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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230719/resveratrol-and-or-exercise-training-counteract-aging-associated-decline-of-physical-endurance-in-aged-mice-targeting-mitochondrial-biogenesis-and-function
#1
Marwa Hassan Muhammad, Mona Maher Allam
Mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased mitochondrial content are hallmarks of aging that leads to decreased physical endurance. Our aim was to explore the anti-aging effect of resveratrol (RSVT) supplementation, a polyphenol, and/or exercise training, started at an older age, on improving physical activity, therefore, help in frailty avoidance and promotion of healthy aging in elderly. Eighteen-month-old aged mice received RSVT (15 mg/kg/day) and/or exercise trained for 4 weeks showed significant longer time to exhaustion with decreased blood lactate and free fatty acids levels associated with improved oxidative stress evidenced by decreased gastrocnemius muscle lipid peroxidation and increased antioxidant enzymes activities, catalase and superoxide dismutase, when compared to aged mice control group...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230425/neuroprotective-potential-of-gentongping-in-rat-model-of-cervical-spondylotic-radiculopathy-targeting-ppar-%C3%AE-pathway
#2
Wen Sun, Kang Zheng, Bin Liu, Danping Fan, Hui Luo, Xiaoyuan Qu, Li Li, Xiaojuan He, Jianfeng Yi, Cheng Lu
Cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR) is the most general form of spinal degenerative disease and is characterized by pain and numbness of the neck and arm. Gentongping (GTP) granule, as a classical Chinese patent medicine, has been widely used in curing CSR, whereas the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the pharmacological mechanisms of GTP on CSR. The rat model of CSR was induced by spinal cord injury (SCI). Our results showed that GTP could significantly alleviate spontaneous pain as well as ameliorate gait...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223569/isolated-mangiferin-and-naringenin-exert-antidiabetic-effect-via-ppar%C3%AE-glut4-dual-agonistic-action-with-strong-metabolic-regulation
#3
Ashok K Singh, Vinit Raj, Amit K Keshari, Amit Rai, Pranesh Kumar, Atul Rawat, Biswanath Maity, Dinesh Kumar, Anand Prakash, Arnab De, Amalesh Samanta, Bolay Bhattacharya, Sudipta Saha
In this study, we isolated two compounds from the leaves of Salacia oblonga (SA1, mangiferin and SA2, naringenin), and their structures were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. SA1 and SA2 were orally administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at 50 and 100 mg/kg daily for 15 days. Blood glucose level, serum lipid profile, oxidative stress parameters, histopathology, docking, molecular parameters, and NMR-based metabolic perturbation studies were performed to investigate the pharmacological activities of SA1 and SA2...
December 6, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216630/rapamycin-promotes-the-survival-and-adipogenesis-of-ischemia-challenged-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-improving-autophagy
#4
Chichi Li, Lechi Ye, Li Yang, Xiaofang Yu, Yucang He, Zhuojie Chen, Liqun Li, Dan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ischemia is one of the main causes of the high rate of absorption of transplanted autologous fat. Autophagy allows cells to survive by providing energy under starvation. Rapamycin has been found to play a role in promoting autophagy. In this study, we investigated whether rapamycin participates in the survival and adipogenesis of ischemia-challenged adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) by regulating autophagy. METHODS: Before the cells were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), a simulated ischemic microenvironment, the level of autophagy was reduced or increased by lentiviral transfection with short hairpin RNA targeting microtubule-associated protein 1-light chain 3 gene (shRNA-LC3) or treatment with rapamycin, respectively...
December 6, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215198/inflammatory-signalling-regulates-eccentric-contraction-induced-protein-synthesis-in-cachectic-skeletal-muscle
#5
Justin P Hardee, Brittany R Counts, Song Gao, Brandon N VanderVeen, Dennis K Fix, Ho-Jin Koh, James A Carson
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle responds to eccentric contractions (ECC) with an anabolic response that involves the induction of protein synthesis through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. While we have reported that repeated ECC bouts after cachexia initiation attenuated muscle mass loss and inflammatory signalling, cachectic muscle's capacity to induce protein synthesis in response to ECC has not been determined. Therefore, we examined cachectic muscle's ability to induce mechano-sensitive pathways and protein synthesis in response to an anabolic stimulus involving ECC and determined the role of muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signalling on ECC-induced anabolic signalling...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203644/cited2-restrains-pro-inflammatory-macrophage-activation-and-response
#6
Gun-Dong Kim, Riku Das, Xiaoquan Rao, Jixin Zhong, Jeffrey A Deiuliis, Diana L Ramirez-Bergeron, Sanjay Rajagopalan, Ganapati H Mahabeleshwar
Macrophages are strategically distributed in mammalian tissues and play an essential role in priming immune response. However, macrophages need to constantly strike a balance between activation and inhibition state to avoid a futile inflammatory reaction. Herein, we identify the CBP/p300-interacting transactivator with glutamic acid/aspartic acid-rich carboxyl-terminal domain 2 (CITED2) as a potent repressor of macrophage pro-inflammatory activation. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that CITED2 is required for optimal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) activation and attendant select anti-inflammatory gene expression in macrophages...
December 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203092/efficacy-and-safety-of-pemafibrate-k-877-a%C3%A2-selective-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-modulator-in-patients-with-dyslipidemia-results-from-a-24-week-randomized-double-blind-active-controlled-phase-3-trial
#7
Shun Ishibashi, Hidenori Arai, Koutaro Yokote, Eiichi Araki, Hideki Suganami, Shizuya Yamashita
BACKGROUND: To overcome the concerns associated with the use of fibrates, pemafibrate (K-877), a novel selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulator, was developed. In a previous phase 2 trial, we showed excellent efficacy and safety of pemafibrate in patients with dyslipidemia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemafibrate over 24 weeks in adults with dyslipidemia in comparison with fenofibrate. METHODS: In this multicenter, 24-week, double-blind, clinical study, 225 patients with high triglyceride (TG; ≥150 mg/dL [1...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202521/-effects-of-astragalus-polysaccharides-on-adipogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-low-oxygen-environment
#8
Zhiwei Wu, Dan Liu, Yongqi Liu, Na Xue, Chunlu Yan, Yun Su
To study the effect of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) on adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured in hypoxic environment. The optimal APS concentration, which could promote the proliferation of BMSCs, was screened by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium method. The concentration was used to intervene in BMSCs-induced by adipogenic differentiation fluid growing in different oxygen concentrations (3%, 6%, 10% and 20%). The formation of lipid droplets in the BMSCs-intervened was observed by oil red O staining under the optical microscope...
November 25, 2017: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202114/dihydrosanguinarine-enhances-glucose-uptake-in-mouse-3t3-l1-cells
#9
Yit-Lai Chow, Yuko Iwata, Fumihiko Sato
Recently, more studies have aimed at identifying selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) modulators that transactivate the expression of PPARγ-dependent genes as partial agonists to improve diabetic symptoms with fewer side effects compared to classic PPARγ agonists such as thiazolidinediones. We found that dihydrosanguinarine (DHS) treatment induced preadipocyte differentiation and lipid droplet accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells, but this effect is weaker than that elicited by the full PPARγ agonist troglitazone...
October 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198236/acetate-alters-the-process-of-lipid-metabolism-in-rabbits
#10
C Fu, L Liu, F Li
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of acetate treatment on lipid metabolism in rabbits. New Zealand Rabbits (30 days, n=80) randomly received a subcutaneous injection (2 ml/injection) of 0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 g/kg per day body mass acetate (dissolved in saline) for 4 days. Our results showed that acetate induced a dose-dependent decrease in shoulder adipose (P0.05), acetate treatment significantly decreased the plasma adiponectin, insulin and triglyceride concentrations (P<0.05). In adipose, acetate injection significantly up-regulated the gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα), differentiation-dependent factor 1 (ADD1), adipocyte protein 2 (aP2), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), CPT2, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), G protein-coupled receptor (GPR41), GPR43, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α1 (AMPKα1), adiponectin receptor (AdipoR1), AdipoR2 and leptin receptor...
December 4, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198059/metabolic-effects-of-physiological-levels-of-caffeine-in-myotubes
#11
Jamie K Schnuck, Lacey M Gould, Hailey A Parry, Michele A Johnson, Nicholas P Gannon, Kyle L Sunderland, Roger A Vaughan
Caffeine has been shown to stimulate multiple major regulators of cell energetics including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Additionally, caffeine induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial biogenesis. While caffeine enhances oxidative metabolism, experimental concentrations often exceed physiologically attainable concentrations through diet. This work measured the effects of low-level caffeine on cellular metabolism and gene expression in myotubes, as well as the dependence of caffeine's effects on the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ)...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197521/high-phosphate-induced-downregulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-contributes-to-ckd-associated-vascular-calcification
#12
Liang Liu, Yong Liu, Ying Zhang, Xianjin Bi, Ling Nie, Chi Liu, Jiachuan Xiong, Ting He, Xinlin Xu, Yanlin Yu, Ke Yang, Jun Gu, Yunjian Huang, Jingbo Zhang, Zhiren Zhang, Bo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
Medial arterial calcification associated with hyperphosphatemia is a main cause of cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), but the mechanisms underlying high phosphate-induced vascular calcification remain largely unknown. Here, we observed a significant decrease in the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) in calcified arteries both in CKD patients and in a mouse model of CKD with hyperphosphatemia. In vitro, high phosphate treatment led to a decreased expression of PPARγ in mouse vascular smooth muscle cells (VMSCs), accompanied by apparent osteogenic differentiation and calcification...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197120/resveratrol-inhibits-obesity-associated-adipose-tissue-dysfunction-and-tumor-growth-in-a-mouse-model-of-postmenopausal-claudin-low-breast-cancer
#13
Emily L Rossi, Subreen A Khatib, Steven S Doerstling, Laura W Bowers, Melissa Pruski, Nikki A Ford, Randolph D Glickman, Mengmeng Niu, Peiying Yang, Zhengrong Cui, John DiGiovanni, Stephen D Hursting
Adipose tissue dysregulation, a hallmark of obesity, contributes to a chronic state of low-grade inflammation and is associated with increased risk and progression of several breast cancer subtypes, including claudin-low breast tumors. Unfortunately, mechanistic targets for breaking the links between obesity-associated adipose tissue dysfunction, inflammation, and claudin-low breast cancer growth have not been elucidated. Ovariectomized female C57BL/6 mice were randomized (n = 15/group) to receive a control diet, a diet-induced obesity (DIO) diet, or a DIO + resveratrol (0...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197071/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-agonists-for-preventing-recurrent-stroke-and-other-vascular-events-in-people-with-stroke-or-transient-ischaemic-attack
#14
REVIEW
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonists are insulin-sensitising drugs used for the treatment of insulin resistance. In addition to lowering glucose in diabetes, these drugs may also protect against hyperlipidaemia and arteriosclerosis, which are risk factors for stroke. This is an update of a review first published in January 2014 and subsequently updated in October 2015. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of PPAR-γ agonists in the secondary prevention of stroke and related vascular events for people with stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA)...
December 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196313/peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-ppar%C3%AE-is-central-to-the-initiation-and-propagation-of-human-angiomyolipoma-suggesting-its-potential-as-a-therapeutic-target
#15
Oren Pleniceanu, Racheli Shukrun, Dorit Omer, Einav Vax, Itamar Kanter, Klaudyna Dziedzic, Naomi Pode-Shakked, Michal Mark-Daniei, Sara Pri-Chen, Yehudit Gnatek, Hadas Alfandary, Nira Varda-Bloom, Dekel D Bar-Lev, Naomi Bollag, Rachel Shtainfeld, Leah Armon, Achia Urbach, Tomer Kalisky, Arnon Nagler, Orit Harari-Steinberg, Jack L Arbiser, Benjamin Dekel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190898/trimedazidine-alleviates-pulmonary-artery-banding-induced-acute-right-heart-dysfunction-and-activates-pras40-in-rats
#16
Yunshan Cao, Jiyang Song, Shutong Shen, Heling Fu, Xiang Li, Ying Xu, Aqian Wang, Xinli Li, Min Zhang
The molecular mechanism underlying acute right heart failure (RHF) is poorly understood. We used pulmonary artery banding (PAB) to induce acute RHF characterized by a rapid rise of right ventricular pressure, and then a decrease in right ventricular pressure along with a decrease in blood pressure right after banding. We found higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (βMHC) levels and lower alpha-myosin heavy chain (αMHC) levels in RHF rats than sham-operated rats. Hemodynamic indexes in rats with acute RHF were slightly improved by trimedazidine TMZ, a key inhibitor of fatty acid (FA) oxidation...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188895/supplementation-of-mussel-peptides-reduces-aging-phenotype-lipid-deposition-and-oxidative-stress-in-d-galactose-induce-aging-mice
#17
Y Zhou, Q Xu, Y Dong, S Zhu, S Song, S Sun
OBJECTIVES: Aging is associated with glucose and lipid metabolism disorder. We aimed to examine the effects of mussel peptides on protecting against aging by regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. METHODS: For the aging model, d-galactose (200 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 8-month-old mice for 8 weeks. Mussel peptides (1,000 mg/kg) were simultaneously administered by intragastric gavage. The glucose and lipid metabolism profiles, aging phenotype and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) expression in the liver and adipose tissue of ICR mice were measured...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185343/pyrroloquinoline-quinone-a-redox-active-o-quinone-stimulates-mitochondrial-biogenesis-by-activating-sirt1-pgc-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#18
Kazuhiro Saihara, Ryosuke Kamikubo, Kazuto Ikemoto, Koji Uchida, Mitsugu Akagawa
Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a redox-active o-quinone found in various foods and mammalian tissues, has received increasing attention in a number of health benefits due to its ability to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis. However, its underlying molecular mechanism remains incompletely understood. We have now established that the exposure of mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts to a physiologically relevant concentration of PQQ significantly stimulates the mitochondrial biogenesis. The exposure of NIH/3T3 cells to 10-100 nM PQQ for 48 h resulted in increased Mitotracker staining, the mitochondrial DNA content, and the mitochondrially-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MTCO1) protein...
November 29, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182484/ppar%C3%AE-regulates-mitochondrial-structure-and-function-and-hpasmc-proliferation
#19
Samantha M Yeligar, Bum-Yong Kang, Kaiser M Bijli, Jennifer M Kleinhenz, Tamara C Murphy, Gloria Torres, Alejandra San Martin, Roy L Sutliff, C Michael Hart
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder that causes significant morbidity and mortality despite existing therapies. PH pathogenesis is characterized by metabolic derangements that increase pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation and vascular remodeling. PH-associated decreases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) stimulate PASMC proliferation, and PPARγ in coordination with PPARγ coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) regulates mitochondrial gene expression and biogenesis...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181019/crosstalk-between-the-androgen-receptor-and-ppar-gamma-signaling-pathways-in-the-prostate
#20
REVIEW
Emuejevoke Olokpa, Patrice E Moss, LaMonica V Stewart
Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that play critical roles in the regulation of normal biological processes and several disease states. Of the nuclear receptors expressed within the prostate, the androgen receptor (AR) promotes the differentiation of prostatic epithelial cells and stimulates production of enzymes needed for liquefaction of semen. Multiple forms of AR also promote the growth of both early and late stage prostate cancers. As a result, drugs that target the AR signaling pathway are routinely used to treat patients with advanced forms of prostate cancer...
2017: PPAR Research
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