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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023881/review-article-the-role-of-the-microcirculation-in-liver-cirrhosis
#1
REVIEW
T Davies, S Wythe, J O'Beirne, D Martin, E Gilbert-Kawai
BACKGROUND: Intrahepatic microvascular derangements and microcirculatory dysfunction are key in the development of liver cirrhosis and its associated complications. While much has been documented relating to cirrhosis and the dysfunction of the microcirculation in the liver parenchyma, far less is known about the state of the extrahepatic microcirculation and the role this may have in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure in end stage liver cirrhosis. AIM: To provide an update on the role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology of cirrhosis and its associated complications and briefly discuss some of the imaging techniques which may be used to directly investigate the microcirculation...
November 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016380/comparison-of-del-nido-cardioplegia-with-blood-cardioplegia-in-adult-combined-surgery
#2
Raphael Hamad, Anthony Nguyen, Éric Laliberté, Denis Bouchard, Yoan Lamarche, Ismail El-Hamamsy, Philippe Demers
OBJECTIVE: del Nido solution (DNS) is a single-dose cardioplegia designed for pediatric use proposed to offer superior myocardial protection in adults. However, few data support this claim. We hypothesized that DNS and modified blood cardioplegia solution (BS) provide equivalent safety in combined adult valve surgery. METHODS: Between November 2014 and December 2015, 25 patients underwent primary aortic valve replacement and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with DNS...
October 7, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950824/perivascular-adipose-tissue-as-an-endocrine-organ-the-role-of-statins
#3
Fabio Sanna, Marios Margaritis, Charalambos Antoniades
Adipose tissue (AT), aside from being an energy storage site, functions as a source of cytokines, adipokines and other vasoactive molecules. Dysfunctional AT contributes to the development of cardiovascular disease by shifting to a pro-oxidant, pro-inflammatory phenotype. Perivascular AT (PVAT) is of particular importance to the development of vascular disease, due to its close proximity to the vascular wall. Molecules released from PVAT can exert both pro- and anti-contractile effects, the balance of which plays a role in controlling vascular tone...
September 26, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938516/naturally-occurring-anthocyanin-cyanidin-3-rutinoside-possesses-inherent-vasorelaxant-actions-and-prevents-methylglyoxal-induced-vascular-dysfunction-in-rat-aorta-and-mesenteric-arterial-bed
#4
Thavaree Thilavech, Mahinda Y Abeywardena, Michael Adams, Julie Dallimore, Sirichai Adisakwattana
Cyanidin-3-rutinoside (C3R) possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-glycation properties. Methylglyoxal (MG), a highly reactive dicarbonyl aldehyde by-product of glycolysis, is a precursor of advanced glycation end products and contributes to vascular dysfunction, particularly during hyperglycemia. We investigated the possible inherent vasoactivity of C3R, and its effectiveness against MG-induced vascular abnormalities in isolated blood vessel preparations from male Wistar Kyoto rat. C3R induced vasorelaxation concentration-dependently in aortic rings (92% maximum relaxation; EC50: 2...
September 18, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930813/temporal-changes-in-prescription-of-neuropharmacologic-drugs-and-utilization-of-resources-related-to-neurologic-morbidity-in-mechanically-ventilated-children-with-bronchiolitis
#5
Steven L Shein, Katherine Slain, Deanne Wilson-Costello, Bryan McKee, Alexandre T Rotta
OBJECTIVES: Critically ill children with bronchiolitis may require neuropharmacologic medications and support for neuro-functional sequelae, but current practices are not well described. We aimed to describe recent trends in neuropharmacology and utilization of neuro-rehabilitation resources in mechanically ventilated children with bronchiolitis. DESIGN: Analysis of the multicenter Pediatric Health Information System database. SETTING: Forty-seven U...
September 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926566/guidelines-for-the-management-of-a-brain-death-donor-in-the-rhesus-macaque-a-translational-transplant-model
#6
Tiffany J Zens, Juan S Danobeitia, Peter J Chlebeck, Laura J Zitur, Scott Odorico, Kevin Brunner, Jennifer Coonen, Saverio Capuano, Anthony M D'Alessandro, Kristina Matkowskyj, Weixiong Zhong, Jose Torrealba, Luis Fernandez
INTRODUCTION: The development of a translatable brain death animal model has significant potential to advance not only transplant research, but also the understanding of the pathophysiologic changes that occur in brain death and severe traumatic brain injury. The aim of this paper is to describe a rhesus macaque model of brain death designed to simulate the average time and medical management described in the human literature. METHODS: Following approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, a brain death model was developed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924736/vasoactive-agents-for-hepatorenal-syndrome-a-mixed-treatment-comparison-network-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-clinical-trials
#7
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
BACKGROUND: Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a common complication among patients with cirrhosis, primarily attributable to vasodilation of renal vessels. Vasoactive agents are commonly used to treat HRS. The present network meta-analysis compares the vasoactive agents used in HRS. METHODS: We searched electronic databases for appropriate randomized controlled clinical trials in patients with HRS, comparing active interventions with either placebo or standard of care...
September 18, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922233/endoscopic-versus-open-repair-for-craniosynostosis-in-infants-using-propensity-score-matching-to-compare-outcomes-a-multicenter-study-from-the-pediatric-craniofacial-collaborative-group
#8
Douglas R Thompson, David Zurakowski, Charles M Haberkern, Paul A Stricker, Petra M Meier
BACKGROUND: The North American Pediatric Craniofacial Collaborative Group (PCCG) established the Pediatric Craniofacial Surgery Perioperative Registry to evaluate outcomes in infants and children undergoing craniosynostosis repair. The goal of this multicenter study was to utilize this registry to assess differences in blood utilization, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, duration of hospitalization, and perioperative complications between endoscopic-assisted (ESC) and open repair in infants with craniosynostosis...
September 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919267/post-carotid-endarterectomy-hypertension-part-2-association-with-peri-operative-clinical-anaesthetic-and-transcranial-doppler-derived-parameters
#9
Jeremy E Newman, Mathew J Bown, Robert D Sayers, Jonathan P Thompson, Thompson G Robinson, Bryan Williams, Ronney Panerai, Peter Lacy, A Ross Naylor
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The first paper in this series observed that pre-operative baroreceptor dysfunction and poorly controlled hypertension were independently predictive for identifying patients who went on to require treatment for post-endarterectomy hypertension (PEH). The second paper examines the influence of intra-operative patient, transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound, and anaesthetic variables on the incidence of PEH. METHODS: In total, 106 patients underwent carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under general anaesthesia...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884218/use-of-levosimendan-in-postoperative-setting-after-surgical-repair-of-congenital-heart-disease-in-children
#10
Vivianne Amiet, Marie-Hélène Perez, David Longchamp, Tatiana Boulos Ksontini, Julia Natterer, Sonia Plaza Wuthrich, Jacques Cotting, Stefano Di Bernardo
Low cardiac output is one of the most common complications after cardiac surgery. Levosimendan, a new inotrope agent, has been demonstrated in adult patient to be an effective treatment for this purpose when classical therapy is not effective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Levosimendan on cardiac output parameters in cardiac children with low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS.). We carried out a retrospective analysis on 62 children hospitalized in our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) after cardiac surgery, which demonstrated LCOS not responding to classical catecholamine therapy and who received levosimendan as rescue therapy...
September 7, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876693/continuation-of-feeds-in-the-unstable-burns-patient
#11
A L Rooi, A Muganza, E A Ndobe, M Nel
BACKGROUND: Early enteral nutrition (EEN) and the continuation of enteral nutrition (EN) are critical factors in burn patients, who typically have higher nutritional needs due to their post-injury hypercatabolic state and their additional need for nutrients to aid in the healing of wounds and skin grafts. In the critically ill patient, EN is the preferred mode of administration; however, controversy exists regarding the concomitant use of EN and intravenous vasopressor agents in the haemodynamically unstable patient...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838626/are-pressure-injuries-related-to-skin-failure-in-critically-ill-patients
#12
Jake L Nowicki, Daniel Mullany, Amy Spooner, Tracy A Nowicki, Peta M Mckay, Amanda Corley, Paul Fulbrook, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Pressure injuries contribute significantly to patient morbidity and healthcare costs. Critically ill patients are a high risk group for pressure injury development and may suffer from skin failure secondary to hypoperfusion. The aim of this study was to report hospital acquired pressure injury incidence in intensive care and non-intensive care patients; and assess the clinical characteristics and outcomes of ICU patients reported as having a hospital acquired pressure injury to better understand patient factors associated with their development in comparison to ward patients...
August 21, 2017: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780608/sx-ella-stent-danis-effectively-controls-refractory-variceal-bleed-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#13
Rakhi Maiwall, Kapil Dev Jamwal, Ankit Bhardwaj, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Jaswinder Singh Maras, Guresh Kumar, Ankur Jindal, Ashok Choudhury, Lovkesh Anand, Amrish Sahney, Awinash Kumar, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Almost 10% of bleeding episodes are refractory to combination of vasoactive agent and endotherapy, and are associated with a mortality up to 50%. Severity of liver disease and high portal pressure are mainly responsible for it. TIPS cannot be used in these patients due to high MELD score. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of self-expandable DE stents for control of refractory variceal bleeds in patients with ACLF. METHODS: Acute-on-chronic liver failure patients (n = 88, mean age 47...
August 5, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767081/new-insights-in-the-design-of-bioactive-peptides-and-chelating-agents-for-imaging-and-therapy-in-oncology
#14
REVIEW
Anna Lucia Tornesello, Luigi Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello, Franco Maria Buonaguro
Many synthetic peptides have been developed for diagnosis and therapy of human cancers based on their ability to target specific receptors on cancer cell surface or to penetrate the cell membrane. Chemical modifications of amino acid chains have significantly improved the biological activity, the stability and efficacy of peptide analogues currently employed as anticancer drugs or as molecular imaging tracers. The stability of somatostatin, integrins and bombesin analogues in the human body have been significantly increased by cyclization and/or insertion of non-natural amino acids in the peptide sequences...
August 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758096/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-risk-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-spotlight-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#15
REVIEW
Alessandro Mantovani, Giovanni Targher
The incidence of both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and multiple cancer types are rapidly increasing worldwide. Several studies documented that T2DM is closely associated with an increased incidence of cancer. However, while some methodological considerations preclude a definitive association between T2DM and the risk of certain cancers, the relationship between T2DM and increased risk of incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains significant even after adjustment for detection bias and reverse causation, indicating that such association is clinically reliable and robust...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747647/delivery-of-intracavernosal-therapies-using-needle-free-injection-devices
#16
D O'Kane, L Gibson, J du Plessis, A Davidson, D Bolton, N Lawrentschuk
ED affects a significant proportion of males worldwide. With an ever-aging population the prevalence of ED is predicted to double in the next decade. Oral PDE-5 inhibitors are the first-line treatment for ED and have revolutionised its management. These agents are however ineffective in some men. Intracavernosal injection (ICI) of vasoactive agents is an effective second-line therapy for ED. Despite proven efficacy, needle phobia and anxiety with self-needling limit the use of intracavernosal (IC) therapies...
July 27, 2017: International Journal of Impotence Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737623/an-observational-study-of-severe-pertussis-in-100-infants-%C3%A2-120-days-of-age
#17
James D Cherry, Kristen Wendorf, Brooke Bregman, Deborah Lehman, Delma Nieves, John S Bradley, Wilbert H Mason, Linette Sande-Lopez, Merrick Lopez, Myke Federman, Tempe Chen, Dean Blumberg, Samantha Johnston, Hayden T Schwenk, Peggy Weintrub, Kevin K Quinn, Kathleen Winter, Kathleen Harriman
BACKGROUND: Pertussis in young infants is a unique, severe, afebrile, cough illness that is frequently fatal. METHODS: All pertussis cases ≤ 120 days of age admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in California between October 1, 2013 and April 25, 2015 were evaluated. RESULTS: Of 100 pertussis patients ≤ 120 days of age admitted to PICU's, there were 5 deaths. The white blood cell (WBC) counts in the fatal cases were significantly higher than in the non-fatal cases...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720331/a-novel-antihypertension-agent-sargachromenol-d-from-marine-brown-algae-sargassum-siliquastrum-exerts-dual-action-as-an-l-type-ca-2-channel-blocker-and-endothelin-a-b2-receptor-antagonist
#18
Byong-Gon Park, Woon-Seob Shin, Sangtae Oh, Gab-Man Park, Nam Ik Kim, Seokjoon Lee
We isolated the novel vasoactive marine natural products, (5E,10E)-14-hydroxy-2,6,10-trimethylpentadeca-5,10-dien-4-one (4) and sargachromenol D (5), from Sargassum siliquastrum collected from the coast of the East Sea in South Korea by using activity-guided HPLC purification. The compounds effectively dilated depolarization (50mMK(+))-induced basilar artery contraction with EC50 values of 3.52±0.42 and 1.62±0.63μM, respectively, but only sargachromenol D (5) showed a vasodilatory effect on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced basilar artery contraction (EC50=9...
September 1, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718228/early-initiation-of-beta-blockers-following-primary-endoscopic-therapy-for-bleeding-oesophageal-varices-in-cirrhotics
#19
Adnan Salim, Kashif Malik, Muhammad Omer Farooq, Umair Butt, Arshad Kamal Butt, Altaf Alam
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Beta-blockers provide secondary prophylaxis following endoscopic therapy for variceal bleeding. Guidelines recommend starting beta-blockers 6 days after endoscopy to prevent masking hemodynamic signs of re-bleeding. We aimed to see safety of earlier initiation of betablockers. METHODS: Cirrhotic patients with upper GI bleed were given intravenous vasoactive agents until undergoing endoscopy. Patients with only oesophageal varices as source of bleed were recruited...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711627/vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-and-mast-cells-regulate-increased-passage-of-colonic-bacteria-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#20
Olga Bednarska, Susanna A Walter, Maite Casado-Bedmar, Magnus Ström, Eloísa Salvo-Romero, Maria Vicario, Emeran A Mayer, Åsa V Keita
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is associated with intestinal dysbiosis and symptoms of IBS develop following gastroenteritis. We aimed to study the passage of live bacteria through the colonic epithelium, and determine the role of mast cells (MCs) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in barrier regulation in IBS and healthy individuals. METHODS: Colon biopsies from 32 women with IBS and 15 age-matched healthy women (controls) were mounted in Ussing chambers; we measured numbers of fluorescently labeled Escherichia coli HS and Salmonella typhimurium that passed through from the mucosal side to the serosal side of the tissue...
October 2017: Gastroenterology
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