Ko, Klaus H Kaestner, Alan D Marmorstein, David Schlessinger
Body temperature is maintained in a narrow range in mammals, primarily controlled by sweating. In humans, the dynamic thermoregulatory organ, comprised of 2-4 million sweat glands distributed over the body, can secrete up to 4 L of sweat per day, thereby making it possible to withstand high temperatures and endure prolonged physical stress (e.g., long-distance running). The genetic basis for sweat gland function, however, is largely unknown. We find that the forkhead transcription factor, FoxA1, is required to generate mouse sweating capacity...
January 24, 2012: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B R M Kingma, A J H Frijns, W H M Saris, A A van Steenhoven, W D van Marken Lichtenbelt
AIM: Higher winter mortality in elderly has been associated with augmented systolic blood pressure (SBP) response and with impaired defense of core temperature. Here we investigated whether the augmented SBP upon mild cold exposure remains after a rewarming period, and whether SBP changes are linked to thermoregulation. Therefore, we tested the following hypotheses: cold-induced increase in SBP (1) remains augmented after rewarming in elderly compared to young adults (2) is related to non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) upon mild cold (3) is related to vasoconstriction upon mild cold...
December 2011: Acta Physiologica
Katherine J Motyl, Clifford J Rosen
Caloric restriction is associated with a reduction in body weight and temperature, as well as a reduction in trabecular bone volume and paradoxically an increase in adipocytes within the bone marrow. The nature of these adipocytes is uncertain, although there is emerging evidence of a direct relationship between bone remodeling and brown adipocytes. For example, in heterotrophic ossification, brown adipocytes set up a hypoxic gradient that leads to vascular invasion, chondrocyte differentiation, and subsequent bone formation...
March 2011: Discovery Medicine
Jill Waalen, Joel N Buxbaum
In animal studies, caloric restriction resulting in increased longevity is associated with a reduction in body temperature, which is strain specific and likely under genetic control. Small studies in humans have suggested that temperatures may be lower among elderly populations, usually attributed to loss of thermoregulation. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 18,630 white adults aged 20-98 years (mean 58.3 years) who underwent oral temperature measurement as part of a standardized health appraisal at a large U...
May 2011: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
E Jéquier, F Constant
How much water we really need depends on water functions and the mechanisms of daily water balance regulation. The aim of this review is to describe the physiology of water balance and consequently to highlight the new recommendations with regard to water requirements. Water has numerous roles in the human body. It acts as a building material; as a solvent, reaction medium and reactant; as a carrier for nutrients and waste products; in thermoregulation; and as a lubricant and shock absorber. The regulation of water balance is very precise, as a loss of 1% of body water is usually compensated within 24 h...
February 2010: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
C Stöllberger, W Lutz, J Finsterer
BACKGROUND: During the 2003 French heatwave 15,000 excess deaths were registered. One fifths died from the combination of dehydration, heatstroke, and hyperthermia and one tenth from dehydration, despite abundant water. METHODS AND RESULTS: We hypothesized that physiologic adaptation to heat was not effective in the victims attributable to side-effects of drugs (impaired thermoregulation, suppressed thirst) many of these patients were taking. This could explain why many victims died of dehydration despite availability of water...
July 2009: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
M J Denham
Professor Norman Exton-Smith was a highly respected, distinguished postwar consultant geriatrician with a worldwide reputation. He devoted his life to improving the medical care of elderly people and researching age-related decline in physical function, particularly thermoregulation and postural balance. He established thriving clinical and research departments at St Pancras Hospital, London. Many of his junior medical staff became well-known geriatricians. He published and lectured extensively, organized many meetings and conferences, and was advisor to the Department of Health and Social Security for many years...
February 2009: Journal of Medical Biography
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