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vasoactive agents

Michelle M Mendonça, Joice S Santana, Kellen R da Cruz, Danielle Ianzer, Paulo C Ghedini, Eugene Nalivaiko, Marco A P Fontes, Reginaldo N Ferreira, Gustavo R Pedrino, Diego B Colugnati, Carlos H Xavier
Sympathetic premotor neurons of the paraventricular hypothalamus (PVN) play a role in hemodynamics adjustments during changes in body fluid homeostasis. However, PVN contribution to the tonic control of cardiac function remains to be systematically studied. In this study, we assessed whether GABAergic and adrenergic synapses, known for being active in the PVN, are involved in the control of cardiac function. Adult male Wistar rats (250-350 g; n = 27) were anesthetized with urethane (1.2-1.4 g/kg i.p.) and underwent catheterization of femoral artery to record blood pressure and heart rate...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
L A Abdulkhaleq, M A Assi, Rasedee Abdullah, M Zamri-Saad, Y H Taufiq-Yap, M N M Hezmee
The inflammatory response is a crucial aspect of the tissues' responses to deleterious inflammogens. This complex response involves leukocytes cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, and lymphocytes, also known as inflammatory cells. In response to the inflammatory process, these cells release specialized substances which include vasoactive amines and peptides, eicosanoids, proinflammatory cytokines, and acute-phase proteins, which mediate the inflammatory process by preventing further tissue damage and ultimately resulting in healing and restoration of tissue function...
May 2018: Veterinary World
Marcin Wąsowicz, Angela Jerath, Warren Luksun, Vivek Sharma, Nicholas Mitsakakis, Massimilaino Meineri, Rita Katznelson, Terrence Yau, Vivek Rao, William Scott Beattie
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have shown conflicting results regarding the use of volatile anesthesia before or after the ischemic insult in cardiac surgical patients and effect on myocardial injury. This may be attributable to the failure of continuing volatile agents into the early postoperative period. We hypothesized that combined volatile-based anesthesia and postoperative sedation would decrease the extent of myocardial injury after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) when compared to intravenous, propofol-based approach...
June 18, 2018: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Amanda Haney, Emily Burritt, Christopher J Babbitt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children who are critically ill undergo metabolic stress and it is important that they receive adequate calories and protein in order to recover. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on pediatric intensive care (PICU) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on all patients admitted to a 20 bed PICU at a tertiary children's hospital over a 30 month period...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Hyun Jin Lee, Horacio A Peredo, Silvana M Cantú, Adriana S Donoso, Ana M Puyó, Marcelo R Choi
The loss of the modulator role of the endothelium could be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications. Transition metal compounds, such as tungsten and vanadium, have been proposed as possible agents in the treatment of diabetes by simulating the effects of insulin. The mesenteric vascular bed intervenes in vascular resistance and is a source of vasoactive compounds, such as prostanoids. The aim of this work was to study the effects of sodium tungstate and vanadyl sulphate treatments on the metabolic parameters and the release of prostanoids of the mesenteric vascular bed in an experimental model of Streptozotocin-induced diabetes...
June 7, 2018: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
Seth R Bauer, Gretchen L Sacha, Simon W Lam
Circulatory shock is a medical emergency that requires rapid intervention to optimize patient outcomes. Although catecholamine vasopressors are considered life-sustaining therapy they are associated with adverse reactions and vasopressin and angiotensin II may be utilized to minimize these adverse effects. However, vasopressin and angiotensin II are also associated with adverse reactions that must be known to the clinician in order to mitigate risk for patients. This review focuses on the known adverse drug effects of vasopressin and angiotensin II while offering potential solutions to minimize harm with these agents...
June 7, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Brett J Wakefield, Gretchen L Sacha, Ashish K Khanna
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There are limited vasoactive options to utilize for patients presenting with vasodilatory shock. This review discusses vasoactive agents in vasodilatory, specifically, septic shock and focuses on angiotensin II as a novel, noncatecholamine agent and describes its efficacy, safety, and role in the armamentarium of vasoactive agents utilized in this patient population. RECENT FINDINGS: The Angiotensin II for the Treatment of High-Output Shock 3 study evaluated angiotensin II use in patients with high-output, vasodilatory shock and demonstrated reduced background catecholamine doses and improved ability to achieve blood pressure goals associated with the use of angiotensin II...
June 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Djillali Annane, Lamia Ouanes-Besbes, Daniel de Backer, Bin DU, Anthony C Gordon, Glenn Hernández, Keith M Olsen, Tiffany M Osborn, Sandra Peake, James A Russell, Sergio Zanotti Cavazzoni
PURPOSE: We set out to summarize the current knowledge on vasoactive drugs and their use in the management of shock to inform physicians' practices. METHODS: This is a narrative review by a multidisciplinary, multinational-from six continents-panel of experts including physicians, a pharmacist, trialists, and scientists. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Vasoactive drugs are an essential part of shock management. Catecholamines are the most commonly used vasoactive agents in the intensive care unit, and among them norepinephrine is the first-line therapy in most clinical conditions...
June 4, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
Simon Lindner, Luise Fiedler, Björn Wängler, Peter Bartenstein, Ralf Schirrmacher, Carmen Wängler
Radiolabeled heterobivalent peptidic ligands (HBPLs), being able to address different receptors, are highly interesting tumor imaging agents as they can offer multiple advantages over monovalent peptide receptor ligands. However, few examples of radiolabeled HBPLs have been described so far. One promising approach is the combination of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR)- and vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor subtype 1 (VPAC1 R)-targeting peptides into one single radioligand since gastrinomas, prostate and breast cancer have been shown to concomitantly or complementarily overexpress both receptors...
May 29, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Asher Ornoy, Gideon Koren, Joseph Yanai
We discuss the possibilities to prevent the post-exposure teratogenic effects of several teratogens: valproic acid (VPA), diabetes and alcohol. Co-administration of folic acid with VPA reduced the rate of Neural Tube Defects (NTD) and other anomalies in rodents, but apparently not in pregnant women. Antioxidants or the methyl donor S-adenosyl methionine prevented Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) like behavior in mice and rats. In vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that antioxidants, arachidonic acid, myoinositol and nutritional agents may prevent diabetes-embryopathy...
May 31, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Lisa Wise-Faberowski, Nathalia Velasquez, Frandics Chan, Shreyas Vasanawala, Doff B McElhinney, Chandra Ramamoorthy
BACKGROUND: Ferumoxytol, an "off-label" contrast agent, allows for better cardiac MRI quality as compared with gadolinium-based contrast agents. However, hypotension has been reported with the use of ferumoxytol for indications other than cardiac MRI. The purpose of our investigation was to evaluate the safety of ferumoxytol in children undergoing general anaesthesia for cardiac MRI. METHODS: Medical records of children undergoing general anaesthesia for cardiac MRI were reviewed...
July 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Amreen Mughal, Stephen T O'Rourke
Apelin is a vasoactive peptide and is an endogenous ligand for APJ receptors, which are widely expressed in blood vessels, heart, and cardiovascular regulatory regions of the brain. A growing body of evidence now demonstrates a regulatory role for the apelin/APJ receptor system in cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology, thus making it a potential target for cardiovascular drug discovery and development. Indeed, ongoing studies are investigating the potential benefits of apelin and apelin-mimetics for disorders such as heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension...
May 25, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Pardeep Kumar, Sushil K Tripathi, C P Chen, Eric Wickstrom, Mathew L Thakur
PURPOSE: In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the use of gallium-68 labeled receptor-specific peptides for imaging oncologic diseases. The objective was to examine the stability and pharmacokinetics of [68 Ga]NODAGA and DOTA-peptide conjugate targeting VPAC [combined for vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP)] receptors on tumor cells. PROCEDURES: A VPAC receptor-specific peptide was chosen as a model peptide and conjugated to NODAGA and DOTA via solid-phase synthesis...
May 25, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Teresa Palao, Angela van Weert, Anne de Leeuw, Judith de Vos, Erik N T P Bakker, Ed van Bavel
AIM: Conduction of vasomotor responses may contribute to long-term regulation of resistance artery function and structure. Most previous studies have addressed conduction of vasoactivity only during very brief stimulations. We developed a novel setup that allows the local pharmacological stimulation of arteries in vitro for extended periods of time, and studied the conduction of vasomotor responses in rat mesenteric arteries under those conditions. METHODS: The new in vitro set up was based on the pressure myograph...
May 21, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Ramesh C Mishra, Mohammad M Rahman, Michael J Davis, Heike Wulff, Michael A Hill, Andrew P Braun
We have systematically investigated how vascular smooth muscle α1 -adrenoceptor activation impacts endothelium-mediated vasodilation in isolated, myogenically active, rat cremaster muscle 1A arteries. Cannulated cremaster arteries were pressurized intraluminally to 70 mmHg to induce myogenic tone, and exposed to vasoactive agents via bath superfusion at 34°C. Smooth muscle membrane potential was measured via sharp microelectrode recordings in pressurized, myogenic arteries. The α1 -adrenergic agonist phenylephrine (25-100 nmol/L) produced further constriction of myogenic arteries, but did not alter the vasorelaxant responses to acetylcholine (0...
May 2018: Physiological Reports
Sharukh Lokhandwala, Ned McCague, Abdullah Chahin, Braiam Escobar, Mengling Feng, Mohammad M Ghassemi, David J Stone, Leo Anthony Celi
RATIONALE: Factors associated with one-year mortality after recovery from critical illness are not well understood. Clinicians generally lack information regarding post-hospital discharge outcomes of patients from the intensive care unit, which may be important when counseling patients and families. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine which factors among patients who survived for at least 30 days post-ICU admission are associated with one-year mortality. METHODS: Single-center, longitudinal retrospective cohort study of all ICU patients admitted to a tertiary-care academic medical center from 2001-2012 who survived ≥30 days from ICU admission...
2018: PloS One
Silvia Dragoni, Patric Turowski
At blood⁻neural barriers, endothelial VEGFA signalling is highly polarised, with entirely different responses being triggered by luminal or abluminal stimulation. These recent findings were made in a field which is still in its mechanistic infancy. For a long time, endothelial polarity has intuitively been presumed, and likened to that of epithelial cells, but rarely demonstrated. In the cerebral and the retinal microvasculature, the uneven distribution of VEGF receptors 1 and 2, with the former predominant on the luminal and the latter on the abluminal face of the endothelium, leads to a completely polarised signalling response to VEGFA...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kady Fischer, Kyohei Yamaji, Silvia Luescher, Yasushi Ueki, Bernd Jung, Hendrik von Tengg-Kobligk, Stephan Windecker, Matthias G Friedrich, Balthasar Eberle, Dominik P Guensch
BACKGROUND: Hyperventilation with a subsequent breath-hold has been successfully used as a non-pharmacological vasoactive stimulus to induce changes in myocardial oxygenation. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess if this maneuver is feasible in patients with multi-vessel coronary artery disease (CAD), and if it is effective at detecting coronary artery stenosis > 50% determined by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA). METHODS: Twenty-six patients with coronary artery stenosis (QCA > 50% diameter stenosis) underwent a contrast-free cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) exam in the time interval between their primary coronary angiography and a subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI, n = 24) or coronary artery bypass (CABG, n = 2) revascularization procedure...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Emilie Bigonnesse, Benoit Sicotte, Michele Brochu
Insufficient development of the utero-placental circulation may contribute to the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We developed a rat model of IUGR by administering a low-sodium diet. This diet reduces maternal blood volume expansion and uteroplacental perfusion. We hypothesized that an impaired endothelial function in radial arteries decreases vasorelaxation and lowers placental perfusion in this IUGR model. The objective was to assess radial uterine artery responses to vasoactive agents in the IUGR model, versus controls...
May 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jian-Biao Meng, Yan-Na Jiao, Xiu-Juan Xu, Zhi-Zhen Lai, Geng Zhang, Chun-Lian Ji, Ma-Hong Hu
BACKGROUND: A pathological increase in intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and inflammatory responses have negative effects on splanchnic, respiratory, cardiovascular, renal, and neurological function in septic patients with intestinal dysfunction. Electro-acupuncture (EA) has been evidenced to have a bidirectional neuron-endocrine-immune system regulating effect in patients with intestinal dysfunction. The purpose of current study was to evaluate the effects of EA at "Zusanli" (ST36) and "Shangjuxu" (ST37) on inflammatory responses and IAP in septic patients with intestinal dysfunction manifested syndrome of obstruction of the bowels Qi...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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