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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734517/tuberculosis-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Tania A Thomas
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the leading cause of death worldwide from a single bacterial pathogen. The World Health Organization estimates that annually 1 million children have tuberculosis (TB) disease and many more harbor a latent form. Accurate estimates are hindered by under-recognition and challenges in diagnosis. To date, an accurate diagnostic test to confirm TB in children does not exist. Treatment is lengthy but outcomes are generally favorable with timely initiation. With the End TB Strategy, there is an urgent need for improved diagnostics and treatment to prevent the unnecessary morbidity and mortality from TB in children...
August 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733429/proteogenomic-analysis-and-discovery-of-immune-antigens-in-mycobacterium-vaccae
#2
Jianhua Zheng, Lihong Chen, Liguo Liu, Haifeng Li, Bo Liu, Dandan Zheng, Tao Liu, Jie Dong, Lilian Sun, Yafang Zhu, Jian Yang, Xiaobing Zhang, Qi Jin
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, especially in developing countries. Neonatal BCG vaccination occurs in various regions, but the level of protection varies in different populations. Recently, Mycobacterium vaccae is found to be an immunomodulating therapeutic agent that could confer a significant level of protection against TB. It is the only vaccine in a phase III trial from WHO to assess its efficacy and safety in preventing TB disease in people with latent TB infection. However, the mechanism of immunotherapy of M...
July 21, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730222/tuberculosis-and-its-particularities-in-romania-and-worldwide
#3
Floarea Mimi NiŢu, Mihai Olteanu, Costin Teodor Streba, Gabriela Jimborean, Paraschiva Postolache, Milena Adina Man, Antigona Carmen Trofor, Roxana Maria Nemeş, Livia Dragonu, Mădălina Olteanu
Tuberculosis (TB) is a global health issue, with a rising incidence since the beginning of this century. It poses a severe mortality risk and also poses a serious economic risk as it reduces the working capacity of an individual in the most productive part of life. Developing countries face widespread tuberculosis infection - up to 95% of all cases and 98% of deaths, respectively. It is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (the Koch bacillus) that can be contracted from either humans or animal hosts...
2017: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724374/cost-effectiveness-of-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-among-hiv-infected-patients-clinicaly-screened-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-a-prospective-cohort-study
#4
Grace A Shayo, Dereck Chitama, Candida Moshiro, Said Aboud, Muhammad Bakari, Ferdinand Mugusi
BACKGROUND: One of the reasons why Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for Tuberculosis (TB) is not widely used in low income countries is concerns on cost of excluding active TB. We analyzed the cost-effectiveness of IPT provision in Tanzania having ruled out active TB by a symptom-based screening tool. METHODS: Data on IPT cost-effectiveness was prospectively collected from an observational cohort study of 1283 HIV-infected patients on IPT and 1281 controls; followed up for 24 months...
July 19, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723348/central-serotonin-attenuates-lps-induced-systemic-inflammation
#5
Clarissa M D Mota, Caroline Rodrigues-Santos, Rodrigo A R Fernández, Ruither O G Carolino, José Antunes-Rodrigues, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, Luiz G S Branco
Serotonin (5-HT) is a neuromodulator involved in several central-mediated mechanisms, such as endocrine processes, behavior, and sleep. Dysfunction of the serotonergic system is mainly linked to psychiatric disorders, but emerging evidence suggests that immune system activation may also alter brain 5-HT signaling. However, whether central 5-HT modulates systemic inflammation (SI) remains unknown. For this purpose, male Wistar rats (280-350 g, 8-9 weeks) were submitted to the experimental protocols beginning between 9 and 10 AM with the performance of injections...
July 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719264/the-human-microbiome-in-the-fight-against-tuberculosis
#6
Madeleine R Wood, Elaine A Yu, Saurabh Mehta
AbstractThe human microbiome is an intriguing potentially modifiable risk factor in our arsenal against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the leading infectious disease killer globally. Previous studies have shown associations between the human microbiome and pulmonary disease states; however, etiological links between the microbiome and tuberculosis (TB) infection or disease remain unclear. Immunomodulatory roles of the microbiome may prove to be a critical asset in the host response against TB, including in preventing TB infection, reducing progression from latency, mitigating disease severity, and lowering the incidence of drug resistance and coinfections...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718777/an-assembly-and-interaction-of-upconversion-and-plasmonic-nanoparticles-on-organometallic-nanofibers-enhanced-multicolor-upconversion-downshifting-emission-and-plasmonic-effect
#7
Priyam Singh, Praveen Kumar Shahi, Rajiv Prakash, S B Rai
We herein present a novel inorganic-organic hybrid nanoparticle (HNPs) constituted of inorganic NPs, NaY0.78Er0.02Yb0.2F4, and organometallic nanofiber, Tb(ASA)3Phen (TAP). The X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared absorption and TEM analyse reveal that, the prepared ultrafine upconversion nanoparticles {UCNPs (6-9 nm)} are dispersed on the surface of TAP nanofibers. We observe that addition of TAP in UCNPs, effectively prevents the surface quenching to boost the UC intensity and enables tuning of UC emission from green to red region by controlling the phonon frequency around Er3+ ion...
July 18, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715935/new-findings-of-toll-like-receptors-involved-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Majid Faridgohar, Hassan Nikoueinejad
Tuberculosis (TB), an important issue in the present age, affects millions of people each year. The infectious agent of TB, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), interacts with the immune system which prevents the development of this bacterium as much as possible. In fact, the receptors on the surface of immune cells identify the bacteria, one of which is Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Different TLRs including 2, 4, 9 and 8 play critical roles in tuberculosis infection. In this paper, we focused on the role of TLRs which interact with different components of Mtb and, consequently, prevent the entrance and influence of bacteria on the body...
July 17, 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715439/knowledge-attitude-and-perceived-stigma-towards-tuberculosis-among-pastoralists-do-they-differ-from-sedentary-communities-a-comparative-cross-sectional-study
#9
Bezawit Temesgen Sima, Tefera Belachew, Fekadu Abebe
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia is ninth among the world high tuberculosis (TB) burden countries, pastoralists being the most affected population. However, there is no published report whether the behavior related to TB are different between pastoralist and the sedentary communities. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to assess the pastoralist community knowledge, attitude and perceived stigma towards tuberculosis and their health care seeking behavior in comparison to the neighboring sedentary communities and this may help to plan TB control interventions specifically for the pastoralist communities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711989/striking-the-right-immunological-balance-prevents-progression-of-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Shachi Pranjal Vyas, Ritobrata Goswami
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) caused by infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a major burden for human health worldwide. Current standard treatments for TB require prolonged administration of antimycobacterial drugs leading to exaggerated inflammation and tissue damage. This can result in the reactivation of latent TB culminating in TB progression. Thus, there is an unmet need to develop therapies that would shorten the duration of anti-TB treatment and to induce optimal protective immune responses to control the spread of mycobacterial infection with minimal lung pathology...
July 15, 2017: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711659/exercise-initiated-after-the-onset-of-insulin-resistance-improves-trabecular-microarchitecture-and-cortical-bone-biomechanics-of-the-tibia-in-hyperphagic-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#11
Laura C Ortinau, Melissa A Linden, Rebecca K Dirkes, R Scott Rector, Pamela S Hinton
The present study extends our previous findings that exercise, which prevents the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D), also prevents the detrimental effects of T2D on whole-bone and tissue-level strength. Our objective was to determine whether exercise improves bone's structural and material properties if insulin resistance is already present in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The OLETF rat is hyperphagic due to a loss-of-function mutation in cholecystokinin-1 receptor (CCK-1 receptor), which leads to progressive obesity, insulin resistance and T2D after the majority of skeletal growth is complete...
July 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711483/a-multistage-subunit-vaccine-effectively-protects-mice-against-primary-progressive-tuberculosis-latency-and-reactivation
#12
Jilei Ma, Xindong Teng, Xiaochun Wang, Xionglin Fan, Yaqi Wu, Maopeng Tian, Zijie Zhou, Longmeng Li
Adult tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of TB epidemic and death. The infection results mainly by endogenous reactivation of latent TB infection and secondarily transmitted by exogenous infection. There is no vaccine for adult TB. To this end, we first chose antigens from a potential antigenic reservoir. The antigens strongly recognized T cells from latent and active TB infections that responded to antigens expressed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultured under different metabolic states. Fusions of single-stage polyprotein CTT3H, two-stage polyprotein A1D4, and multistage CMFO were constructed...
July 8, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710848/breaking-transmission-with-vaccines-the-case-of-tuberculosis
#13
Jesus Gonzalo-Asensio, Nacho Aguilo, Dessislava Marinova, Carlos Martin
Members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) have evolved causing tuberculosis (TB) in different mammalian hosts. MTBC ecotypes have adapted to diverse animal species, with M. bovis being the most common cause of TB in livestock. Cattle-to-human transmission of M. bovis through ingestion of raw milk was common before introduction of the pasteurization process. TB in humans is mainly caused by M. tuberculosis. This bacterium is considered a genetically clonal pathogen that has coevolved with humans due to its ability to manipulate and subvert the immune response...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706448/genotypic-distribution-of-multidrug-resistant-and-extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-northern-thailand
#14
Risara Jaksuwan, Prasit Tharavichikul, Jayanton Patumanond, Charoen Chuchottaworn, Sakarin Chanwong, Saijai Smithtikarn, Jongkolnee Settakorn
BACKGROUND: Multidrug/extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) is a major public health problem, and early detection is important for preventing its spread. This study aimed to demonstrate the distribution of genetic site mutation associated with drug resistance in M/XDR-TB in the northern Thai population. METHODS: Thirty-four clinical MTB isolates from M/XDR-TB patients in the upper northern region of Thailand, who had been identified for drug susceptibility using the indirect agar proportion method from 2005 to 2012, were examined for genetic site mutations of katG, inhA, and ahpC for isoniazid (INH) drug resistance and rpoB for rifampicin (RIF) drug resistance...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703045/the-role-of-human-host-genetics-in-tuberculosis-resistance
#15
Craig Kinnear, Eileen G Hoal, Haiko Schurz, Paul D van Helden, Marlo Möller
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem: the latest estimate of new incident cases per year is a staggering 10.4 million. Despite this overwhelming number, the majority of the immunocompetent population can control infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The human genome underlies the immune response and contributes to the outcome of TB infection. Areas covered: Investigations of TB resistance in the general population have closely mirrored those of other infectious diseases and initially involved epidemiological observations...
July 13, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698838/tuberculosis-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-case-series
#16
Manish Anand, Ekta Nayyar, Beatrice Concepcion, Megha Salani, Heidi Schaefer
Solid organ transplant recipients have an elevated risk of tuberculosis (TB) with high mortality. Data about TB in this population in the United States is sparse. We present four cases of active tuberculosis in kidney transplant recipients at our center. All patients had possible TB exposure prior to transplant and all were diagnosed with active TB within the first year of transplant. Disseminated TB was seen in half of the patients with extra-pulmonary TB being more common affecting lymph nodes, pericardium, and the kidney allograft...
June 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694808/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-dosr-regulon-gene-rv2004c-encodes-a-novel-antigen-with-pro-inflammatory-functions-and-potential-diagnostic-application-for-detection-of-latent-tuberculosis
#17
Sankara Narayana Doddam, Vidyullatha Peddireddy, Niyaz Ahmed
Approximately 1.7 billion people in the world harbor latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with a substantial risk of progression to clinical outcome. Containment of these seed beds of Mtb is essential to eliminate tuberculosis completely in high burden settings such as India. Hence, there is an urgent need for the identification of new serological markers for detection or vaccine candidates to prevent latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). DosR regulon antigens of Mtb might serve as attractive targets for LTBI diagnosis or vaccine development as they are specifically expressed and are upregulated during latent phase...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692915/triazole-derivatives-and-their-anti-tubercular-activity
#18
Shu Zhang, Zhi Xu, Chuan Gao, Qing-Cheng Ren, Le Chang, Zao-Sheng Lv, Lian-Shun Feng
Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most widespread and leading deadliest diseases, threats one-third of the world's population. Although numerous efforts have been undertaken to develop new anti-TB agents, only a handful of compounds have entered human trials in the past 5 decades. Triazoles including 1,2,3-triazole and 1,2,4-triazole are one of the most important classes of nitrogen containing heterocycles that exhibited various biological activities. Triazole derivatives are regarded as a new class of effective anti-TB candidates owing to their potential anti-TB potency...
June 27, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692611/a-national-survey-on-the-use-of-electronic-directly-observed-therapy-for-treatment-of-tuberculosis
#19
Michelle Macaraig, Mark N Lobato, Kara McGinnis Pilote, Donna Wegener
CONTEXT: An increasing number of tuberculosis (TB) programs are adopting electronic directly observed therapy (eDOT), the use of technology to supervise patient adherence remotely. Pilot studies show that treatment adherence and completion were similar with eDOT compared with the standard in-person DOT. OBJECTIVE: In December 2015, the National Tuberculosis Controllers Association administered an online survey to determine the extent to which eDOT is used in the United States...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692209/the-science-of-durban-aids-2016
#20
Chris Beyrer, Olive Shisana, Stefan D Baral, Koleka Milsana, Kenneth H Mayer, Anton Pozniak, Bruce D Walker, Souleman Mboup, Annette H Sohn, David Serwadda, Helen Rees, Sergii Dvoriak, Mitchell Warren, Safiatou Thiam, Wafaa M El-Sadr, Xavier Hospital, Owen Ryan, Nicolas Thomson, Linda-Gail Bekker
INTRODUCTION: The science presented at the 21st International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa, in July 2016, addressed the state of the field across basic, clinical, prevention, law and policy and implementation science. METHODS AND RESULTS: The AIDS response has seen remarkable achievements in scientific advances, in translation of those advances into prevention, treatment and care for affected individuals and communities, and in large scale implementation - reaching 18 million people with antiviral therapy by mid-year 2016...
June 30, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
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