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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

Jiangtong Peng, Yutian Li, Xiaohong Wang, Shan Deng, Jenna Holland, Emily Yates, Jing Chen, Haitao Gu, Kobina Essandoh, Xingjiang Mu, Boyu Wang, Robert K McNamara, Tianqing Peng, Anil G Jegga, Tiemin Liu, Takahisa Nakamura, Kai Huang, Diego Perez-Tilve, Guo-Chang Fan
Exposure to cold temperature is well known to upregulate heat shock protein (Hsp) expression and recruit and/or activate brown adipose tissue and beige adipocytes in humans and animals. However, whether and how Hsps regulate adipocyte function for energy homeostatic responses is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Hsp20 as a negative regulator of adipocyte function. Deletion of Hsp20 enhances non-shivering thermogenesis and suppresses inflammatory responses, leading to improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism under both chow diet and high-fat diet conditions...
June 19, 2018: Cell Reports
Yuan Xu, Yi-Fan Han, Bing Ye, Yin-Long Zhang, Jian-Da Dong, Shao-Jun Zhu, Jiong Chen
Chemotherapy is one of the most effective forms of cancer treatment. It has been widely used in the treatment of various malignant tumors. In order to investigate molecular mechanisms responsible for the chemoresistance of anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC), we established the doxorubicin (Dox) resistance of human ATC SW1736 and 8305C cells and named them SW1736/Dox and 8305C/Dox, respectively. We evaluated the expression of various micro-RNAs (miRNAs) between control and Dox-resistant ATC cells and found that the expression of miR-27b-3p was significantly increased in Dox-resistant ATC cells...
June 20, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
D Sathya Prabhu, V Devi Rajeswari
The agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) from natural victual products were used as antidiabetic agents. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is a consequential legume that was known to possess potential antidiabetic activity, whose mechanism of action was unknown. The current study was focused to ascertain gene expression of the nuclear receptor PPARγ by Faba bean pod extract in rat cell lines (RINm5F).The real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that Faba bean pod extract in concentrations of 160 µg/mL have shown 4...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Jessica A Deis, Hong Guo, Yingjie Wu, Chengyu Liu, David A Bernlohr, Xiaoli Chen
Lipocalin-2 (Lcn2) has been previously characterized as an adipokine regulating thermogenic activation of brown adipose tissue and retinoic acid (RA)-induced thermogenesis in mice. The objective of this study was to explore the role and mechanism for Lcn2 in the recruitment and retinoic acid-induced activation of brown-like or "beige" adipocytes. We found Lcn2 deficiency reduces key markers of thermogenesis including uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and inguinal adipocytes derived from Lcn2-/- mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Matteo Tardelli, Thierry Claudel, Francesca Virginia Bruschi, Michael Trauner
Nuclear receptors, such as the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha (PPAR-γ, -α), are major metabolic regulators in adipose tissue and the liver, where they govern lipid, glucose, and bile acid homeostasis, as well as inflammatory cascades. Glycerol and free fatty acids are the end products of lipid droplet catabolism driven by PPARs. Aquaporins (AQPs), a family of 13 small transmembrane proteins, facilitate the shuttling of water, urea, and/or glycerol...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew McPeek, Anagha Malur, Debra A Tokarz, Gina Murray, Barbara P Barna, Mary Jane Thomassen
Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), a ligand activated nuclear transcription factor, is constitutively expressed in alveolar macrophages of healthy individuals. PPARγ deficiencies have been noted in several lung diseases including the alveolar macrophages of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients. We have previously described a murine model of multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) induced pulmonary granulomatous inflammation which bears striking similarities to pulmonary sarcoidosis, including the deficiency of alveolar macrophage PPARγ...
June 13, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yuting Gu, Weiting Wei, Yiji Cheng, Bing Wan, Xinyuan Ding, Hui Wang, Yanyun Zhang, Min Jin
BACKGROUND: The activation and expansion of bipotent liver progenitor cells (LPCs) are indispensable for liver regeneration after severe or chronic liver injury. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating LPCs and LPC-mediated liver regeneration remain elusive. METHODS: Hepatic brain-expressed X-linked 1 (BEX1) expression was evaluated using microarray screening, real-time polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence. LPC activation and liver injury were studied following a choline-deficient, ethionine-supplemented (CDE) diet in wild-type (WT) and Bex1-/- mice...
June 15, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Chang-He Shi, Yuan Cheng, Mi-Bo Tang, Yu-Tao Liu, Zhi-Hua Yang, Fang Li, Yu Fan, Jing Yang, Yu-Ming Xu
Recently, five novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs10937625 in STK32B (serine/threonine kinase 32B), rs17590046 in PPARGC1A (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha), and rs12764057, rs10822974, and rs7903491 in CTNNA3 (catenin alpha 3), were found to be associated with increased risk of essential tremor (ET) in a genome-wide association study (GWAS)in individuals of Caucasian ancestry. Considering the overlap between ET and Parkinson's disease (PD) in pathological features and clinical manifestations, a case-control study comprising 546 PD patients and 550 control subjects was carried out to examine whether the same variants were also associated with PD in Chinese Han population...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jinyan Yun, Haiguo Jin, Yang Cao, Lichun Zhang, Yumin Zhao, Xin Jin, Yongsheng Yu
In this study, we performed high throughput RNA sequencing at the primary bovine preadipocyte (Day-0), mid-differentiation (Day-4), and differentiated adipocyte (Day-9) stages in order to characterize the transcriptional events regulating differentiation and function. The preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous fetal bovine adipose tissues and were differentiated into mature adipocytes. The adipogenic characteristics of the adipocytes were detected during various stages of adipogenesis (Day-0, Day-4, and Day-9)...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Julian Eigendorf, Marcus May, Jan Friedrich, Stefan Engeli, Norbert Maassen, Gerolf Gros, Joachim D Meissner
We present here a longitudinal study determining the effects of two 3 week-periods of high intensity high volume interval training (HIHVT) (90 intervals of 6 s cycling at 250% maximum power, Pmax /24 s) on a cycle ergometer. HIHVT was evaluated by comparing performance tests before and after the entire training (baseline, BSL, and endpoint, END) and between the two training sets (intermediate, INT). The mRNA expression levels of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms and markers of energy metabolism were analyzed in M...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Reinhard Brunmeir, Feng Xu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily and they are essential regulators of cell differentiation, tissue development, and energy metabolism. Given their central roles in sensing the cellular metabolic state and controlling metabolic homeostasis, PPARs became important targets of drug development for the management of metabolic disorders. The function of PPARs is mainly regulated through ligand binding, which induces structural changes, further affecting the interactions with co-activators or co-repressors to stimulate or inhibit their functions...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yinxin Zhang, Olof Stefan Dallner, Tomoyoshi Nakadai, Gulya Fayzikhodjaeva, Yi-Hsueh Lu, Mitchell A Lazar, Robert G Roeder, Jeffrey M Friedman
Leptin expression decreases after fat loss and is increased when obesity develops, and its proper quantitative regulation is essential for the homeostatic control of fat mass. We previously reported that a distant leptin enhancer 1 (LE1), 16 kb upstream from the transcription start site (TSS), confers fat-specific expression in a bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic (BACTG) reporter mouse. However, this and the other elements that we identified do not account for the quantitative changes in leptin expression that accompany alterations of adipose mass...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jinfang Zhao, Ruifeng Zhao, Ling Cheng, Jun Yang, Liangru Zhu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Defects in mucus and intestinal epithelia can lead to intestinal inflammation in colitis. Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ ) in the mucosa may contribute to inflammation. However, the roles of PPARγ in the intestinal barrier remain poorly understood. METHODS: Chronic colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 27 days. Three days before DSS treatment, mice were treated with the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (Ro) orally at 20 mg kg-1  day-1 ...
April 27, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
Dongshi Liang, Airong Huang, Yimei Jin, Miaomiao Lin, Xiaojiao Xia, Xiaoli Chen, Airong Huang
This study aimed to examine whether exogenous NaHS can protect myocardial mitochondrial injury from sepsis by enhancing the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC-1α)/ nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (NRF2) pathway and mitochondrial biosynthesis in mice. Animals were divided into sham-operated, sepsis, sepsis + 25 μmol/L NaHS, sepsis + 50 μmol/L NaHS, sepsis + 100 μmol/L NaHS, and sepsis + 200 μmol/L NaHS groups. The myocardial damage was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining for myocardial microstructure and serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) detection...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Junchi He, Han Liu, Jianjun Zhong, Zongduo Guo, Jingchuan Wu, Hongrong Zhang, Zhijian Huang, Li Jiang, Hui Li, Zhaosi Zhang, Liu Liu, Yue Wu, Lingjun Qi, Xiaochuan Sun, Chongjie Cheng
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes a high rate of mortality and disability worldwide, and there exists almost none effective drugs to protect against TBI. Neurotoxicity occurring after TBI can be derived from microglia and astrocytes, and causes neuronal death and synapse loss. Bexarotene has been demonstrated to protect neurons in CNS diseases. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the potential role of bexarotene in protecting against neurotoxicity after TBI, as well as the underlying mechanism. The controlled cortical impact (CCI) model was established on adult C57BL/6 mice, followed by intraperitoneal administration of bexarotene for 14 consecutive days...
June 7, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Pei-Chao Lin, Pi-Ling Chou, Shu-Fen Wung
AIMS: To derive a better understanding of the association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) rs1801282 polymorphisms and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in general and in racial and ethnic subgroups and to illustrate geographic distribution of the protective of G allele of rs1801282 in women with and without GDM. METHODS: ProQuest, PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Wanfang Data were systematically searched. Case-control studies on association between rs1801282 polymorphisms and GDM were selected...
June 6, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Alexandre Vallée, Bernard L Lévy, Jacques Blacher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Heterogeneous causes can determinate hypertension. RECENT FINDINGS: The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has a major role in the pathophysiology of blood pressure. Angiotensin II and aldosterone are overexpressed during hypertension and lead to hypertension development and its cardiovascular complications. In several tissues, the overactivation of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway leads to inactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), while PPARγ stimulation induces a decrease of the canonical WNT/β-catenin pathway...
June 9, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
Loïze Maréchal, Maximilien Laviolette, Amélie Rodrigue-Way, Baly Sow, Michèle Brochu, Véronique Caron, André Tremblay
Uncovering the biological role of nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has greatly advanced our knowledge of the transcriptional control of glucose and energy metabolism. As such, pharmacological activation of PPARγ has emerged as an efficient approach for treating metabolic disorders with the current use of thiazolidinediones to improve insulin resistance in diabetic patients. The recent identification of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRP) as potent inducers of PPARγ through activation of the scavenger receptor CD36 has defined a novel alternative to regulate essential aspects of lipid and energy metabolism...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Xinrui Xing, Si Chen, Ling Li, Yan Cao, Langdong Chen, Xiaobo Wang, Zhenyu Zhu
Purpose: This study aimed to identify the active components of Fuzheng Huayu (FZHY) formula and the mechanism by which they inhibit the viability of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by a combination of network pharmacology and transcriptomics. Methods: The active components of FZHY formula were screened out by text mining. Similarity match and molecular docking were used to predict the target proteins of these compounds. We then searched the STRING database to analyze the key enriched processes, pathways and related diseases of these target proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Debapriya Dutta, Kuan-Yu Lai, Adriana Reyes-Ordoñez, Jie Chen, Wilfred A van der Donk
Adipogenic differentiation is a highly regulated process that is necessary for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient sensing. The expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and the subsequent activation of adipogenic genes is critical for the process. In this study we identified lanthionine synthetase C-like protein 2 (LanCL2) as a positive regulator of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Knockdown of LanCL2, but not LanCL1, inhibited adipogenic differentiation, and this effect was not mediated through cAMP or Akt signaling pathways...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
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