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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913195/breast-cancer-derived-extracellular-vesicles-stimulate-myofibroblast-differentiation-and-pro-angiogenic-behavior-of-adipose-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Young Hye Song, Christine Warncke, Sung Jin Choi, Siyoung Choi, Aaron E Chiou, Lu Ling, Han-Yuan Liu, Susan Daniel, Marc A Antonyak, Richard A Cerione, Claudia Fischbach
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are abundantly present in the mammary microenvironment and can promote breast cancer malignancy by differentiating into myofibroblasts. However, it remains largely unclear which role tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (TEVs) play in this process. Here, we used microfabricated, type I collagen-based 3-D tissue culture platforms to investigate the effect of breast cancer cell-derived TEVs on ASCs myofibroblast differentiation and consequential changes in extracellular matrix remodeling and vascular sprouting...
November 29, 2016: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913184/tolerance-of-hyperammonemia-in-brain-of-heteropneustes-fossilis-is-supported-by-glutamate-glutamine-cycle
#2
Suman Mishra, Rajnikant Mishra
This report presents analysis of molecular switches associated with tolerance to hyperammonemia in Heteropneustes fossilis because it tolerates about 100-fold more ammonia than mammals. Brains of Heteropneustes fossilis exposed to 100mM ammonium chloride were dissected after Zero hour as control, 16hrs and 20hrs exposure. The status of neuron and glia were analysed by Golgi staining, Luxol Fast Blue, and Nissl's staining. The expression patterns of genes associated to homeostasis of neuron and glia, management of oxidative stress and inflammation, ammonia metabolism and brain derived neurotrophic factor were analysed through reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911855/glutamine-and-glutaminolysis-are-required-for-efficient-replication-of-infectious-spleen-and-kidney-necrosis-virus-in-chinese-perch-brain-cells
#3
Xiaozhe Fu, Xianqin Hu, Ningqiu Li, Feifei Zheng, Xingxing Dong, Jing Duan, Qiang Lin, Jiagang Tu, Lijuan Zhao, Zhibin Huang, Jianguo Su, Li Lin
Viruses rely on host cellular metabolism for energy and macromolecule synthesis during their replication. Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis virus (ISKNV) causes significant economic losses in the Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) industry worldwide. However, little is known about the relationship between ISKNV replication and cellular metabolism. Using transcriptomic analysis, we observed that glutamine metabolism in Chinese perch brain (CPB) cells is altered during ISKNV infection. Moreover, ISKNV replication was decreased in CPB cells cultured in the glutamine-depleted medium...
November 29, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885676/effect%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-deamidation-induced%C3%A2-modification%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-umami%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-bitter%C3%A2-taste-of-wheat-gluten%C3%A2-hydrolysates
#4
Bo-Ye Liu, Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently-used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates came with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification method would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs...
November 25, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885637/the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-in-epilepsy
#5
Tore Eid, Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Tih-Shih W Lee, Yun Zhou, Niels Christian Danbolt
Epilepsy is a complex, multifactorial disease characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures and an increased incidence of comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, cognitive dysfunction, and sudden unexpected death. About 70 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from epilepsy, and up to one-third of all people with epilepsy are expected to be refractory to current medications. Development of more effective and specific antiepileptic interventions is therefore requisite. Perturbations in the brain's glutamate-glutamine cycle, such as increased extracellular levels of glutamate, loss of astroglial glutamine synthetase, and changes in glutaminase and glutamate dehydrogenase, are frequently encountered in patients with epilepsy...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885632/glutamine-metabolism-in-gliomas
#6
Monika Szeliga, Jan Albrecht
By histological, morphological criteria, and malignancy, brain tumors are classified by WHO into grades I (most benign) to IV (highly malignant), and gliomas are the most frequently occurring class throughout the grades. Similar to peripheral tumors, the growth of glia-derived tumor cells largely depends on glutamine (Gln), which is vividly taken up by the cells, using mostly ASCT2 and SN1 as Gln carriers. Tumor growth-promoting effects of Gln are associated with its phosphate-activated glutaminase (GA) (specifically KGA)-mediated degradation to glutamate (Glu) and/or with its entry to the energy- and intermediate metabolite-generating pathways related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885629/glutaminases
#7
Javier Márquez, José M Matés, José A Campos-Sandoval
Mammalian glutaminases catalyze the stoichiometric conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamate and ammonium ions. In brain, glutaminase is considered the prevailing pathway for synthesis of the neurotransmitter pool of glutamate. Besides neurotransmission, the products of glutaminase reaction also fulfill crucial roles in energy and metabolic homeostasis in mammalian brain. In the last years, new functional roles for brain glutaminases are being uncovered by using functional genomic and proteomic approaches. Glutaminases may act as multifunctional proteins able to perform different tasks: the discovery of multiple transcript variants in neurons and glial cells, novel extramitochondrial localizations, and isoform-specific proteininteracting partners strongly support possible moonlighting functions for these proteins...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873132/mechanisms-of-excessive-extracellular-glutamate-accumulation-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#8
Jan Albrecht, Magdalena Zielińska
There is compelling evidence that initiation and maintenance of epileptic seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is facilitated by excessive accumulation in the extracellular (perisynaptic) space of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (Glu). This review discusses the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Glu released from neurons is taken up by astrocytes and activated there by glutamine synthetase (GS) to form glutamine (Gln) which upon entry to neurons is degraded back to Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG): this chain of reactions has been defined as the glutamine/glutamate/cycle (GGC)...
November 21, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872198/in-female-rat-heart-mitochondria-oophorectomy-results-in-loss-of-oxidative-phosphorylation
#9
Natalia Pavón, Alfredo Cabrera-Orefice, Juan Carlos Gallardo-Pérez, Cristina Uribe-Alvarez, Nadia Rivero, Edgar Ricardo Vazquez-Martinez, Marco A Cerbón, Eduardo Martínez-Abundis, Juan Carlos Torres-Narvaez, Raúl Martínez-Memije, Francisco-Javier Roldán-Gómez, Salvador Uribe-Carvajal
Oophorectomy in adult rats affected cardiac mitochondrial function. Progression of mitochondrial alterations was assessed at one, two and three months post-surgery: at one-month very slight changes were observed, which increased at two and three months. Gradual effects included decrease in the rates of oxygen consumption and in respiratory uncoupling in the presence of complex I substrates, as well as compromised Ca2+ buffering ability. Malondialdehyde concentration increased, while the ROS-detoxifying enzyme Mn2+-superoxide-dismutase (MnSOD) and aconitase lost activity...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835669/the-glutaminase-1-inhibitor-968-enhances-dihydroartemisinin-mediated-antitumor-efficacy-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#10
Diancheng Wang, Gang Meng, Meihong Zheng, Yonghui Zhang, Aiping Chen, Junhua Wu, Jiwu Wei
Reprogrammed metabolism and redox homeostasis are potential targets of cancer therapy. Our previous study demonstrated that the kidney form of glutaminase (GLS1) is highly expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and can be used as a target for effective anticancer therapy. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels leading to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. However, the heterogeneity of cancer cells often leads to differing responses to oxidative lesions. For instance, cancer cells with high ratio of GSH/GSSG, a critical ROS scavenger, are resistant to ROS-induced cytotoxicity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831645/inhibition-of-mir-23-protects-myocardial-function-from-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-restoration-of-glutamine-metabolism
#11
Y Kou, W-T Zheng, Y-R Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Myocardial disorders caused by ischemia/reperfusion (IR) continue to be among the most frequent causes of debilitating disease and death. The contribution of cellular metabolism through the production of metabolic intermediates during IR has been increasingly investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, by using a rat IR injury model, we reported that the expression of microRNA miR-23 was induced by IR. In contrast, the glutamine metabolism was suppressed during IR...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830010/glutaminase-inhibitor-compound-968-inhibits-cell-proliferation-and-sensitizes-paclitaxel-in-ovarian-cancer
#12
Lingqin Yuan, Xiugui Sheng, Leslie H Clark, Lu Zhang, Hui Guo, Hannah M Jones, Adam K Willson, Paola A Gehrig, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
Our overall goal was to investigate the anti-tumor activity of the glutaminase 1 (GLS1) Inhibitor compound 968 in ovarian cancer cells. The human ovarian cancer cell lines, HEY, SKOV3 and IGROV-1 were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with compound 968. Cell cycle progression and Annexin V expression were evaluated using Cellometer. Western blotting was performed to determine changes in GLS1, cellular stress and cell cycle checkpoints. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were assessed by ELISA assay...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829138/targeting-stromal-glutamine-synthetase-in-tumors-disrupts-tumor-microenvironment-regulated-cancer-cell-growth
#13
Lifeng Yang, Abhinav Achreja, Tsz-Lun Yeung, Lingegowda S Mangala, Dahai Jiang, Cecil Han, Joelle Baddour, Juan C Marini, Joseph Ni, Ryuichi Nakahara, Stephen Wahlig, Lisa Chiba, Sun Hye Kim, Joshua Morse, Sunila Pradeep, Archana Sidalaghatta Nagaraja, Monika Haemmerle, Noh Kyunghee, Mathew Derichsweiler, Thomas Plackemeier, Imelda Mercado-Uribe, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Tyler Moss, Prahlad T Ram, Jinsong Liu, Xiongbin Lu, Samuel C Mok, Anil K Sood, Deepak Nagrath
Reactive stromal cells are an integral part of tumor microenvironment (TME) and interact with cancer cells to regulate their growth. Although targeting stromal cells could be a viable therapy to regulate the communication between TME and cancer cells, identification of stromal targets that make cancer cells vulnerable has remained challenging and elusive. Here, we identify a previously unrecognized mechanism whereby metabolism of reactive stromal cells is reprogrammed through an upregulated glutamine anabolic pathway...
November 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825779/glutamine-is-required-for-red-spotted-grouper-nervous-necrosis-virus-replication-via-replenishing-the-tricarboxylic-acid-cycle
#14
Muhammad Asim, Sanjie Jiang, Lizhu Yi, Wenjie Chen, Lindan Sun, Lijuan Zhao, Muhammad Nasir Khan Khattak, Jiagang Tu, Li Lin
Glutamine, one of the most important nutrients, plays a vital role in carbon metabolic pathway and has been reported to be required for the replication of several human DNA viruses. However, whether glutamine is required for RNA virus replication and the related mechanism remains elusive. Nervous necrosis virus (NNV), a positive-stranded RNA virus, can infect a number of important aquatic species and has caused great economic losses in aquaculture industry worldwide. In this study, the effects of glutamine on red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication were investigated...
January 2, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806325/inhibiting-glutaminase-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-metabolic-dependency-of-selected-aml-subtypes
#15
Polina Matre, Juliana Velez, Rodrigo Jacamo, Yuan Qi, Xiaoping Su, Tianyu Cai, Steven M Chan, Alessia Lodi, Shannon R Sweeney, Helen Ma, Richard Eric Davis, Natalia Baran, Torsten Haferlach, Xiaohua Su, Elsa Renee Flores, Doriann Gonzalez, Sergej Konoplev, Ismael Samudio, Courtney DiNardo, Ravi Majeti, Aaron D Schimmer, Weiqun Li, Taotao Wang, Stefano Tiziani, Marina Konopleva
Metabolic reprogramming has been described as a hallmark of transformed cancer cells. In this study, we examined the role of the glutamine (Gln) utilization pathway in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines and primary AML samples. Our results indicate that a subset of AML cell lines is sensitive to Gln deprivation. Glutaminase (GLS) is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Gln to glutamate. One of the two GLS isoenzymes, GLS1 is highly expressed in cancer and encodes two different isoforms: kidney (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC)...
October 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803169/development-of-a-live-attenuated-bivalent-oral-vaccine-against-shigella-sonnei-shigellosis-and-typhoid-fever
#16
Yun Wu, Sumana Chakravarty, Minglin Li, Tint T Wai, Stephen L Hoffman, B Kim Lee Sim
Shigella sonnei (Ss) and Salmonella Typhi cause significant morbidity and mortality. We exploited the safety record of the oral, attenuated S. Typhi vaccine (Ty21a) by utilizing it as a vector to develop a bivalent oral vaccine to protect against Ss shigellosis and typhoid fever. We recombineered the Ss form I O-antigen gene cluster into the Ty21a chromosome to create Ty21a-Ss, which stably expresses Ss form I O-antigen. To enhance survivability in the acid environment of the stomach, we created an acid resistant strain, Ty21a-AR-Ss, by inserting Shigella glutaminase-glutamate decarboxylase systems co-expressed with Ss form I O-antigen gene...
October 31, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793929/inhibition-of-glutaminolysis-inhibits-cell-growth-via-down-regulating-mtorc1-signaling-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#17
Xulu Ye, Qiliang Zhou, Yoshifumi Matsumoto, Masato Moriyama, Shun Kageyama, Masaaki Komatsu, Seijiro Satoh, Masanori Tsuchida, Yasuo Saijo
BACKGROUND/AIM: Inhibition of glutaminolysis has been reported as a promising therapeutic strategy to target several solid carcinomas. We aimed to investigate the effects of glutaminolysis on cell proliferation in lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and to explore the potential of targeting glutaminolysis as an anticancer strategy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Glutamine (Gln) dependence was assessed in six lung squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Cell proliferation, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity and the induction of autophagy were assessed after inhibition of glutaminolysis via Gln depletion or glutaminase (GLS) inhibition...
November 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789644/genome-sequence-of-the-multiple-protease-producing-strain-geobacillus-thermoleovorans-n7-a-thermophilic-bacterium-isolated-from-paniphala-hot-spring-west-bengal-india
#18
Sucharita Bose, Trinetra Mukherjee, Urmimala Sen, Chayan Roy, Moidu Jameela Rameez, Wriddhiman Ghosh, Subhra Kanti Mukhopadhyay
Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain N7 (MCC 3175), isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, West Bengal, India, which contains genes that encode several industrially and medically important thermostable enzymes like neutral protease, xylose isomerase, rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase, nitrate and nitrite reductase, l-asparaginase, glutaminase, and RNase P.
October 27, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787475/enzyme-activities-involved-in-the-glutamate-glutamine-cycle-are-altered-to-reduce-glutamate-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#19
Araceli Diaz-Ruiz, Sergio Montes, Hermelinda Salgado-Ceballos, Valente Maldonado, Liliana Rivera-Espinosa, Camilo Ríos
Glutamate (Glu) neurotransmitter is involved in the excitotoxic damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Glu is transformed into glutamine (Gln) by glutamine synthetase (GS) enzyme in glial cells. Once into the neurons, Gln is transformed back into Glu by phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). Glu is also a precursor for the synthesis of γ-aminobutyric acid through the action of the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) enzyme. The contribution of all these Glu biotransformations after SCI has not been determined...
October 26, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784287/induction-of-autophagy-by-arhi-diras3-alters-fundamental-metabolic-pathways-in-ovarian-cancer-models
#20
Argentina Ornelas, Christopher R McCullough, Zhen Lu, Niki M Zacharias, Lindsay E Kelderhouse, Joshua Gray, Hailing Yang, Brian J Engel, Yan Wang, Weiqun Mao, Margie N Sutton, Pratip K Bhattacharya, Robert C Bast, Steven W Millward
BACKGROUND: Autophagy is a bulk catabolic process that modulates tumorigenesis, therapeutic resistance, and dormancy. The tumor suppressor ARHI (DIRAS3) is a potent inducer of autophagy and its expression results in necroptotic cell death in vitro and tumor dormancy in vivo. ARHI is down-regulated or lost in over 60 % of primary ovarian tumors yet is dramatically up-regulated in metastatic disease. The metabolic changes that occur during ARHI induction and their role in modulating death and dormancy are unknown...
October 26, 2016: BMC Cancer
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