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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449830/screening-for-ppar-non-agonist-ligands-followed-by-characterization-of-a-hit-am-879-with-additional-no-adipogenic-and-cdk5-mediated-phosphorylation-inhibition-properties
#1
Helder Veras Ribeiro Filho, Natália Bernardi Videira, Aline Villanova Bridi, Thais Helena Tittanegro, Fernanda Aparecida Helena Batista, José Geraldo de Carvalho Pereira, Paulo Sérgio Lopes de Oliveira, Marcio Chaim Bajgelman, Albane Le Maire, Ana Carolina Migliorini Figueira
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of a nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor, playing key roles in maintenance of adipose tissue and in regulation of glucose and lipid homeostasis. This receptor is the target of thiazolidinediones, a class of antidiabetic drugs, which improve insulin sensitization and regulate glycemia in type 2 diabetes. Despite the beneficial effects of drugs, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, their use is associated with several side effects, including weight gain, heart failure, and liver disease, since these drugs induce full activation of the receptor...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448959/impaired-t-cell-mediated-hepatitis-in-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-deficient-mice
#2
Ian N Hines, Michael Kremer, Sherri M Moore, Michael D Wheeler
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a regulator of enzymes involved in β oxidation, has been reported to influence lymphocyte activation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PPARα plays a role in T cell-mediated hepatitis induced by Concanavalin A (ConA). METHODS: Wild type (wt) or PPARα-deficient (PPARα -/- ) mice were treated with ConA (15 mg/kg) by intravenous injection 0, 10 or 24 h prior to sacrifice and serum and tissue collection for analysis of tissue injury, cytokine response, T cell activation and characterization...
February 15, 2018: Biological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441829/role-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-activation-on-visfatin-advanced-glycation-end-products-and-renal-oxidative-stress-in-obesity-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
A Tabassum, T Mahboob
The present study focused on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) activation on renal oxidative damages, serum visfatin, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. Following the institutional animal ethics committee guidelines, Wistar rats were categorized into five groups: group 1: fed on a normal rat diet; group 2: HFD-induced obese rats (HFD for 8 weeks); group 3: HFD-fed rats treated with rosiglitazone (RSG; 3 mg/kg orally for 7 days); group 4: T2DM rats induced by HFD and low dose of streptozotocin (i...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441810/pon2-and-pparg-polymorphisms-as-biomarkers-of-risk-for-coronary-heart-disease
#4
Thelma Beatriz González-Castro, Carlos Alfonso Tovilla-Zárate, Isela Esther Juárez-Rojop, Yazmín Hernández-Díaz, María Lilia López-Narváez, Candelario Rodríguez-Pérez, Yahaira Karina González-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Ramos-Méndez
AIM: Investigate the correlation between paraoxonase 2 (PON2) Ser311Cys polymorphism as well as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) His477His polymorphism and the susceptibility to development of coronary heart diseases (CHD) through a meta-analysis. METHODS: Odds ratio and the corresponding 95% CI were used to assess the results. We included 7476 CHD patients and 8504 healthy controls. All the statistical analyses were performed by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (CMA, version 2...
February 14, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438738/the-ampk-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-axis-regulates-the-astrocyte-glutathione-system-to-protect-against-oxidative-and-metabolic-injury
#5
Xiaoxin Guo, Qi Jiang, Alessandra Tuccitto, Darren Chan, Samih Alqawlaq, Gah-Jone Won, Jeremy M Sivak
Neurons are highly sensitive to metabolic and oxidative injury, but endogenous astrocyte mechanisms have a critical capacity to provide protection from these stresses. We previously reported that the master regulator PGC-1α (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α) is necessary for retinal astrocytes to mount effective injury responses, with particular regard to oxidative stress. Yet, this pathway has not been well studied in glia. PGC-1α is a transcriptional co-activator that is dysregulated in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases...
February 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434585/the-activin-a-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-axis-contributes-to-the-transcriptome-of-gm-csf-conditioned-human-macrophages
#6
Concha Nieto, Rafael Bragado, Cristina Municio, Elena Sierra-Filardi, Bárbara Alonso, María M Escribese, Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Carlos Ardavín, Antonio Castrillo, Miguel A Vega, Amaya Puig-Kröger, Angel L Corbí
GM-CSF promotes the functional maturation of lung alveolar macrophages (A-MØ), whose differentiation is dependent on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) transcription factor. In fact, blockade of GM-CSF-initiated signaling or deletion of the PPARγ-encoding gene PPARG leads to functionally defective A-MØ and the onset of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. In vitro, macrophages generated in the presence of GM-CSF display potent proinflammatory, immunogenic and tumor growth-limiting activities...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433907/in%C3%A2-vitro-nuclear-receptor-inhibition-and-cytotoxicity-of-hydraulic-fracturing-chemicals-and-their-binary-mixtures
#7
Peter A Bain, Anu Kumar
The widespread use of hydraulic fracturing (HF) in oil and gas extraction operations has led to concern over environmental risks posed by chemicals used in HF fluids. Here we employed a suite of stable luciferase reporter gene assays to investigate the potential for selected HF chemicals or geogenics to activate or antagonise nuclear receptor signalling. We screened three biocides (bronopol [BP], glutaraldehyde [GA], and tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium sulfate [THPS]), a surfactant (2-butoxyethanol), a friction reducer (polyacrylamide), and a coal seam geogenic (o-cresol) for their potential to act as agonists or antagonists of the estrogen receptor, androgen receptor, progesterone receptor (PR), glucocorticoid receptor or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ)...
January 9, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433686/gastrodia-elata-alleviates-mutant-huntingtin-aggregation-through-mitochondrial-function-and-biogenesis-mediation
#8
Chuen-Lin Huang, Kaw-Chen Wang, Ying-Chen Yang, Chun-Tang Chiou, Chia-Hui Tan, Yun-Lian Lin, Nai-Kuei Huang
BACKGROUND: According to the Compendium of Materia Medica, Gastrodia elata (GE) Blume is a top-grade herbal medicine frequently used to treat dizziness, headaches, tetanus, and epilepsy, suggesting that it affects neurological functions. Although studies have supported its effects in preventing diverse neurodegenerations such as Huntington's disease (HD), its mechanisms require further investigation. PURPOSE: To investigate the ability of the molecular mechanism of GE to prevent mutant huntingtin (mHTT) protein aggregation by focusing on mitochondrial function and biogenesis, which have been proposed as the therapeutic targets of HD...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427794/concerted-redox-modulation-by-sulforaphane-alleviates-diabetes-and-cardiometabolic-syndrome
#9
Bijal Patel, Giovanni E Mann, Sarah J Chapple
Diabetes and cardiometabolic disorders such as hypertension and obesity are major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease, with a wealth of evidence suggesting that oxidative stress is linked to the initiation and pathogenesis of these disease processes. With yearly increases in the global incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes, numerous studies have focused on characterizing whether upregulating antioxidant defenses through exogenous antioxidants (e.g. vitamin E, vitamin C) or activation of endogenous defenses (e...
February 7, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424256/effect-of-coenzyme-q10-on-mitochondrial-respiratory-proteins-in-trigeminal-neuralgia
#10
Chutikorn Khuankaew, Nattayaporn Apaijai, Passakorn Sawaddiruk, Thidarat Jaiwongkam, Sasiwan Kerdphoo, Surawut Pongsiriwet, Wichittra Tassaneeyakul, Nipon Chattipakorn, Siriporn C Chattipakorn
Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is the neuropathic pain. Mitochondrial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress, and inflammation demonstrated in chronic pain. Carbamazepine (CBZ) is the first-line drug for TN, however, it is still insufficient. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) has been used as the additional supplement for pain therapy. Nonetheless, mitochondrial respiratory proteins, oxidative stress, and inflammation in TN, and the add-on effects of CoQ10 on those defects have never been investigated. CBZ-treated TN-patients, naïve TN-patients, and control subjects were included...
February 9, 2018: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417935/hydroxysafflor-yellow-a-induces-human-gastric-carcinoma-bgc-823-cell-apoptosis-by-activating-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE
#11
Li Liu, Na Si, YiCong Ma, DongYu Ge, Xue Yu, AngRan Fan, Xu Wang, JingHong Hu, Peng Wei, Long Ma, ZiWei Chen, Qian Zhang, CuiLing Feng
BACKGROUND Anti-tumor properties of hydroxysafflor-yellow A (HSYA) have been recently revealed, as a series of apoptotic factors were confirmed to be regulated by HSYA and associated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma (PPARγ). In this study, we investigated the cell apoptosis mechanism of HSYA via activated PPARγ signal in human gastric carcinoma cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BGC-823 cells were cultured and divided into 5 independent groups: Tumor, HSYA, HSYA+PPARγ inhibitor (GW9662), and PPARg agonist (RGZ), RGZ+GW9662...
February 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415899/time-dependent-changes-in-increased-levels-of-plasma-irisin-and-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-fndc5-after-exercise-in-mice
#12
Minhui Pang, Jianwei Yang, Jiaming Rao, Haiqing Wang, Jiayi Zhang, Shengyong Wang, Xiongfei Chen, Xiaomei Dong
Exercise induces the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1-α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle, which promotes the cleavage of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) to irisin. To explore the relationship between irisin and its regulators, we analyzed the plasma irisin levels and the muscle levels of FNDC5 and PGC-1α after exercise. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent a treadmill exercise (60% of VO 2max ) for 30 min or one hour (h), and blood and gastrocnemius samples were collected before exercise (pre-exercise), immediately after exercise, and during 24-h recovery after 1-h exercise...
February 2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410257/plasticizers-used-in-food-contact-materials-affect-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-cells
#13
Valentina Pomatto, Erika Cottone, Paolo Cocci, Matteo Mozzicafreddo, Gilberto Mosconi, Erik Russel Nelson, Francesco Alessandro Palermo, Patrizia Bovolin
Recent studies suggest that exposure to some plasticizers, such as Bisphenol A (BPA), play a role in endocrine/metabolic dispruption and can affect lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Here, we investigated the adipogenic activity and nuclear receptor interactions of four plasticizers approved for the manufacturing of food-contact materials (FCMs) and currently considered safer alternatives. Differentiating 3T3-L1 mouse preadipocytes were exposed to scalar concentrations (0.01-25 μM) of DiNP (Di-iso-nonyl-phthalate), DiDP (Di-iso-decyl-phthalate), DEGDB (Diethylene glycol dibenzoate), or TMCP (Tri-m-cresyl phosphate)...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407753/schisandrin-c-enhances-odontoblastic-differentiation-through-autophagy-and-mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-human-dental-pulp-cells
#14
Jyoti Shrestha Takanche, Jeong-Seok Kim, Ji-Eun Kim, S-H Han, Ho-Keun Yi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of Schisandrin C in odontoblastic differentiation, and its relations between autophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis in human dental pulp cells (HPDCs). DESIGN: Fresh third molars were used, and cultured for HDPCs. Western blotting technique, Alizarin red S staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and confocal microscopy were used to detect autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and odontoblastic differentiation. To understand the mechanism of Schisandrin C, the HDPCs were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), autophagy and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitors: 3-Methyladenine (3-MA) and Zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), respectively...
January 30, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404969/neutral-loss-scan-based-strategy-for-integrated-identification-of-amorfrutin-derivatives-new-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-agonists-from-amorpha-fruticosa-by-uplc-qqq-ms-ms-and-uplc-q-tof-ms
#15
Chu Chen, Ying Xue, Qing-Miao Li, Yan Wu, Jian Liang, Lin-Sen Qing
Amorfrutins with a 2-hydroxybenzoic acid core structure are promising natural PPARγ agonists with potent antidiabetic activity. Owing to the complex matrix and low concentration in botanical material, the identification of unknown amorfrutins remains a challenge. In the present study, a combined application of UPLC-Q-TOF-MS and UPLC-QqQ-MS was developed to discover unknown amorfrutins from fruits of Amorpha fruticosa. First, reference compounds of amorfrutin A (AA), amorfrutin B (AB), and 2-carboxy-3,5-dihydroxy-4-geranylbibenzyl (AC) were analyzed using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS to reveal the characteristic fragment ions and the possible neutral loss...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404511/exenatide-induces-carcinoembryonic-antigen-related-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-expression-to-prevent-hepatic-steatosis
#16
Hilda E Ghadieh, Harrison T Muturi, Lucia Russo, Christopher C Marino, Simona S Ghanem, Saja S Khuder, Julie C Hanna, Sukanta Jash, Vishwajeet Puri, Garrett Heinrich, Cara Gatto-Weis, Kevin Y Lee, Sonia M Najjar
Exenatide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, induces insulin secretion. Its role in insulin clearance has not been adequately examined. Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes hepatic insulin clearance to maintain insulin sensitivity. Feeding C57BL/6J mice a high-fat diet down-regulates hepatic Ceacam1 transcription to cause hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, as in Ceacam1 null mice (Cc1-/- ). Thus, we tested whether exenatide regulates Ceacam1 expression in high-fat diet-fed mice and whether this contributes to its insulin sensitizing effect...
January 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404498/activin-a-is-a-prominent-autocrine-regulator-of-hepatocyte-growth-arrest
#17
Srividyameena Haridoss, Mladen I Yovchev, Hannah Schweizer, Sabreen Megherhi, Maria Beecher, Joseph Locker, Michael Oertel
Activin A, a multifunctional cytokine, plays an important role in hepatocyte growth suppression and is involved in liver size control. The present study was aimed to determine the cell location of activin A in the normal rat liver microenvironment and the contribution of activin A signaling to the hepatocyte phenotype to obtain insight into molecular mechanisms. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization analyses identified hepatocytes as the major activin A-positive cell population in normal liver and identified mast cells as an additional activin A source...
November 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404444/hairy-and-enhancer-of-split-6-prevents-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-through-inhibition-of-pparg2-expression
#18
Jung Eun Park, Mikang Lee, Seong-Chul Kim, Yanqiao Zhang, James P Hardwick, Yoon Kwang Lee
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a master regulator for white adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage. The increased level of hepatic PPARγ2 isoform reprograms liver for lipid storage and causes abnormal fat accumulation in certain pathophysiologic conditions. The current study aimed to investigate a role of transcriptional repressor hairy and enhancer of split 6 (HES6) in the regulation of Pparg2 expression and hepatic steatosis induced by diet. Liver-specific overexpression of Hes6 using adenovirus reduced Pparg2 messenger RNA levels by 90% and hepatic triglyceride accumulation by 22% compared to the levels in mice injected with an adenoviral empty vector with Western diet feeding...
December 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402778/interaction-of-vitamin-e-intake-and-pro12ala-polymorphism-of-pparg-with-adiponectin-levels
#19
Wendy Campos-Perez, Nathaly Torres-Castillo, Mariana Perez-Robles, Jose Francisco Muñoz-Valle, Barbara Vizmanos-Lamotte, Erika Martinez-Lopez
BACKGROUND/AIM: One of the beneficial effects associated with vitamin E intake is the enhancement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activity and the consequent upregulation of adiponectin expression. The aim of this study was to analyze the adiponectin levels in subjects with the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPARG according to vitamin E intake. METHODS: A total of 283 subjects were enrolled. Total vitamin E intake was estimated based on a validated 3-day food consumption record and analyzed using Nutritionist ProTM software...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400110/scutellarin-ameliorates-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-through-the-ppar%C3%AE-pgc-1%C3%AE-nrf2-pathway
#20
Xiaoxue Zhang, Renpeng Ji, Huijun Sun, Jinyong Peng, Xiaodong Ma, ChangYuan Wang, Yufeng Fu, Liuchi Bao, Yue Jin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterised by excessive accumulation of hepatic lipids and oxidative injury of hepatocytes. Scutellarin is a flavonoid glycoside having antioxidative stress activity. Our current study aims to investigate the molecular mechanism of scutellarin ameliorating NAFLD. Scutellarin treatment was applied to male C57BL/6 mice maintained on a high-fat diet (HFD) and HepG2 cells challenged with oleic acid. The antioxidation biochemical indicators and lipid levels in the liver and cells were detected by kits...
February 5, 2018: Free Radical Research
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