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Peroxisome proliferator activator gamma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346099/development-of-novel-cell-lines-for-high-throughput-screening-to-detect-estrogen-related-receptor-alpha-modulators
#1
Christina T Teng, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Jinghua Zhao, Ruili Huang, Menghang Xia, Negin Martin, Xiaohua Gao, Darlene Dixon, Scott S Auerbach, Kristine L Witt, B Alex Merrick
Estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα), the first orphan nuclear receptor discovered, is crucial for the control of cellular energy metabolism. ERRα and its coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α), are required for rapid energy production in response to environmental challenges. They have been implicated in the etiology of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. ERRα also plays a role in the pathogenesis of breast cancer. Identification of compounds that modulate ERRα signaling may elucidate environmental factors associated with these diseases...
January 1, 2017: SLAS Discov
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342874/activation-of-ppar%C3%AE-inhibits-pro-inflammatory-cytokines-production-by-upregulation-of-mir-124-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#2
Dan Wang, Liuyan Shi, Wei Xin, Jiancheng Xu, Jing Xu, Qi Li, Zhi Xu, Jianchun Wang, Guansong Wang, Wei Yao, Binfeng He, Yu Yang, Mingdong Hu
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and miR-124 have been reported to play important roles in regulation of inflammation. However, the underlying anti-inflammatory mechanisms remain not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression level of PPARγ is positively correlated with that of miR-124 in patients with sepsis. Activation of PPARγ upregulates miR-124 and in turn inhibits miR-124 target gene. PPARγ bound directly to PPRE in the miR-124 promoter region, and enhanced the promoter transcriptional activity...
March 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338991/mir-30e-is-negatively-regulated-by-myostatin-in-skeletal-muscle-and-is-functionally-related-to-fiber-type-composition
#3
Haixue Jia, Yixia Zhao, Tingting Li, Yong Zhang, Dahai Zhu
Myostatin (MSTN) negatively regulates skeletal myogenesis in which microRNAs (miRNAs) also play critical roles. Using miRNA microarrays of skeletal muscle from MSTN-knockout (MSTN-/-) mice, we recently showed that miR-431 is regulated by MSTN signaling. To identify additional miRNAs regulated by MSTN, we re-analyzed these miRNA arrays and validated their expression by quantitative RT-PCR. Herein, we demonstrated that miR-30e was significantly upregulated in skeletal muscle of MSTN-/- mice compared with that of the wild-type littermates...
March 17, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337143/anti-adipogenic-effects-and-mechanisms-of-ginsenoside-rg3-in-pre-adipocytes-and-obese-mice
#4
Longyun Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Xiaoyong Wang, Hongwei Si
Red or black ginseng has been reported more powerful than white/fresh ginseng in dealing with various diseases/conditions including obesity. The major reason is that heating/steaming, the process of making red or black ginseng, produces large amount of bioactive compounds including ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), which are trace in fresh or white ginseng. In the present study, Rg3 was applied both in pre-adipocytes and obese mice to investigate the anti-adipogenic effects and relevant mechanisms. Our results show that Rg3 dose-dependently inhibited cell differentiation both in 3T3-L1 cells (30, 50, and 100 μM) and human primary pre-adipocytes (10, 20, and 30 μM)...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336261/methane-rescues-retinal-ganglion-cells-and-limits-retinal-mitochondrial-dysfunction-following-optic-nerve-crush
#5
Ruobing Wang, Qinglei Sun, Fangzhou Xia, Zeli Chen, Jiangchun Wu, Yuelu Zhang, Jiajun Xu, Lin Liu
Secondary degeneration is a common event in traumatic central nervous system disorders, which involves neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction. Exogenous methane exerts the therapeutic effects in many organ injury. Our study aims to investigate the potential neuroprotection of methane in a rat model of optic nerve crush (ONC). Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ONC and administrated intraperitoneally with methane-saturated or normal saline (10 ml/kg) once per day for one week after ONC...
March 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333384/transcriptional-regulation-of-adipogenesis
#6
Paula Mota de Sá, Allison J Richard, Hardy Hang, Jacqueline M Stephens
Adipocytes are the defining cell type of adipose tissue. Once considered a passive participant in energy storage, adipose tissue is now recognized as a dynamic organ that contributes to several important physiological processes, such as lipid metabolism, systemic energy homeostasis, and whole-body insulin sensitivity. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms involved in its development and function is of great importance. Adipocyte differentiation is a highly orchestrated process which can vary between different fat depots as well as between the sexes...
March 16, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333151/fto-is-required-for-myogenesis-by-positively-regulating-mtor-pgc-1%C3%AE-pathway-mediated-mitochondria-biogenesis
#7
Xiaobo Wang, Ning Huang, Min Yang, Dandan Wei, Haoran Tai, Xiaojuan Han, Hui Gong, Jiao Zhou, Jianqiong Qin, Xiawei Wei, Honghan Chen, Tingting Fang, Hengyi Xiao
Global germ line loss of fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) gene results in both the reduction of fat mass and lean mass in mice. The role of FTO in adipogenesis has been proposed, however, that in myogenesis has not. Skeletal muscle is the main component of body lean mass, so its connection with FTO physiologic significance need to be clarified. Here, we assessed the impact of FTO on murine skeletal muscle differentiation by in vitro and in vivo experiments. We found that FTO expression increased during myoblasts differentiation, while the silence of FTO inhibited the differentiation; in addition, skeletal muscle development was impaired in skeletal muscle FTO-deficient mice...
March 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331449/cyclin-d1-in-the-liver-role-of-noncanonical-signaling-in-liver-steatosis-and-hormone-regulation
#8
Kelley G Núñez, Janet Gonzalez-Rosario, Paul T Thevenot, Ari J Cohen
BACKGROUND: Cyclin D1 is an important protein for cell cycle progression; however, functions independent of the cell cycle have been described in the liver. Cyclin D1 is also involved in DNA repair, is overexpressed in many cancers, and functions as a proto-oncogene. The lesser-known roles of Cyclin D1, specifically in hepatocytes, impact liver steatosis and hormone regulation in the liver. METHODS: A comprehensive search of PubMed was conducted using the keywords Cyclin D1, steatosis, lipogenesis, and liver transplantation...
2017: Ochsner Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330868/protein-arginine-methyltransferase-1-modulates-innate-immune-responses-through-regulation-of-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-dependent-macrophage-differentiation
#9
Irina Tikhanovich, Jie Zhao, Jody Olson, Abby Adams, Ryan Taylor, Brian Bridges, Laurie Marshall, Benjamin Roberts, Steven A Weinman
Arginine methylation is a common posttranslational modification that has been shown to regulate both gene expression and extranuclear signaling events. We recently reported defects in Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 (PRMT1) activity and arginine methylation in the livers of cirrhosis patients with a history of recurrent infections. To examine the role of PRMT1 in innate immune responses in vivo, we created a cell type specific knockout mouse model. We showed that myeloid specific PRMT1 knockout mice demonstrate higher proinflammatory cytokine production and a lower survival rate after cecal ligation and puncture...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322133/rosiglitazone-regulates-tlr4-and-rescues-ho-1-and-nrf2-expression-in-myometrial-and-decidual-macrophages-in-inflammation-induced-preterm-birth
#10
Leena Kadam, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Tara Mial, Hamid-Reza Kohan-Ghadr, Sascha Drewlo
INTRODUCTION: Elevated inflammation accounts for approximately 30% of preterm birth (PTB) cases. We previously reported that targeting the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) pathway reduced the incidence of PTB in the mouse model of endotoxin-induced PTB. The PPARγ has proven anti-inflammatory functions and its activation via rosiglitazone significantly downregulated the systemic inflammatory response and reduced PTB and stillbirth rate by 30% and 41%, respectively, in our model...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321247/investigations-on-binding-pattern-of-kinase-inhibitors-with-ppar%C3%AE-molecular-docking-molecular-dynamic-simulations-and-free-energy-calculation-studies
#11
Mohit Mazumder, Prija Ponnan, Umashankar Das, Samudrala Gourinath, Haseeb Ahmad Khan, Jian Yang, Meena Kishore Sakharkar
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a potential target for the treatment of several disorders. In view of several FDA approved kinase inhibitors, in the current study, we have investigated the interaction of selected kinase inhibitors with PPARγ using computational modeling, docking, and molecular dynamics simulations (MDS). The docked conformations and MDS studies suggest that the selected KIs interact with PPARγ in the ligand binding domain (LBD) with high positive predictive values...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320453/dysregulated-systemic-lymphocytes-affect-the-balance-of-osteogenic-adipogenic-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-local-irradiation
#12
Xiaoya Xu, Ruixia Li, Yi Zhou, Qiong Zou, Qiaoling Ding, Jinfeng Wang, Weifang Jin, Guoqiang Hua, Jianjun Gao
BACKGROUND: While it is known that irradiation can induce local and systemic bone loss over time, how focal irradiation induces systemic bone complications remains unclear. Immune cells are thought to be crucial to bone homeostasis, and abnormal immune cells lead to serious disruption of bone homeostasis, such as in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. This disruption primarily occurs due to inhibition of the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). METHODS: In this study, we detected local and systemic bone loss in trabecular bone by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and measurement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) expression in BMSCs using real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting...
March 20, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318397/baiba-does-not-regulate-ucp-3-expression-in-human-skeletal-muscle-as-a-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#13
Flor E Morales, Jeffrey S Forsse, Thomas L Andre, Sarah K McKinley-Barnard, Paul S Hwang, Ian G Anthony, Grant M Tinsley, Mike Spillane, Peter W Grandjean, Alejandro Ramirez, Darryn S Willoughby
OBJECTIVE: β-Aminoisobutyric acid (BAIBA) has shown to modulate uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 expression, which is mainly expressed in white adipose tissue; however, no studies to date have analyzed its potential effect on the main uncoupling protein of skeletal muscle, UCP-3. The main goal of this study was to assess the potential effect of acute aerobic exercise on serum BAIBA and skeletal muscle UCP-3. The secondary goal was to assess the potential involvement of the transcription factors proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), as well as free fatty acids (FFAs) in UCP-3 expression...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317895/upregulation-of-skeletal-muscle-pgc-1%C3%AE-through-the-elevation-of-cyclic-amp-levels-by-cyanidin-3-glucoside-enhances-exercise-performance
#14
Toshiya Matsukawa, Hideko Motojima, Yuki Sato, Shinya Takahashi, Myra O Villareal, Hiroko Isoda
Regular exercise and physical training enhance physiological capacity and improve metabolic diseases. Skeletal muscles require peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) in the process of their adaptation to exercise owing to PGC-1α's ability to regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, angiogenesis, and oxidative metabolism. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G) is a natural polyphenol and a nutraceutical factor, which has several beneficial effects on human health. Here, the effect of Cy3G on exercise performance and the underlying mechanisms involved were investigated...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303117/expression-patterns-and-correlations-with-metabolic-markers-of-zinc-transporters-zip14-and-znt1-in-obesity-and-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#15
Trine Maxel, Pernille Fog Svendsen, Kamille Smidt, Jesper Krogh Lauridsen, Birgitte Brock, Steen Bønlykke Pedersen, Jørgen Rungby, Agnete Larsen
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with infertility, increased androgen levels, and insulin resistance. In adipose tissue, zinc facilitates insulin signaling. Circulating zinc levels are altered in obesity, diabetes, and PCOS; and zinc supplementation can ameliorate metabolic disturbances in PCOS. In adipose tissue, expression of zinc influx transporter ZIP14 varies with body mass index (BMI), clinical markers of metabolic syndrome, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG). In this study, we investigated expression levels of ZIP14 and PPARG in subcutaneous adipose tissue of 36 PCOS women (17 lean and 19 obese women) compared with 23 healthy controls (7 lean and 16 obese women)...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301064/mitochondrial-biogenesis-in-neurodegeneration
#16
REVIEW
P Andy Li, Xiaolin Hou, Shaocai Hao
Mitochondria play a key role in energy production, calcium homeostasis, cell survival, and death. Adverse stimulations including neurodegenerative diseases may result in mitochondrial dynamic imbalance, free radical production, calcium accumulation, intrinsic cell death pathway activation and eventually cell death. Therefore, preserving or promoting mitochondrial function is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondrial biogenesis is a process by which new mitochondria are produced from existing mitochondria...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298922/interactions-between-ppar-gamma-and-the-canonical-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-in-type-2-diabetes-and-colon-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Yves Lecarpentier, Victor Claes, Alexandre Vallée, Jean-Louis Hébert
In both colon cancer and type 2 diabetes, metabolic changes induced by upregulation of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) may help account for the frequent association of these two diseases. In both diseases, PPAR gamma is downregulated while the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway is upregulated. In colon cancer, upregulation of the canonical Wnt system induces activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase and deactivation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex...
2017: PPAR Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294376/influence-of-the-pharmacokinetic-profile-on-the-plasma-glucose-lowering-effect-of-ppar%C3%AE-agonist-pioglitazone-in-wistar-fatty-rats
#18
Akihiko Goto, Yoshihiko Tagawa, Yoshiaki Kimura, Akifumi Kogame, Yuu Moriya, Nobuyuki Amano
Although the mechanism of action for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists has been extensively explored, the impact of the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile on the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of PPARγ agonists has not been elucidated in detail. We evaluated the importance of the PK profile of PPARγ agonist for its PD effect based on population PK/PD analysis. Pioglitazone hydrochloride, the PPARγ agonist, was administered orally to Wistar fatty rats once a day (qd) or once every other day (q2d) as double the amount for the qd treatment...
March 11, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289761/a-new-biochromatography-model-based-on-dna-origami-assembled-ppar%C3%AE-construction-and-evaluation
#19
Jie Zhou, Lingchang Meng, Chong Sun, Shanshan Chen, Fang Sun, Pei Luo, Yongxing Zhao
As drug targets, receptors have potential to screen drugs. Silica is an attractive support to immobilize receptors; however, the lack of biocompatibility makes it easier for receptors to lose bioactivity, which remains an obstacle to its widespread use. With the advantage of biocompatibility, DNA origami can be used as a biological carrier to improve the biocompatibility of silica and assemble receptors. In this study, a new biochromatography model based on DNA origami was constructed. A large quantity of M13ssDNA was used as a scaffold, leading to significant costs, so M13ssDNA was self-produced from the bacteriophage particles...
March 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286268/resveratrol-rescues-cadmium-induced-mitochondrial-injury-by-enhancing-transcriptional-regulation-of-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-sod2-via-the-sirt3-foxo3a-pathway-in-tcmk-1-cells
#20
Beibei Fu, Jiamin Zhao, Wei Peng, Haibo Wu, Yong Zhang
Resveratrol has been reported to ameliorate Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. However, the beneficial effects of resveratrol on Cd-induced nephrotoxicity and the underlying mechanisms of this protection remain unclear. Here, we showed that mouse renal tubular epithelial (TCMK-1) cells exposed to Cd experienced significantly increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production, as well as decreased mitochondrial biogenesis and function. Cd exposure dramatically decreased Sirt3 protein expression and activity and promoted the acetylation of forkhead box O3 (FoxO3a)...
April 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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