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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199824/protective-effect-of-metformin-against-tuberculosis-infections-in-diabetic-patients-an-observational-study-of-south-indian-tertiary-healthcare-facility
#1
Marupuru Srujitha, Senapati Padmanav, P Swathi, M Sonal Sekhar, M K Unnikrishnan, K Manu Mohan
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization estimated that people with diabetes (DM) are at 2-3 times the higher risk for tuberculosis (TB). Studies have shown that DM not only increases the risk of active TB but, also puts co-affected person at increased risk of poor outcomes. OBJECTIVES: To determine the protective effect of metformin against TB in DM patients and also, to investigate the relationship between poor glycemic control and TB. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted over 8 months, where cases and controls were selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study...
February 12, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196479/treatment-completion-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study-comparing-9%C3%A2-months-of-isoniazid-4%C3%A2-months-of-rifampin-and-3%C3%A2-months-of-isoniazid-and-rifapentine
#2
Adelaide H McClintock, McKenna Eastment, Christy M McKinney, Caroline L Pitney, Masahiro Narita, David R Park, Shireesha Dhanireddy, Alexandra Molnar
BACKGROUND: The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended a new regimen for treatment of latent tuberculosis (three months of weekly isoniazid and rifapentine) in late 2011. While completion rates of this regimen were reported to be higher than nine months of isoniazid, little is known about the completion rates of three months of isoniazid and rifapentine compared to nine months of isoniazid or four months of rifampin in actual use scenarios. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study comparing treatment completion for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection in patients treated with nine months of isoniazid, three months of isoniazid and rifapentine or four months of rifampin in outpatient clinics and a public health TB clinic in Seattle, Washington...
February 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195545/berberis-vulgaris-l-effects-on-oxidative-stress-and-liver-injury-in-lead-intoxicated-mice
#3
Jawhar Laamech, Jaouad El-Hilaly, Hamadi Fetoui, Yassine Chtourou, Hanane Gouitaa, Adel Tahraoui, Badiaa Lyoussi
Background Berberis vulgaris L. (BV), commonly known as "Aghriss" in Moroccan pharmacopoeia, is used to cure liver disorders and other diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of BV aqueous extract against lead-induced toxicity in mice liver. Methods Sixty IOPS mice were divided into six groups and were treated as follows: group 1 (normal control) received double distilled water; group 2 (toxic control) received lead acetate (5 mg/kg body weight/day) in double distilled water for 40 days; groups 3-6 received BV aqueous extract at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight , respectively, once daily for 30 days from 11 day after beginning of lead acetate exposure to the end of the experiment...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Complementary & Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192214/immune-recognition-surface-construction-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-epitope-specific-antibody-responses-in-tuberculosis-patients-identified-by-peptide-microarrays
#4
REVIEW
Davide Valentini, Martin Rao, Giovanni Ferrara, Marc Perkins, Ernest Dodoo, Alimuddin Zumla, Markus Maeurer
BACKGROUND: Understanding of humoral immune responses in tuberculosis (TB) is gaining interest, since B cells and antibodies may be important in diagnosis as well as protective immune responses. High-content peptide microarrays (HCPM) are highly precise and reliable for gauging specific antibody responses to pathogens, as well as autoantigens. METHODS: We used a HCPM comprising epitopes spanning 154 proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) to gauge specific IgG antibody responses in sera of TB patients from Africa and South America...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189063/the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inhibitor-celastrol-attenuates-acute-hepatic-dysfunction-induced-by-cecal-ligation-and-puncture-in-rats
#5
Ghada S El-Tanbouly, Mohammed S El-Awady, Nermeen A Megahed, Hatem A Salem, Hassan A El-Kashef
Acute hepatic dysfunction associating sepsis is mediated mainly by toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4)/nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) inflammatory pathway. This study explores potential hepatoprotective effect of the NF-κB inhibitor celastrol in cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model in rats. Protective effect of celastrol (1mg/kg, i.p., 1h before CLP) was illustrated after 24h by preventing CLP-induced hepatic histopathological changes and elevation in serum hepatic biomarkers [alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (TB) and gamma aminotransferase (γ-GT)] without affecting mortality...
February 4, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185618/tuberculosis-a-world-health-organization-perspective
#6
Giovanni Sotgiu, Giorgia Sulis, Alberto Matteelli
Tuberculosis (TB) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has implemented and scaled-up three important global public health strategies (i.e., DOTS, Stop TB, and End TB) to improve the international scenario. Their epidemiological impact was relevant, as they decreased the number of potential new cases of disease and death. However, the emergence and spread of TB/HIV coinfection and multidrug-resistant TB have hindered the progress towards the elimination of TB by 2050...
January 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183335/efficacy-of-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-reducing-incidence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-mortality-among-hiv-infected-tanzanian-adults-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Christopher R Sudfeld, Ferdinand Mugusi, Said Aboud, Tumaini J Nagu, Molin Wang, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: HIV-infected adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa continue to experience high rates of morbidity and mortality during the initial months of treatment. Observational studies in high-income and resource-limited settings indicate that HIV-infected adults with low vitamin D levels may be at increased risk of mortality, HIV disease progression, and incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). As a result, vitamin D3 supplementation may improve survival and treatment outcomes for HIV-infected adults initiating ART...
February 10, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177354/dietary-supplementation-with-tributyrin-prevented-weaned-pigs-from-growth-retardation-and-lethal-infection-via-modulation-of-inflammatory-cytokines-production-ileal-expression-and-intestinal-acetate-fermentation
#8
Y Gu, Y Song, H Yin, S Lin, X Zhang, L Che, Y Lin, S Xu, B Feng, D Wu, Z Fang
Weanling pigs, with an underdeveloped intestine and immature immune system, are usually subjected to depressed feed intake, growth retardation, and postweaning diarrhea. The aim of this study was to determine 1) the growth response of weaned pigs to supplemental tributyrin (TB) and 2) the potential effects and mechanisms of TB in modulating immune responses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-challenged piglets. A total of 240 piglets (Duroc × Large White × Landrace) were weaned at 21 d of age to a control (basal diet), supplemented with antibiotics (AB; +AB), supplemented with TB (+TB), or with supplemental AB and TB (+AB+TB) diets, with 10 replicate pens (6 piglets/pen) per diet...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173770/screening-for-genital-tuberculosis-in-a-limited-resource-country-case-report
#9
Sadie Namani, Emine Qehaja-Buçaj, Diellëza Namani
BACKGROUND: Screening for benign or malignant process of pelvis in young females is a challenge for a physician in a limited resource country. Tuberculosis should be always considered in the differential diagnosis of a pelvic mass in countries with high prevalence of tuberculosis. Negative results of analysis of peritoneal fluid for acid-fast staining, late cultures, and unavailability of new diagnostics methods such as polymerase chain reaction and adenosine deaminase of the aspirated fluid from peritoneal cavity can often result in invasive diagnostic procedures such as laparotomy...
February 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170135/diagnostic-potential-of-interferon-gamma-release-assay-to-detect-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#10
Jameela Edathodu, Bright Varghese, Abdulrahman A Alrajhi, Mohammed Shoukri, Ahmad Nazmi, Hazem Elgamal, Hassan Aleid, Fahad Alrabiah, Aattia Ashraff, Ihab Mahmoud, Sahal Al-Hajoj
BACKGROUND: Latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) is screened by using clinical assessment, tuberculin skin test (TST), chest radiography and recently by interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA). The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of QuantiFERON(®) -TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT) for diagnosing LTBI in patients planned for kidney transplantation. METHODS: All adult patients with end-stage renal disease, evaluated for kidney transplantation in a referral center from August 2008 till May 2013, were enrolled, after consenting in a prospective, observational, non-interventional study...
February 7, 2017: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169940/role-of-posterior-stabilization-and-transpedicular-decompression-in-the-treatment-of-thoracic-and-thoracolumbar-tb-a-retrospective-evaluation
#11
Areena R D'souza, Bibhudendu Mohapatra, Murari L Bansal, Kalidutta Das
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of posterior pedicle-screw fixation with transpedicular decompression in 21 cases of thoracic and thoracolumbar spinal tuberculosis (TB) in terms of functional, neurological, and radiologic outcomes. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal TB is predominantly an anterior disease that can lead to kyphotic deformity. Hence, anterior debridement and fusion was considered as the gold standard...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167256/turning-the-tide-against-tuberculosis
#12
Nesri Padayatchi, Naressa Naidu, Gerald Friedland, Kasavan Naidoo, Francesca Conradie, Kogieleum Naidoo, Max Roe O'Donnell
Despite affecting men, women and children for millennia, tuberculosis (TB) is the most neglected disease. In contrast, the global response to HIV has reached a defining moment. By uniting efforts, promptly integrating major scientific findings for both treatment and prevention, and scaling up services, the once inconceivable end to the HIV epidemic may no longer be an illusion. "The world has made defeating AIDS a top priority. This is a blessing. But TB remains ignored" - Nelson Mandela. While there is no doubt that revolutionary diagnostics, and new and repurposed drugs have provided some hope in the fight against TB, it is evident that scientific advances on their own are inadequate to achieve the World Health Organisation's ambitious goal to end TB by 2035...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166913/novel-risk-factors-and-early-detection-of-anti-tubercular-treatment-induced-liver-injury-looking-beyond-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#13
Muzamil Latief, Waseem Raja Dar, Najeebullah Sofi, Imtiyaz Ahmad Dar, Basharat Kasana, Moomin Hussain, Faheem Arshad, Bashir Ahmad Shah, Parvaiz Ahmad Koul
INTRODUCTION: ATT remains the standard treatment for tuberculosis. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) has been a long-standing concern in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) infection. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence and risk factors of DILI in patients on ATT by regular clinical and biochemical monitoring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 200 patients, in whom ATT was started, were enrolled in the study. None of the patients with established risk factor for DILI as recognized by ATS guidelines was included in our study population...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166912/tuberculosis-knowledge-and-attitude-in-aspiring-doctors-and-nurses-is-it-time-for-our-tb-teaching-methods-to-evolve
#14
Preetam Rajgopal Acharya, Monalisa D'Souza, Ramesh Chandra Sahoo
BACKGROUND: India accounts for nearly 24% of all the new tuberculosis (TB) cases globally. A good core knowledge and a positive outlook towards TB patients among our aspiring doctors and nurses are necessities for India to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proposed by the WHO as a part of its post-2015 global TB strategy and to successfully combat the newer challenges posed by this disease in the future. AIMS: To evaluate knowledge related to transmission, prevention and treatment of tuberculosis amongst medical and nursing students...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163168/experimental-animal-modelling-for-tb-vaccine-development
#15
REVIEW
Pere-Joan Cardona, Ann Williams
Research for a novel vaccine to prevent tuberculosis is an urgent medical need. The current vaccine, BCG has demonstrated a non-homogenous efficacy in humans, but still is the gold standard to be improved upon. In general, the main indicator for testing the potency of new candidates in animal models is the reduction of the bacillary load in the lungs at the acute phase of the infection. Usually, this reduction is similar to that induced by BCG, although in some cases a weak but significant improvement can be detected, But none of candidates are able to prevent establishment of infection...
February 2, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157470/risks-for-tuberculosis-in-kazakhstan-implications-for-prevention
#16
A Davis, A Terlikbayeva, A Aifah, S Hermosilla, Z Zhumadilov, E Berikova, S Rakhimova, S Primbetova, M Darisheva, N Schluger, N El-Bassel
SETTING: Four regions in Kazakhstan where participants were recruited from June 2012 to May 2014. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between incarceration history and tobacco, alcohol, and drug consumption, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and diabetes mellitus (DM) with TB. DESIGN: This matched case-control study included 1600 participants who completed a survey on sociodemographics, history of incarceration, tobacco, alcohol and drug use, and HIV and DM diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157469/heterogeneity-of-distribution-of-tuberculosis-in-sheka-zone-ethiopia-drivers-and-temporal-trends
#17
D Shaweno, T Shaweno, J M Trauer, J T Denholm, E S McBryde
OBJECTIVE: To describe the distribution of tuberculosis (TB) and its drivers in Sheka Zone, a geographically remote region of Ethiopia. METHODS: We collected data on TB patients treated from 2010 to 2014 in the Sheka Zone. Predictors of TB incidence were determined using a multivariate generalised linear regression model. RESULTS: We found significant spatial autocorrelation of TB incidence by kebele (the smallest administrative geographical subdivision in Ethiopia) (Moran's I = 0...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157466/is-ipt-more-effective-in-high-burden-settings-modelling-the-effect-of-tuberculosis-incidence-on-ipt-impact
#18
R Ragonnet, J M Trauer, E S McBryde, R M G J Houben, J T Denholm, A Handel, T Sumner
SETTING: Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is effective for preventing active tuberculosis (TB), although its mechanism of action is poorly understood and the optimal disease burden for IPT use has not been defined. OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between TB incidence and IPT effectiveness. METHODS: We constructed a model of TB transmission dynamics to investigate IPT effectiveness under various epidemiological settings. The model structure was intended to be highly adaptable to uncertainty in both input parameters and the mechanism of action of IPT...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157463/use-of-antiretrovirals-in-hiv-infected-children-in-a-tuberculosis-prevention-trial-impaact-p1041
#19
B Zeldow, S Kim, G McSherry, M F Cotton, P Jean-Philippe, A Violari, R Bobat, S Nachman, L M Mofenson, S A Madhi, C Mitchell
SETTING: International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT) P1041, a tuberculosis (TB) prevention trial conducted among children enrolled from 2004 to 2008 during South Africa's roll-out of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). OBJECTIVE: To estimate TB incidence and mortality and the effect of ART. DESIGN: Children were pre-screened to exclude TB disease and exposure, actively screened 3-monthly for TB exposure and symptoms, and provided post-exposure isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT)...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157462/tuberculosis-along-the-continuum-of-hiv-care-in-a-cohort-of-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-ethiopia
#20
D Jerene, W Abebe, K Taye, P G Suarez, Y Feleke, I Hallström, A J Ruff
SETTING: Eight health facilities in Ethiopia. OBJECTIVE: To determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates and associated factors among adolescents living with the human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV). DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. Adolescents enrolled in HIV care between January 2005 and 31 December 2013 constituted the study population. The main outcome variable was TB diagnosis during follow-up. Baseline World Health Organization (WHO) clinical stage, CD4 count, previous history of TB and use of isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) were the main independent variables...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
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