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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041003/depression-in-the-context-of-medical-disorders-new-pharmacological-pathways-revisited
#1
Undine E Lang, Marc Walter
The depressive state has been characterised as one of elevated inflammation, changed cardiovascular parameters and a deranged metabolic situation all of which holds promise for a better understanding and handling of treatment-resistance in affective disorders as well as for future developments in treatment algorithms. In this context several biomarkers are differentially regulated by antidepressant treatment and connected to metabolic, inflammatory, cardiovascular and apoptotic components of the pathophysiology, i...
October 17, 2017: Neuro-Signals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038164/pka-creb-signaling-prevents-adriamycin-induced-podocyte-apoptosis-via-upregulation-of-mitochondrial-respiratory-chain-complexes
#2
Kewei Xie, Mingli Zhu, Peng Xiang, Xiaohuan Chen, Ayijiaken Kasimumali, Renhua Lu, Qin Wang, Shan Mou, Zhaohui Ni, Leyi Gu, Huihua Pang
Previous work showed that the activation of protein kinase A (PKA) signaling promoted mitochondrial fusion and prevented podocyte apoptosis. The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is the main downstream transcription factor of PKA signaling. Herein, we show that the pKA-agonist pCPT-cAMP prevented the production of adriamycin (ADR)-induced reactive oxygen species and apoptosis in podocytes, which were inhibited by CREB RNAi. The activation of PKA enhanced mitochondrial function and prevented the ADR-induced decrease of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I subunits, NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex (ND) 1/3/4 genes, and protein expression...
October 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031719/macrophage-alternative-activation-confers-protection-against-lipotoxicity-induced-cell-death
#3
Lingling Dai, Prerna Bhargava, Kristopher J Stanya, Ryan K Alexander, Yae-Huei Liou, David Jacobi, Nelson H Knudsen, Alexander Hyde, Matthew R Gangl, Sihao Liu, Chih-Hao Lee
OBJECTIVE: Alternative activation (M2) of adipose tissue resident macrophage (ATM) inhibits obesity-induced metabolic inflammation. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have shown that dysregulated lipid homeostasis caused by increased lipolysis in white adipose tissue (WAT) in the obese state is a trigger of inflammatory responses. We investigated the role of M2 macrophages in lipotoxicity-induced inflammation. METHODS: We used microarray experiments to profile macrophage gene expression regulated by two M2 inducers, interleukin-4 (Il-4), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta/gamma (Pparδ/Pparγ) agonists...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031063/anticancer-properties-of-4-thiazolidinone-derivatives-depend-on-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE
#4
Konrad A Szychowski, Marcin L Leja, Danylo V Kaminskyy, Anna P Kryshchyshyn, Urszula E Binduga, Oleh R Pinyazhko, Roman B Lesyk, Jakub Tobiasz, Jan Gmiński
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in numerous chronic diseases such as diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and cancer, and PPAR modulators are among the approved drugs and drug-candidates for their treatment. The aim of this study was to elucidate the involvement of PPARs in the mechanism of cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic action of novel anticancer 4-thiazolidinone derivatives (Les-2194, Les-3377, Les-3640) and approved 4-thiazolidinones (Rosiglitazone, Pioglitazone) towards the human squamous carcinoma (SCC-15) cell line...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030253/polymorphisms-in-the-tfam-and-pgc1-%C3%AE-genes-and-their-association-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-among-south-indian-women
#5
Tumu Venkat Reddy, Suresh Govatati, Mamata Deenadayal, Sisinthy Shivaji, Manjula Bhanoori
We investigated the link between polymorphisms in genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) and further studied the role of these genes on the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study was carried out in 118 PCOS cases and 110 controls. In the present study we genotyped three polymorphisms of PGC1-α gene (rs8192678-Gly482Ser, rs13131226 and rs2970856) and polymorphism of TFAM gene (rs1937-+35G/C) by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis...
October 10, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025280/effects-of-prenatal-ppar-%C3%AE-agonist-rosiglitazone-exposure-on-rat-hippocampus-development-in-a-time-dependent-manner-a-stereological-and-histopathological-study
#6
D Sağır, B Eren, B D Yılmaz, Z Eren, O N Keleş, A B Gökçe
Rosiglitazone is in the thiazolidinedione class of drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It works as an insulin sensitizer by binding to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. We investigated the effects of prenatally administered rosiglitazone on pyramidal cell numbers and morphologies in the hippocampus at postnatal period using histochemical and stereological techniques, congenital morphological properties and the number of offspring in rats. Eighteen female rats were grouped into control (C), low-dose rosiglitazone (LDR) and high-dose rosiglitazone (HDR)...
January 1, 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022912/tenomodulin-is-essential-for-prevention-of-adipocyte-accumulation-and-fibrovascular-scar-formation-during-early-tendon-healing
#7
Dasheng Lin, Paolo Alberton, Manuel Delgado Caceres, Elias Volkmer, Matthias Schieker, Denitsa Docheva
Tenomodulin (Tnmd) is the best-known mature marker for tendon and ligament lineage cells. It is important for tendon maturation, running performance and has key implications for the resident tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSPCs). However, its exact functions during the tendon repair process still remain elusive. Here, we established an Achilles tendon injury model in a Tnmd knockout (Tnmd(-/-)) mouse line. Detailed analyses showed not only a very different scar organization with a clearly reduced cell proliferation and expression of certain tendon-related genes, but also increased cell apoptosis, adipocyte and blood vessel accumulation in the early phase of tendon healing compared with their wild-type (WT) littermates...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020601/pioglitazone-a-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-reduces-nicotine-craving-in-humans-with-marginal-effects-on-abuse-potential
#8
Jermaine D Jones, Sandra D Comer, Verena E Metz, Jeanne M Manubay, Shanthi Mogali, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Suky Martinez, Mudassir Mumtaz, Adam Bisaga
Possibly through their actions upon glia, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPAR) have been shown to alter the abuse potential of addictive drugs in several preclinical models. The current study extends this research into the human laboratory as the first clinical study into the effects of the PPAR gamma agonist, pioglitazone, on the abuse potential of nicotine. Heavy smokers were recruited for this 3-week study. Upon admission, participants were randomized to either active (45mg, n=14) or placebo (0mg, n=13) PIO maintenance conditions for the duration of the study...
October 8, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018784/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-inhibits-the-activation-of-stat3-in-cerulein-stimulated-pancreatic-acinar-cells
#9
Kyung Don Ju, Joo Weon Lim, Hyeyoung Kim
Cerulein-induced pancreatitis is similar to human edematous pancreatitis, characterized by the dysregulation of digestive enzyme production, edema formation, and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into the pancreas. We previously showed that the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/STAT3 pathway mediates inflammatory signaling in cerulein-stimulated pancreatic acinar cells. PPAR-γ has been implicated in the regulation of inflammatory responses in several cells. In the present study, we investigated the role of PPAR-γ in cerulein-induced activation of JAK2/STAT3 in pancreatic acinar cells...
September 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018345/involvement-of-ppar%C3%AE-in-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-ep-80317-a-ghrelin-receptor-antagonist
#10
Chiara Lucchi, Anna M Costa, Carmela Giordano, Giulia Curia, Marika Piat, Giuseppina Leo, Jonathan Vinet, Luc Brunel, Jean-Alain Fehrentz, Jean Martinez, Antonio Torsello, Giuseppe Biagini
Ghrelin, des-acyl ghrelin and other related peptides possess anticonvulsant activities. Although ghrelin and cognate peptides were shown to physiologically regulate only the ghrelin receptor, some of them were pharmacologically proved to activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) through stimulation of the scavenger receptor CD36 in macrophages. In our study, we challenged the hypothesis that PPARγ could be involved in the anticonvulsant effects of EP-80317, a ghrelin receptor antagonist...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017895/short-term-fructose-ingestion-affects-the-brain-independently-from-establishment-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
Alberto Jiménez-Maldonado, Zhe Ying, Hyae Ran Byun, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Chronic fructose ingestion is linked to the global epidemic of metabolic syndrome (MetS), and poses a serious threat to brain function. We asked whether a short period (one week) of fructose ingestion potentially insufficient to establish peripheral metabolic disorder could impact brain function. We report that the fructose treatment had no effect on liver/body weight ratio, weight gain, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, was sufficient to reduce several aspects of hippocampal plasticity. Fructose consumption reduced the levels of the neuronal nuclear protein NeuN, Myelin Basic Protein, and the axonal growth-associated protein 43, concomitant with a decline in hippocampal weight...
October 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975471/roles-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-on-brain-and-peripheral-inflammation
#12
REVIEW
Sonia Villapol
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has been implicated in the pathology of numerous diseases involving diabetes, stroke, cancer, or obesity. It is expressed in diverse cell types, including vessels, immune and glial cells, and neurons. PPARγ plays crucial roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, lipid metabolism, or glucose homeostasis. PPARγ ligands also exert effects on attenuating degenerative processes in the brain, as well as in peripheral systems, and it has been associated with the control of anti-inflammatory mechanisms, oxidative stress, neuronal death, neurogenesis, differentiation, and angiogenesis...
October 3, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974683/caspase-1-cleaves-ppar%C3%AE-for-potentiating-the-pro-tumor-action-of-tams
#13
Zhiyuan Niu, Qian Shi, Wenlong Zhang, Yuxin Shu, Nanfei Yang, Bing Chen, Qingsong Wang, Xuyang Zhao, Jiajia Chen, Nan Cheng, Xiujing Feng, Zichun Hua, Jianguo Ji, Pingping Shen
Tumor-associated macrophages are increasingly viewed as a target of great relevance in the tumor microenvironment, because of their important role in cancer progression and metastasis. However, the endogenous regulatory mechanisms underlying tumor-associated macrophage differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we report that caspase-1 promotes tumor-associated macrophage differentiation by cleaving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) at Asp64, thus generating a 41 kDa fragment. This truncated PPARγ translocates to mitochondria, where it directly interacts with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD)...
October 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972886/paeoniflorin-ameliorates-adriamycin-induced-nephrotic-syndrome-through-the-ppar%C3%AE-angptl4-pathway-in-vivo-and-vitro
#14
Ruirui Lu, Jie Zhou, Bihao Liu, Ning Liang, Yu He, Lixia Bai, Peichun Zhang, Yanchun Zhong, Yuan Zhou, Jiuyao Zhou
Paeoniflorin (PF), an effective composition that is extracted from Radix Paeoniae Alba, plays a role in protecting against various kidney diseases. However, the mechanism of PF on nephrotic syndrome (NS) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective role of PF on Adriamycin (ADR)-induced NS in vivo and vitro as well as its potential mechanism. In animal study, PF significantly decreased the levels of 24-h urine protein, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, total cholesterol and triglycerides in NS rats, but increased the total protein and albumin levels...
September 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969989/the-effects-of-pioglitazone-in-cirrhotic-rats-with-hepatopulmonary-syndrome
#15
Tsung-Yi Cheng, Wen-Shin Lee, Hui-Chun Huang, Fa-Yauh Lee, Ching-Chih Chang, Han-Chieh Lin, Shou-Dong Lee
BACKGROUND: Hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by oxygen desaturation and increased intrapulmonary shunting formation in cirrhosis. Due to an unclarified mechanism, there is still no effective therapy except liver transplantation. Recent studies revealed that pulmonary angiogenesis may participate in pathogenesis, in which nitric oxide (NO) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) play roles. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, exerts anti-angiogenesis effect...
September 29, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969026/increasing-ucp2-expression-and-decreasing-nox1-4-expression-maintain-chondrocyte-phenotype-by-reducing-reactive-oxygen-species-production
#16
Yansong Miao, Yuefu Dong, Ping Huang, Xiang Zhao, Zhenyu Huang, Jufang Yao, He Li, Qingrong Xu
The aim of this study is to demonstrate that improving the mitochondrial function can inhibite the loss of chondrocyte phenotype by regulating the expression of uncoupling protein 2(UCP2) and NADPH oxidase1/4(NOX1/4) to reduce the production of reactive oxygen species(ROS). The effects of mitochondrial biogenesis "master regular" peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM), UCP2, and NOX1/4 on chondrocyte phenotype was examined. It was found that when the chondrocyte phenotype was lost, PGC-1α, UCP2, and TFAM expression decreased, while NOX1/4 expression increased...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964868/the-neuroprotective-role-of-rosiglitazone-in-advanced-glycation-end-product-treated-human-neural-stem-cells-is-ppargamma-dependent
#17
Ming-Chang Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng, Christopher J Nicol, Chien-Hung Lin
Hyperglycemia is accompanied by an accelerated formation rate of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which is associated with the pathogenesis of diabetic neuronal deficits. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) belongs to a family of ligand-activated nuclear receptors and its ligands are known to control many physiological, pathological and inflammatory pathways. Weinvestigated the hypothesis that the PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) would abrogate AGEs-mediated neurotoxic effects on human neural stem cells (hNSCs), by whichAGEs may play a role in diabetic-related neuronal impairment...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964716/delayed-hair-follicle-morphogenesis-and-hair-follicle-dystrophy-in-a-lipoatrophy-mouse-model-of-pparg-total-deletion
#18
Chiara Sardella, Carine Winkler, Laure Quignodon, Jonathan A Hardman, Barbara Toffoli, Greta Maria Paola Giordano Attianese, Jennifer E Hundt, Liliane Michalik, Charles R Vinson, Ralf Paus, Béatrice Desvergne, Federica Gilardi
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) regulates multiple aspects of skin physiology, including sebocyte differentiation, keratinocyte proliferation, epithelial stem cell survival, adipocyte biology, and inflammatory skin responses. However, the effects of its global deletion, namely of non-redundant key functions of PPARγ signaling in mammalian skin, are yet unknown, due to embryonic lethality. Herein, we describe the skin and hair phenotype of a whole body PPARγ-null mouse (Pparg(Δ/Δ)), obtained by preserving PPARγ expression in the placenta...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960529/pro-arrhythmic-atrial-phenotypes-in-incrementally-paced-murine-pgc1%C3%AE-hearts-effects-of-age
#19
Haseeb Valli, Shiraz Ahmad, James A Fraser, Kamalan Jeevaratnam, Christopher L-H Huang
Atrial arrhythmias, most commonly manifesting as atrial fibrillation (AF), represent a major clinical problem. AF incidences increase with both age and conditions associated with energetic dysfunction. Atrial arrhythmic phenotypes were compared in young (12-16 week) and aged (>52 week), WT and peroxisome proliferator receptor gamma co-activator 1β-deficient (Pgc-1β(-/-) ), Langendorff-perfused hearts, previously used to model mitochondrial energetic disorder. Electrophysiological explorations were performed using simultaneous whole-heart electrocardiogram and intracellular atrial action potential (AP) recordings...
September 27, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955759/protocols-and-pitfalls-in-obtaining-fatty-acid-binding-proteins-for-biophysical-studies-of-ligand-protein-and-protein-protein-interactions
#20
Qian Wang, Samar Rizk, Cédric Bernard, May Poh Lai, David Kam, Judith Storch, Ruth E Stark
Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP: FABP4) is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family that is thought to target long-chain fatty acids to nuclear receptors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), which in turn plays roles in insulin resistance and obesity. A molecular understanding of AFABP function requires robust isolation of the protein in liganded and free forms as well as characterization of its oligomerization state(s) under physiological conditions...
July 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
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