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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109910/induction-of-neuroendocrine-differentiation-in-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-cells-by-adipocyte-differentiation-related-protein-adrp-delivered-by-exosomes
#1
Li-Chiung Lin, Allen C Gao, Chih-Ho Lai, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Ho Lin
Although overall mortality rate of prostate cancer (PCa) declines in recent years, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains incurable. Clinical evidence indicates that CRPC recurred from hormonal therapy exhibits neuroendocrine differentiated (NED) phenotypes, which could contribute to therapeutic resistance and poor survival. Understanding the onset of NED could lead us to develop new therapeutic strategies for CRPC. Although PCa is known as a lipid-enriched tumor, its role in CRPC development is not fully understood...
January 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109294/probing-the-intermolecular-interactions-of-ppar%C3%AE-lbd-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-their-anti-inflammatory-metabolites-to-infer-most-potential-binding-moieties
#2
Shalini Muralikumar, Umashankar Vetrivel, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: PPARγ is an isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to a super family of nuclear receptors. PPARγ receptor is found to play a crucial role in the modulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Its commotion has been reported to play a significant role in a broad spectrum of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and in some cancers. Hence, PPARγ is an important therapeutic target. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites (henceforth referred to as bioactive lipids) are known to function as agonists of PPARγ...
January 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108554/genome-wide-analysis-of-lncrna-and-mrna-expression-during-differentiation-of-abdominal-preadipocytes-in-the-chicken
#3
Tao Zhang, Xiangqian Zhang, Kunpeng Han, Genxi Zhang, Jinyu Wang, Kaizhou Xie, Qian Xue
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) regulate adipogenesis and other processes associated with metabolic tissue development and function. However, little is known about the function and profile of lncRNAs during preadipocyte differentiation in the chicken (Gallus gallus). Herein, lncRNA and mRNA expression in preadipocytes at different stages of differentiation were analyzed using RNA sequencing. A total of 1,300,074,528 clean reads and 27,023 novel lncRNAs were obtained from 12 samples. The number of genes (1,336 lncRNAs and 1,759 mRNAs; 3,095 in total) differentially expressed across various stages declined as differentiation progressed...
January 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108339/transcriptome-analysis-of-the-effect-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-against-vibrio-vulnificus-infection-in-oreochromis-niloticus
#4
Chieh-Yu Pan, Yu-Hao Liu, Hong-Yi Gong, Jyh-Yih Chen
Vibrio vulnificus infection causes severe economic losses in Oreochromis niloticus aquaculture by inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, that lead to inflammation and mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids, such as Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), have been reported for their anti-inflammatory and antibacterial abilities in murine and zebrafish models. However, the anti-inflammatory and antibacterial functions of DHA and EPA in commercial aquaculture organisms such as Oreochromis niloticus remain unknown...
January 17, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107769/the-transcriptional-modulator-ifrd1-controls-pgc-1%C3%AE-expression-under-short-term-adrenergic-stimulation-in-brown-adipocytes
#5
Gyujin Park, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Kanayama, Kazuya Fukasawa, Takashi Iezaki, Yuki Onishi, Kakeru Ozaki, Yukari Nakamura, Yukio Yoneda, Takeshi Takarada, Eiichi Hinoi
Sympathetic tone activates the function of classical brown adipocytes, which constitutively exist in the brown adipose tissue, and inducible brown adipocytes (so-called beige adipocytes), which sporadically reside within the white adipose tissue. Here we identified the transcriptional modulator interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) as a negative regulator of thermogenic and mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipocytes. Ifrd1 expression was markedly induced by cold exposure and administration of CL-316243 (a β3 adrenergic agonist) in interscapular brown adipose and inguinal subcutaneous white adipose tissues, but not in epididymal visceral white adipose tissue, in vivo...
January 20, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105139/baicalin-promotes-cholesterol-efflux-by-regulating-the-expression-of-sr-bi-in-macrophages
#6
Renchao Yu, Yuexia Lv, Juanling Wang, Nana Pan, Rui Zhang, Xiaxia Wang, Haichu Yu, Lijuan Tan, Yunhe Zhao, Bo Li
Intake of a high dosage of baicalin has previously been shown to attenuate hyperlipidemia induced by a high-fat diet. Baicalin functions as an activator of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), which is the key regulator of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that baicalin could promote cholesterol efflux in macrophages through activating PPAR-γ. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated THP-1 cells were treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein and ((3)H)-cholesterol for 24 h, and the effects of baicalin on cholesterol efflux were evaluated in the presence of apolipoprotein A-1 (ApoA-1), or high-density lipoprotein subfraction 2 (HDL2) or subfraction 3 (HDL3)...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105120/effects-of-curcumin-on-the-apoptosis-of-cardiomyocytes-and-the-expression-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ppar-%C3%AE-and-bcl-2-in-rats-with-myocardial-infarction-injury
#7
Feng-Hua Lv, Hong-Lei Yin, Yi-Qun He, Hui-Min Wu, Juan Kong, Xiao-Yan Chai, Su-Rong Zhang
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the protective effect of curcumin on myocardial injury in rats as well as the mechanisms underlying these effects, and examined the expression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) following myocardial infarction. A rat model of myocardial infarction was successfully established. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed cellular atrophy and hyperchromatic cytoplasm in the myocardial infarction area...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104917/overexpression-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-3b-bmp-3b-in-adipose-tissues-protects-against-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#8
J Hino, M Nakatani, Y Arai, K Tsuchida, M Shirai, M Miyazato, K Kangawa
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein-3b (BMP-3b) is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily and has several activities that differ from those of other BMPs. We previously found that BMP-3b is highly expressed in adipocytes, its level is increased during obesity, and it inhibits adipogenesis by suppressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) in vitro. However, the function of BMP-3b in adipose tissues in vivo remains unknown. METHODS: To determine the role of BMP-3b overexpression in adipose tissues in vivo, we generated transgenic mice (BMP-3b Tg) by using a conditional overexpression approach in fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-expressing adipocytes...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104448/metformin-and-low-dose-radiation-modulates-cisplatin-induced-oxidative-injury-in-rat-via-ppar-%C3%AE-and-mapk-pathways
#9
Heba H Mansour, Shereen M El Kiki, Shereen M Galal
: Cisplatin (CIS) is a chemotherapeutic agent used for therapy of many tumors and has been limited by its toxicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B(NFkB) in the pathogenesis of hepatic damage induced by CIS, and investigated the modulatory effect of metformin (MET) and/or low dose gamma radiation (LDR) on CIS-induced hepatotoxicity in rats...
January 16, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103941/involvement-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-physiological-response-to-transient-common-carotid-artery-occlusion-and-reperfusion
#10
Marina Quartu, Laura Poddighe, Tiziana Melis, Maria Pina Serra, Marianna Boi, Sara Lisai, Gianfranca Carta, Elisabetta Murru, Laura Muredda, Maria Collu, Sebastiano Banni
BACKGROUND: The transient global cerebral hypoperfusion/reperfusion achieved by induction of Bilateral Common Carotid Artery Occlusion followed by Reperfusion (BCCAO/R) may trigger a physiological response in an attempt to preserve tissue and function integrity. There are several candidate molecules among which the endocannabinoid system (ECS) and/or peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-alpha) may play a role in modulating oxidative stress and inflammation. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether the ECS, the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and PPAR-alpha are involved during BCCAO/R in rat brain, and to identify possible markers of the ongoing BCCAO/R-induced challenge in plasma...
January 19, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103427/repeated-maximal-intensity-hypoxic-exercise-superimposed-to-hypoxic-residence-boosts-skeletal-muscle-transcriptional-responses-in-elite-team-sport-athletes
#11
Franck Brocherie, Grégoire P Millet, Gommaar D'Hulst, Ruud Van Thienen, Louise Deldicque, Olivier Girard
AIM: To determine whether repeated maximal-intensity hypoxic exercise induces larger beneficial adaptations on the hypoxia inducible factor-1α pathway and its target genes than similar normoxic exercise, when combined with chronic hypoxic exposure. METHODS: Lowland elite male team-sport athletes underwent 14 days of passive normobaric hypoxic exposure (≥14 h.day(-1) at Fi O2 14.5-14.2%) with the addition of six maximal-intensity exercise sessions either in normobaric hypoxia (Fi O2 ~14...
January 19, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100650/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-suppresses-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-expression-via-both-smad-binding-and-novel-tgf-%C3%AE-inhibitory-elements
#12
Sowmya P Lakshmi, Aravind T Reddy, Raju C Reddy
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) contributes to wound healing and, when dysregulated, to pathological fibrosis. TGF-β and the anti-fibrotic nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) repress each other's expression, and such PPARγ downregulation is prominent in fibrosis and mediated, via previously unknown mechanisms, by SMAD signaling. Here we show that TGF-β induces association of SMAD3 with both SMAD4, needed for translocation of the complex into the nucleus, and the essential context-sensitive corepressors E2F4 and p107...
January 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099600/dhea-and-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia-molecular-and-physiopathological-mechanisms
#13
Neide Kalil Gaspar
The transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) promotes fibrosis, differentiating epithelial cells and quiescent fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and increasing expression of extracellular matrix. Recent investigations have shown that PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor*) is a negative regulator of fibrotic events induced by TGFβ1. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an immunomodulatory hormone essential for PPAR functions, and is reduced in some processes characterized by fibrosis. Although scarring alopecia characteristically develops in the female biological period in which occurs decreased production of DHEA, there are no data in the literature relating its reduction to fibrogenic process of this condition...
November 2016: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099154/vitamin-k-epoxide-reductase-regulation-of-androgen-receptor-activity
#14
Ben Yi Tew, Teresa B Hong, Maya Otto-Duessel, Catherine Elix, Egbert Castro, Miaoling He, Xiwei Wu, Sumanta K Pal, Markus Kalkum, Jeremy O Jones
Long-term use of warfarin has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer. Warfarin belongs to the vitamin K antagonist class of anticoagulants, which inhibit vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR). The vitamin K cycle is primarily known for its role in γ-carboxylation, a rare post-translational modification important in blood coagulation. Here we show that warfarin inhibits the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor (AR), an important driver of prostate cancer development and progression...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099124/browning-of-white-adipose-tissue-lessons-from-experimental-models
#15
Thereza Cristina Lonzetti Bargut, Vanessa Souza-Mello, Marcia Barbosa Aguila, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda
Beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes are present in white adipose tissue (WAT) and have a white fat-like phenotype that when stimulated acquires a brown fat-like phenotype, leading to increased thermogenesis. This phenomenon is known as browning and is more likely to occur in subcutaneous fat depots. Browning involves the expression of many transcription factors, such as PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, and of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, which is the hallmark of thermogenesis...
January 18, 2017: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098910/hydrogen-rich-saline-improves-non%C3%A2-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-alleviating-oxidative-stress-and-activating-hepatic-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#16
Xiao Zhai, Xiao Chen, Jiancan Lu, Yaping Zhang, Xuejun Sun, Qin Huang, Qijin Wang
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a range of liver diseases, between steatosis and non‑alcoholic steatohepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which are closely associated with diabetes mellitus. Previous studies have indicated that oxidative stress is a key factor in the development of NAFLD. Molecular hydrogen (H2) may ameliorate oxidative stress injuries by selectively neutralizing peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals. The present study evaluated the effects of H2 on NAFLD in rats and concluded that H2‑rich saline had significant therapeutic effects on NAFLD induced by hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, as demonstrated by hematoxylin and eosin and terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098516/germacrone-attenuates-hyperlipidemia-and-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6j-mice
#17
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
We previously showed that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) reduced body weight gain and serum and liver lipid levels and significantly suppressed serum insulin and leptin concentrations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent of ASE. In this study, we hypothesized that GM can attenuate hyperlipidemia by alleviating fatty acid (FA) synthesis/uptake and improve lipid metabolism by stimulating FA β-oxidation in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098353/the-role-of-various-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptors-and-their-ligands-in-clinical-practice
#18
REVIEW
Giuseppe Derosa, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Pamela Maffioli
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in several physiological processes including modulation of cellular differentiation, development, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to examine how different PPAR ligands act, and discuss their use in clinical practice. PPAR ligands have a lot of effects and applications in clinical practice. Some PPAR ligands such as fibrates (PPAR-α ligands) are currently used for the treatment of dyslipidemia, while pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ ligands) are anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing agents...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097454/in-vitro-cytogenetic-toxicity-of-bezafibrate-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes
#19
M Topaktas, N E Kafkas, S Sadighazadi, E S Istifli
Bezafibrate (BF) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist used as a lipid-lowering agent to treat both the familial or acquired combined forms of hyperlipidemia. BF is the only available fibrate drug that acts on all PPAR subtypes of α, β, and δ. Although there are studies that indicate a genotoxic potential associated with the use of fibrates, to our knowledge, the genotoxicity of BF in human peripheral blood lymphocytes has not been studied. In the present study, the genotoxic potential of BF was evaluated using chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) assays in peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy human subjects...
January 17, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097239/metastasis-regulation-by-ppard-expression-in-cancer-cells
#20
Xiangsheng Zuo, Weiguo Xu, Min Xu, Rui Tian, Micheline J Moussalli, Fei Mao, Xiaofeng Zheng, Jing Wang, Jeffrey S Morris, Mihai Gagea, Cathy Eng, Scott Kopetz, Dipen M Maru, Asif Rashid, Russell Broaddus, Daoyan Wei, Mien-Chie Hung, Anil K Sood, Imad Shureiqi
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARD) is upregulated in many major human cancers, but the role that its expression in cancer cells has in metastasis remains poorly understood. Here, we show that specific PPARD downregulation or genetic deletion of PPARD in cancer cells significantly repressed metastasis in various cancer models in vivo. Mechanistically, PPARD promoted angiogenesis via interleukin 8 in vivo and in vitro. Analysis of transcriptome profiling of HCT116 colon cancer cells with or without genetic deletion of PPARD and gene expression patterns in The Cancer Genome Atlas colorectal adenocarcinoma database identified novel pro-metastatic genes (GJA1, VIM, SPARC, STC1, SNCG) as PPARD targets...
January 12, 2017: JCI Insight
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