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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088409/genome-wide-association-analysis-and-pathways-enrichment-for-lactation-persistency-in-canadian-holstein-cattle
#1
D N Do, N Bissonnette, P Lacasse, F Miglior, M Sargolzaei, X Zhao, E M Ibeagha-Awemu
Lactation persistency (LP), defined as the rate of declining milk yield after milk peak, is an economically important trait for dairy cattle. Improving LP is considered a good alternative method for increasing overall milk production because it does not cause the negative energy balance and other health issues that cows experience during peak milk production. However, little is known about the biology of LP. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) and pathway enrichment were used to explore the genetic mechanisms underlying LP...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088385/flavonoid-derivative-fla-cn-inhibited-adipocyte-differentiation-via-activating-ampk-and-up-regulating-microrna-27-in-3t3-l1-cells
#2
Chun-Chun Gan, Tian-Wen Ni, Yang Yu, Nan Qin, Ying Chen, Mei-Na Jin, Hong-Quan Duan
Fla-CN (3-O-[(E)-4-(4-cyanophenyl)-2-oxobut-3-en-1-yl] kaempferol) is a semi-synthesized flavonoid derivative of tiliroside which exhibited anti-diabetic effect in vivo. Our previous study revealed the role of Fla-CN in anti-obesity and anti-diabetes in vivo, but the underlying mechanism remained to be addressed. The present study aimed to investigate the mechanism of anti-adipogenesis in vitro. Fla-CN markedly inhibited intracellular lipid accumulation in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect was mainly limited to the early stage of adipocyte differentiation in vitro...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081360/pinus-densiflora-bark-extract-pinexol-decreased-adiposity-in-mice-by-down-regulation-of-hepatic-de-novo-lipogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-white-adipose-tissue
#3
Hyemyoung Ahn, Gwang-Woong Go
PineXol, extracted from Korean red pine bark, has beneficial effects, such as antioxidant, anti3 inflammatory, and anti-lipogenic activities in vitro. We tested the hypothesis that PineXol supplementation could have anti-obesity effects on mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Four-week old male C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow (18% kcal from fat) or HFD (60% kcal from fat). HFD-fed animals were also subjected to PineXol treatment at a dose of 10 or 50 mg/kg body weight (BW) (PX10 or PX50, respectively) body weight...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078253/effects-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-mitochondrial-dna-replication-and-pgc-1%C3%AE-gene-expression-in-c2c12-muscle-cells
#4
Mak-Soon Lee, Yoonjin Shin, Sohee Moon, Seunghae Kim, Yangha Kim
Mitochondrial biogenesis is a complex process requiring coordinated expression of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) is a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, and it controls mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication within diverse tissues, including muscle tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on mtDNA copy number and PGC-1α promoter activity in C2C12 muscle cells...
December 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076827/new-diphenylmethane-derivatives-as-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-gamma-dual-agonists-endowed-with-anti-proliferative-effects-and-mitochondrial-activity
#5
Luca Piemontese, Carmen Cerchia, Antonio Laghezza, Pamela Ziccardi, Sabina Sblano, Paolo Tortorella, Vito Iacobazzi, Vittoria Infantino, Paolo Convertini, Fabrizio Dal Piaz, Angelo Lupo, Vittorio Colantuoni, Antonio Lavecchia, Fulvio Loiodice
We screened a short series of new chiral diphenylmethane derivatives and identified potent dual PPARα/γ partial agonists. As both enantiomers of the most active compound 1 displayed an unexpected similar transactivation activity, we performed docking experiments to provide a molecular understanding of their similar partial agonism. We also evaluated the ability of both enantiomers of 1 and racemic 2 to inhibit colorectal cancer cells proliferation: (S)-1 displayed a more robust activity due, at least in part, to a partial inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway that is upregulated in the majority of colorectal cancers...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073778/overexpression-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-increases-peroxisomal-and-mitochondrial-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-human-primary-myotubes
#6
Tai-Yu Huang, Donghai Zheng, Joseph A Houmard, Jeffrey J Brault, Robert C Hickner, Ronald N Cortright
Peroxisomes are indispensable organelles for lipid metabolism in humans and their biogenesis has been assumed to be under regulation by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, recent studies in hepatocytes suggest that the mitochondrial proliferator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha) also acts as an upstream transcriptional regulator for enhancing peroxisomal abundance and associated activity. It is unknown whether the regulatory mechanism(s) for enhancing peroxisomal function is through the same node as mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle (HSkM) and whether fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is affected...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070015/inhaled-resveratrol-treatments-slow-ageing-related-degenerative-changes-in-mouse-lung
#7
Barbara Driscoll, Sonia Navarro, Raghava Reddy, Jooeun Lee, David Warburton
BACKGROUND: Lung ageing, a significant risk factor for chronic human lung diseases such as COPD and emphysema, is characterised by airspace enlargement and decreasing lung function. Likewise, in prematurely ageing telomerase null (terc-/-) mice, p53 stabilisation within diminishing numbers of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2) accompanies reduced lung function. Resveratrol (RSL) is a plant phytoalexin that has previously showed efficacy in enhancing invertebrate longevity and supporting mammalian muscle metabolism when delivered orally...
January 9, 2017: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069597/chronic-binge-alcohol-induced-dysregulation-of-mitochondrial-related-genes-in-skeletal-muscle-of-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-rhesus-macaques-at-end-stage-disease
#8
Anthony A Duplanty, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
AIMS: Alcohol use disorders are more prevalent in HIV patients than the general population. Both chronic alcohol consumption and HIV infection have been linked to mitochondrial dysregulation; and this is considered an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of muscle myopathy. This study investigated if chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration impairs the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial homeostasis in SIV-infected macaques. METHODS: Male rhesus macaques were administered daily CBA (to achieve peak blood alcohol concentrations of 50-60 mM within 2 h after start of infusion) or sucrose (SUC) intragastrically 3 months prior to intravenous SIVmac251 inoculation and continued until macaques met criteria for end-stage disease...
January 8, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065845/the-effects-of-ppar%C3%AE-on-the-regulation-of-the-tomm40-apoe-c1-genes-cluster
#9
Shobana Subramanian, William K Gottschalk, So Young Kim, Allen D Roses, Ornit Chiba-Falek
Chromosome 19q13.32 is a gene rich region, and has been implicated in multiple human phenotypes in adulthood including lipids traits, Alzheimer's disease, and longevity. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated nuclear transcription factor that plays a role in human complex traits that are also genetically associated with the chromosome 19q13.32 region. Here, we study the effects of PPARγ on the regional expression regulation of the genes clustered within chromosome 19q13...
January 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063004/tubulin-alpha-8-is-expressed-in-hepatic-stellate-cells-and-is-induced-in-transformed-hepatocytes
#10
Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Rebekka Pohl, Elisabeth M Haberl, Sebastian Zimny, Maximilian Neumann, Kristina Eisinger, Thomas S Weiss, Sabrina Krautbauer, Christa Buechler
Tubulin alpha 8 (TUBA8) is highly abundant in murine liver tumors suggesting a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a risk factor for HCC. In mice that are fed with a methionine-choline deficient diet for two weeks to induce advanced murine NASH, we do see increased hepatic levels of TUBA8 protein. In animals given a high-fat diet for 14 weeks or an atherogenic diet for 12 weeks, hepatic TUBA8 is unchanged. TUBA8 is highly expressed in human hepatic stellate cells (HSC) and co-localizes with the HSC marker desmin in the murine liver...
January 7, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054981/the-root-extract-of-pueraria-lobata-and-its-main-compound-puerarin-prevent-obesity-by-increasing-the-energy-metabolism-in-skeletal-muscle
#11
Hyo Won Jung, An Na Kang, Seok Yong Kang, Yong-Ki Park, Mi Young Song
Radix Pueraria lobata (RP) has been reported to prevent obesity and improve glucose metabolism; however, the mechanism responsible for these effects has not been elucidated. The mechanism underlying anti-obesity effect of RP was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese mice and skeletal muscle cells (C2C12). Five-week-old C5BL/6 mice were fed a HFD containing or not containing RP (100 or 300 mg/kg) or metformin (250 mg/kg) for 16 weeks. RP reduced body weight gain, lipid accumulation in liver, and adipocyte and blood lipid levels...
January 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051130/the-histone-3-lysine-9-methyltransferase-inhibitor-chaetocin-improves-prognosis-in-a-rat-model-of-high-salt-diet-induced-heart-failure
#12
Tomohiko Ono, Naomi Kamimura, Tomohiro Matsuhashi, Toshihiro Nagai, Takahiko Nishiyama, Jin Endo, Takako Hishiki, Tsuyoshi Nakanishi, Noriaki Shimizu, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Shigeo Ohta, Makoto Suematsu, Masaki Ieda, Motoaki Sano, Keiichi Fukuda, Ruri Kaneda
Histone acetylation has been linked to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the pathological implications of changes in histone methylation and the effects of interventions with histone methyltransferase inhibitors for heart failure have not been fully clarified. Here, we focused on H3K9me3 status in the heart and investigated the effects of the histone H3K9 methyltransferase inhibitor chaetocin on prognoses in Dahl salt-sensitive rats, an animal model of chronic heart failure. Chaetocin prolonged survival and restored mitochondrial dysfunction...
January 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049732/nadph-oxidase-4-nox4-suppresses-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-bioenergetics-in-lung-fibroblasts-via-a-nuclear-factor-erythroid-derived-2-like-2-nrf2-dependent-pathway
#13
Karen Bernard, Naomi J Logsdon, Veronica Miguel, Gloria A Benavides, Jianhua Zhang, A Brent Carter, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Victor J Thannickal
Mitochondrial bioenergetics are critical for cellular homeostasis and stress responses. The reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating enzyme, NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), regulates a number of physiological and pathological processes, including cellular differentiation, host defense and tissue fibrosis. In this study, we explored the role of constitutive Nox4 activity in regulating mitochondrial function. An increase in mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reserve capacity was observed in murine and human lung fibroblasts with genetic deficiency (or silencing) of Nox4...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031713/pioglitazone-could-induce-remission-in-major-depression-a-meta-analysis
#14
Romain Colle, Delphine de Larminat, Samuel Rotenberg, Franz Hozer, Patrick Hardy, Céline Verstuyft, Bruno Fève, Emmanuelle Corruble
BACKGROUND: Pioglitazone, a selective agonist of the nuclear transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), prescribed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, could have antidepressant properties. However, its potential to induce remission of major depressive episodes, the optimal clinical target for an antidepressant drug, is a matter of concern. Indeed, only one out of four double-blind randomized controlled trials show higher remission rates with pioglitazone than with control treatments...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026829/retinol-binding-protein-4-rbp4-as-the-causative-factor-and-marker-of-vascular-injury-related-to-insulin-resistance
#15
Marcin Majerczyk, Magdalena Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Monika Puzianowska-Kuźnicka, Jerzy Chudek
One of adipokines involved in the development of insulin resistance is retinol-binding protein 4(RBP4). The physiological role of RBP4 is transport of retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues. One of the first events related to the excessive visceral fat accumulation is the development of inflammation followed by hormonal adipose tissue dysfunction, including excessive RBP4 production. Reduced density of the membrane-type glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is considered as a direct cause for the stimulation of RBP4 release to the circulation by adipocytes...
December 21, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024113/a-novel-and-complex-mechanism-regulating-pgc-1%C3%AE-4-expression
#16
EDITORIAL
Bradley S Gordon
In the current issue of Acta Physiologica, Brown et al. (Brown et al. 2016) describes a novel regulatory mechanism for the expression of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gamma Co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) splice variant 4 (PGC-1α4). Since the discovery of the parent PGC-1α gene, it has been at the forefront of muscle biology research as it significantly altered muscle phenotype in both pathological and physiological model systems (Lin et al. 2002, Sandri et al. 2006). This article is protected by copyright...
December 26, 2016: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013303/the-impact-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-and-its-interaction-with-abdominal-obesity-on-diabetic-nephropathy-in-chinese-han
#17
Meihong Zhang, Hongying Yuan, Changsheng Li, Chunling Li
BACKGROUND: Several studies have focused on the association between peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the results of these studies were inconsistent, and until now, no population-based study has focused on the impact of PPARG gene-abdominal obesity interaction on DN risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of PPARG polymorphisms and its interaction with abdominal obesity on DN risk in the Chinese Han population...
December 24, 2016: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012150/at1-receptor-antagonist-induces-thermogenic-beige-adipocytes-in-the-inguinal-white-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice
#18
Francielle Graus-Nunes, Tamiris Lima Rachid, Felipe de Oliveira Santos, Sandra Barbosa-da-Silva, Vanessa Souza-Mello
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether losartan is able to induce beige adipocytes formation, focusing on the thermogenic gene expression and adipocyte remodeling in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received a control diet (10% energy as lipids) or a high-fat diet (50% energy as lipids) for 10 weeks, followed by a 5-week treatment with losartan: control group, control-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day), high-fat group and high-fat-losartan group (10 mg/Kg/day)...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011377/possible-involvement-of-nrf2-and-ppar%C3%AE-up-regulation-in-the-protective-effect-of-umbelliferone-against-cyclophosphamide-induced-hepatotoxicity
#19
Ayman M Mahmoud, Mousa O Germoush, Mohammed F Alotaibi, Omnia E Hussein
Umbelliferone (UMB) is a coumarin derivative with promising hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we examined the possible protective effects of UMB against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced hepatotoxicity, addressing the question of the possible role of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Wistar rats were orally administered UMB at doses 50 and 100mg/kg two weeks prior to CP injection. Five days after CP administration, the rats were sacrificed and samples were collected for analyses...
December 20, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008317/chrysophanic-acid-suppresses-adipogenesis-and-induces-thermogenesis-by-activating-amp-activated-protein-kinase-alpha-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#20
Hara Lim, Jinbong Park, Hye-Lin Kim, JongWook Kang, Mi-Young Jeong, Dong-Hyun Youn, Yunu Jung, Yong-Il Kim, Hyun-Ju Kim, Kwang Seok Ahn, Su-Jin Kim, Seong-Kyu Choe, Seung-Heon Hong, Jae-Young Um
Chrysophanic acid (CA) is a member of the anthraquinone family abundant in rhubarb, a widely used herb for obesity treatment in Traditional Korean Medicine. Though several studies have indicated numerous features of CA, no study has yet reported the effect of CA on obesity. In this study, we tried to identify the anti-obesity effects of CA. By using 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary cultured brown adipocytes as in vitro models, high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and zebrafish as in vivo models, we determined the anti-obesity effects of CA...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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