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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

Jiaojiao Guo, Chonggang Wang, Zhizhun Guo, Zhenghong Zuo
More and more evidence indicates that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Phenanthrene (Phe) is a kind of POP which existed extensively in the environment, but whose toxicity on mammals has so far received less focus. Subcutaneously injection of Phe (0.5, 5, 50 μg/kg) for 21 days induced significant NAFLD/NASH symptoms in new born rats. Exposure to environmental levels of Phe decreased body weight and liver-somatic index; impaired histology of liver; influenced the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling and lipid metabolism in liver; stimulated oxidative stress in the rats' liver; induced the variation of NFκB pathway and liver inflammatory response; and caused liver fibrosis via transforming growth factor β1 (tgfβ1)...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Qingjie Li, Quan Yu, Li Lin, Heng Zhang, Miao Peng, Chunxia Jing, Geyang Xu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) regulates fatty acid storage, glucose metabolism, and food intake. Ghrelin, a gastric hormone, provides a hunger signal to the central nervous system to stimulate appetite. However, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of PPARγ on ghrelin production were examined in lean- or high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice and mHypoE-42 cells, a hypothalamic cell line. 3rd intracerebroventricular injection of adenoviral-directed overexpression of PPARγ (Ad-PPARγ) reduced hypothalamic and plasma ghrelin, food intake in both lean C57BL/6J mice and diet-induced obese mice...
April 9, 2018: Neuropeptides
Jin Soo Kim, Seul Gi Lee, Kyoungjin Min, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Ha-Jeong Kim, Ju-Ock Nam
Eupatilin (5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',6-trimethoxyflavone) is a flavonoid compound from Artemisia species that possesses beneficial biological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, an anti-adipogenic effect has not yet been reported. In this study, we found that eupatilin significantly inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Eupatilin decreased intracellular lipid accumulation and suppressed the expression level of key adipogenic regulators in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα), in a concentration-dependent manner...
April 9, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Dante Selenscig, María Del Rosario Ferreira, Adriana Chicco, Yolanda B Lombardo
This work aims to assess the possible beneficial effects of dietary fish oil (FO) on the pre-existing adipose tissue dysfunction through the improvement or reversion of the mechanisms underlying oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in dyslipemic insulin-resistant rats. Wistar rats were fed a sucrose rich diet (SRD) for 6 months. After that half of the animals continued with the SRD until month 8 while in the other half corn oil was replaced by FO for 2 months (SRD + FO). A reference group consumed a control diet all the time...
April 12, 2018: Food & Function
Fei Han, Suxia Zhang, Jun Liang, Weizhe Qiu
SIRT1 (silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1) is an enzyme that deacetylates proteins that contributes to cell survival and angiogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Ƴ (PPAR Ƴ) is a member of the nuclear steroid hormone receptor superfamily and regulates cell apoptosis and proliferation. The functional roles of SIRT1 and PPAR Ƴ in tumor progression remain controversy. This study aims to investigate the roles of SIRT1 and PPAR Ƴ in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), as well as correlation with expression of EGFR and Survivin...
March 22, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Jeong-Hyeon Ko, Dongwoo Nam, Jae-Young Um, Sang Hoon Jung, Kwang Seok Ahn
Obesity is a serious and increasing health problem worldwide, and the inhibition of adipogenesis is considered to be a potential therapeutic target for it. Bergamottin (BGM), a component of grapefruit juice, has been reported to regulate lipolysis. However, the physiological role of BGM in obesity has not been evaluated so far. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BGM on obesity in 3T3-L1 cells and in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). BGM inhibited adipogenic differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells along with a significant decrease in the lipid content by downregulating the expression of two critical adipogenic factors, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBP[Formula: see text]) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR[Formula: see text])...
April 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Srivani Telapolu, Mangathayaru Kalachavedu, Alan Mathew Punnoose, Dwarakanath Bilikere
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a polygenic disease requiring a multipronged therapeutic approach. In the current scenario, the use of polyherbals is increasing among the diabetics. MD-1, a poly herbal formulation is constituted as a mixture of six popular anti diabetic herbs, used in the management of Diabetes mellitus (DM). The physicochemical, biochemical and in vitro efficacy studies have been carried out to ascertain the possible mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic action of MD-1...
April 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Hee-Weon Lee, Dong-Kwon Rhee, Byung-Oh Kim, Suhkneung Pyo
Adipocyte differentiation is a critical adaptive response to nutritional overload and affects the metabolic outcome of obesity. Sinigrin (2-propenyl glucosinolate) is a glucosinolate belong to the glucoside contained in broccoli, brussels sprouts, and black mustard seeds. We investigated the effects of sinigrin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and its underlying mechanisms. Sinigrin remarkably inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets and adipogenesis by downregulating the expression of CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), leptin and aP2...
March 28, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mohammad-Ali Bahreini Pour, Siyavash Joukar, Fariborz Hovanloo, Hamid Najafipour, Vida Naderi, Alireza Raji, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani
AIMS: Existing evidence emphasize the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in sarcopenia which is revealed as loss of skeletal muscle mass and neuromuscular junction remodeling. We assessed the effect of low-intensity aerobic training along with blood flow restriction on muscle hypertrophy index, muscle-specific kinase (MuSK), a pivotal protein of the neuromuscular junction and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) in aged male rats. MAIN METHODS: Animals groups were control (CTL), sham (Sh), leg blood flow restriction (BFR), exercise (Ex), sham + exercise (Sh + Ex), and BFR plus exercise (BFR + Ex) groups...
March 28, 2018: Life Sciences
Ikuro Matsuba, Ren Matsuba, Shun Ishibashi, Shizuya Yamashita, Hidenori Arai, Koutaro Yokote, Hideki Suganami, Eiichi Araki
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Pemafibrate (K-877) is a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α modulator (SPPARMα) with potent triglyceride (TG)-lowering and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol-raising effects. We showed that pemafibrate decreased the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with dyslipidemia. To investigate how pemafibrate improves insulin sensitivity, we used a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique to determine the splanchnic and peripheral glucose uptake in patients with hypertriglyceridemia and insulin resistance...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Myeong-Joo Kim, Ye-Ji Lee, Young-So Yoon, Minsuk Kim, Ji Ha Choi, Hee-Sun Kim, Jihee Lee Kang
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) transcription factor activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ)-regulated gene expression in immune cells. We investigated proximal membrane signaling that was initiated in macrophages after exposure to apoptotic cells that led to enhanced PPAR-γ expression and activity, using specific siRNAs for ABCA1, STAT6, and PPAR-γ, or their antagonists. The interactions between mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages or RAW 264.7 cells and apoptotic Jurkat cells, but not viable cells, resulted in the induction of STAT6 phosphorylation as well as PPAR-γ expression and activation...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Gregory Alexander Raciti, Francesca Fiory, Michele Campitelli, Antonella Desiderio, Rosa Spinelli, Michele Longo, Cecilia Nigro, Giacomo Pepe, Eduardo Sommella, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Formisano, Francesco Beguinot, Claudia Miele
Metabolic and/or endocrine dysfunction of the white adipose tissue (WAT) contribute to the development of metabolic disorders, such as Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). Therefore, the identification of products able to improve adipose tissue function represents a valuable strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of T2D. In the current study, we investigated the potential effects of dry extracts obtained from Citrus aurantium L. fruit juice (CAde) on the regulation of 3T3-L1 cells adipocyte differentiation and function in vitro...
2018: PloS One
Liufeng Mao, Jiwen Lei, Marieke H Schoemaker, Bingxiu Ma, Yan Zhong, Tim T Lambers, Eric A F Van Tol, Yulai Zhou, Tao Nie, Donghai Wu
Browning in adipose tissues, which can be affected by diet, may mitigate the detrimental effects of adiposity and improve longer-term metabolic health. Here, browning-inducing effects of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, e.g., arachidonic acid (ARA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and extensively hydrolyzed casein (eHC) were investigated in uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp-1) reporter mice. To address the overall functionality, their potential role in supporting a healthy metabolic profile under obesogenic dietary challenges later in life was evaluated...
March 28, 2018: Food & Function
Seok Woo Hong, Jinmi Lee, Jung Hwan Cho, Hyemi Kwon, Se Eun Park, Eun Jung Rhee, Cheol Young Park, Ki Won Oh, Sung Woo Park, Won Young Lee
BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activator gamma (PPARγ) is a useful therapeutic target for obesity and diabetes, but its role in protecting β-cell function and viability is unclear. METHODS: To identify the potential functions of PPARγ in β-cells, we treated mouse insulinoma 6 (MIN6) cells with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone in conditions of lipotoxicity, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and inflammation. RESULTS: Palmitate-treated cells incubated with pioglitazone exhibited significant improvements in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the repression of apoptosis, as shown by decreased caspase-3 cleavage and poly (adenosine diphosphate [ADP]-ribose) polymerase activity...
March 2018: Endocrinology and Metabolism
Alexandre Vallée, Yves Lecarpentier, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
In gliomas, the canonical Wingless/Int (WNT)/β-catenin pathway is increased while peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) is downregulated. The two systems act in an opposite manner. This review focuses on the interplay between WNT/β-catenin signaling and PPAR-γ and their metabolic implications as potential therapeutic target in gliomas. Activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway stimulates the transcription of genes involved in proliferation, invasion, nucleotide synthesis, tumor growth, and angiogenesis...
March 26, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Hsiao-Jou Cortina Chen, Jereme G Spiers, Conrad Sernia, Nickolas A Lavidis
Background: Long term exposure to stress has been demonstrated to cause neuroinflammation through a sustained overproduction of free radicals, including nitric oxide, via an increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity. We have previously demonstrated that iNOS activity and mRNA are significantly upregulated in the rat hippocampus following just 4 hours of restraint stress. Similar to nitric oxide, endocannabinoids are synthesised on demand, with preclinical observations suggesting that cannabinoid receptor agonists and endocannabinoid enhancers inhibit nitrergic activity...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Takashi Higuchi, Akihiko Takeuchi, Seiichi Munesue, Norio Yamamoto, Katsuhiro Hayashi, Hiroaki Kimura, Shinji Miwa, Hiroyuki Inatani, Shingo Shimozaki, Takashi Kato, Yu Aoki, Kensaku Abe, Yuta Taniguchi, Hisaki Aiba, Hideki Murakami, Ai Harashima, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, Hiroyuki Tsuchiya
Surgical resection is the only treatment for chondrosarcomas, because of their resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy; therefore, additional strategies are crucial to treat chondrosarcomas. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor, which has been reported as a possible therapeutic target in certain malignancies including chondrosarcomas. In this study, we demonstrated that a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, zaltoprofen, could induce PPARγ activation and elicit anti-tumor effects in chondrosarcoma cells...
March 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Jie Ni, Lei-Lei Zhou, Li Ding, Xue-Qin Zhang, Xia Zhao, Huizi Li, Haixia Cao, Siwen Liu, Zhuo Wang, Rong Ma, Jianzhong Wu, Jifeng Feng
The development of acquired EGFR-TKI therapeutic resistance is still a serious clinical problem in the management of lung adenocarcinoma. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists may exhibit anti-tumor activity by transactivating genes which are closely associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, it remains not clear whether efatutazone has similar roles in lung adenocarcinoma cells of gefitinib resistant such as HCC827-GR and PC9-GR. It has been demonstrated by us that efatutazone prominently increased the mRNA and protein expression of PPARγ, liver X receptor alpha (LXRα),as well as ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1)...
March 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Daniela Lecca, Elzbieta Janda, Giovanna Mulas, Andrea Diana, Concetta Martino, Fabrizio Angius, Stefano Spolitu, M Antonietta Casu, Gabriella Simbula, Laura Boi, Barbara Batetta, Saturnino Spiga, Anna R Carta
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Microglia phenotype and phagocytic activity are deregulated in Parkinson's disease (PD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists are neuroprotective in experimental PD, but their role in regulating microglial phenotype and phagocytosis has been poorly investigated. We addressed it by using the PPARγ agonist MDG548. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Murine microglial cell line MMGT12 was stimulated with LPS and/or MDG548 and their effect on phagocytosis of fluorescent microspheres or necrotic neurons was investigated by flow cytometry...
March 23, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Lei Hao, Jamie Kearns, Sheyenne Scott, Dayong Wu, Sean D Kodani, Christophe Morisseau, Bruce D Hammock, Xiaocun Sun, Shu Wang, Ling Zhao
Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to induce white adipocyte differentiation; however, its roles in brown adipocyte differentiation, and activation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and obesity are unknown. To address this issue, we treated mouse pre-brown cells with different doses of indomethacin, and delivered indomethacin to interscapular BAT (iBAT) of obese mice using implanted osmotic pumps. Indomethacin dose-dependently increased brown adipocyte differentiation, and upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (γ) coactivator 1-alpha...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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