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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810840/the-association-between-tuberculosis-and-the-development-of-insulin-resistance-in-adults-with-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-the-western-sub-district-of-the-cape-metropole-region-south-africa-a-combined-cross-sectional-cohort-study
#1
Lauren Philips, Janicke Visser, Daan Nel, Renée Blaauw
BACKGROUND: The existence of a bi-directional relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and insulin resistance (IR)/diabetes has been alluded to in literature. Although diabetes has been linked to increased tuberculosis risk, the relationship between tuberculosis as a causative factor for IR remains unclear. The study aimed to determine if an association existed between tuberculosis and IR development in adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis at baseline. It was additionally aimed to document changes in IR status during TB follow-up periods...
August 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810312/-analysis-of-infection-and-drug-resistance-in-6-107-cases-of-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis-in-chengdu-area
#2
D M Wang, Q F Li, M Zhu, Y H Xu, J Luo, Y J Li, J Zhong, Z J Wu
Objective: To analyze the infection and drug resistance of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, in order to provide useful references for prevention and treatment of tuberculosis (TB). Methods: A total of 6 107 suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, including lymph node, pleural, peritoneal, meningeal, urinary tract, and bone tuberculosis, were collected retrospectively from January 2013 to December 2015 in Public Health Clinical Center of Chengdu. There were 4 033 male and 2 074 female patients, and the average age was 37 years...
August 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805798/repeated-aav-mediated-gene-transfer-by-serotype-switching-enables-long-lasting-therapeutic-levels-of-hugt1a1-enzyme-in-a-mouse-model-of-crigler-najjar-syndrome-type-i
#3
L Bočkor, G Bortolussi, A Iaconcig, G Chiaruttini, C Tiribelli, M Giacca, F Benvenuti, L Zentilin, A F Muro
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene therapy is a promising strategy to treat liver-based monogenic diseases. However, two major obstacles limit its success: first, vector dilution in actively dividing cells, such as hepatocytes in neonates/children, due to the non-integrating nature of the vector; second, development of an immune response against the transgene and/or viral vector. Crigler-Najjar Syndrome Type I (CNSI) is a rare monogenic disease with neonatal onset, caused by mutations in the liver-specific UGT1 gene, with toxic accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin in plasma, tissues and brain...
August 14, 2017: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802410/evaluation-of-24-locus-miru-vntr-genotyping-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cluster-investigations-in-four-jurisdictions-in-the-united-states-2006-2010
#4
Larry D Teeter, J Steven Kammerer, Smita Ghosh, Duc T M Nguyen, Padmaja Vempaty, Jane Tapia, Roque Miramontes, Wendy A Cronin, Edward A Graviss
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a combination of spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analyses as part of the National TB Genotyping Service (NTGS). The NTGS expansion from 12-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU12) to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU24) in 2009 enhanced the ability to discriminate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In the current study, we investigated the MIRU24 concordance among epidemiologic-linked tuberculosis (TB) patients in four U...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800282/towards-a-generation-free-of-tuberculosis-tb-disease-and-infection-in-individuals-of-college-age-in-the-united-states
#5
N S Shah, A Flood-Bryzman, C Jeffries, J Scott
OBJECTIVES: To assess the magnitude of active TB disease and LTBI in young adults of college age. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals 18 - 24 years old in 2011 were used as a proxy for college students. METHODS: Active TB cases reported to the 2011 U.S. National TB Surveillance System (NTSS) were included. LTBI prevalence was calculated from the 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The 2011 American Community Survey was used to calculate population denominators...
August 11, 2017: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797384/long-term-effect-of-bacille-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-in-tuberculin-skin-testing-a-new-reality-for-tb-prevention
#6
EDITORIAL
Roland Diel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797022/evaluation-of-the-isoniazid-preventive-therapy-care-cascade-among-hiv-positive-female-sex-workers-in-mombasa-kenya
#7
Sylvia M LaCourse, Ruth W Deya, Susan M Graham, Linnet N Masese, Walter Jaoko, Kischorchandra N Mandaliya, Julie Overbaugh, R Scott McClelland
BACKGROUND: Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs) have a high HIV prevalence, increasing their tuberculosis (TB) risk. Despite recommendations that HIV-positive individuals be offered isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), uptake has been limited. METHODS: In this longitudinal cohort of HIV-positive FSWs, we retrospectively characterized the IPT care cascade between March 2000 and January 2010, including reasons for cascade loss or appropriate exit. Cascade success required completion of 6 months of IPT...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794425/transmission-is-a-noticeable-cause-of-resistance-among-treated-tuberculosis-patients-in-shanghai-china
#8
Chijioke A Nsofor, Qi Jiang, Jie Wu, Mingyu Gan, Qingyun Liu, Tianyu Zuo, Guofeng Zhu, Qian Gao
It is generally believed that drug resistance among treated tuberculosis (TB) patients is as a result of acquired drug resistance due to inappropriate treatment. Previous studies have shown that primary drug resistance caused by transmission also plays a role among treated cases. Differentiating the two types of drug resistance will help in developing appropriate strategies for control of drug resistant tuberculosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that drug resistance among treated TB patients is mainly caused by primary resistance rather than acquired resistance...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777204/better-completion-of-pediatric-latent-tuberculosis-treatment-using-4-months-of-rifampin-in-a-us-based-tuberculosis-clinic
#9
James Gaensbauer, Kaylynn Aiona, Michelle Haas, Randall Reves, Janine Young, Robert Belknap
BACKGROUND: Children less than five years of age have the highest age-specific rate of progression from latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) to active disease. Therefore, regimens for treatment of pediatric LTBI must be not only efficacious but practical enough to overcome the unique childhood barriers to regimen adherence. Since 2012, a 4-month regimen of daily rifampin (4R) has been the standard recommendation for pediatric LTBI at the Denver Metro Tuberculosis Clinic (DMTBC). METHODS: Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we compared treatment completion rates between 4R and 9-month isoniazid (9H) regimens for all pediatric patients treated for LTBI at the DMTBC between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2015, and assessed the influence of clinical and demographic characteristics on successful completion of the two regimens...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776525/epidemiological-analysis-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-heilongjiang-province-china-from-2008-to-2015
#10
Zheng Qi, Wei Yang, Yan-Fu Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Heilongjiang province from 2008 to 2015 and provide scientific basis for the development of TB control. METHODS: The TB patients were confirmed by chest radiography and sputum examination, and the TB incidence data were from the Chinese Tuberculosis Management Information System, population data were from the National Basic Information System. RESULTS: By the SPSS statistics analysis, there was a total of 280,767 cases of TB registered in Heilongjiang province from 2008 to 2015; the average annual incidence rate was 91...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776524/pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-a-pediatric-reference-hospital-in-bogot%C3%A3-colombia
#11
Luisa Fernanda Imbachí Yunda, Eileen Viviana Fonseca Sepúlveda, Kelly Christina Márquez Herrera, Germán Camacho Moreno
BACKGROUND: In Colombia, epidemiological and clinical information related to pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is scarce. Data are needed to define the impact of the disease and to strengthen measures for detection and treatment. It is proposed to analyze the pediatric population diagnosed with pulmonary TB in a national reference institution. METHODS: Retrospective observational study including pediatric patients with pulmonary and miliary TB, and pulmonary and extrapulmonary involvement, treated between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2016...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776523/screening-of-health-care-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#12
Anand Bimari Janagond, Vithiya Ganesan, G S Vijay Kumar, Arunagiri Ramesh, Prem Anand, M Mariappan
BACKGROUND: Health-care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of acquiring tuberculosis (TB) than the general population. While national-level data on the burden of TB in general population is available from reliable sources, nationally representative data on latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) burden in HCWs in the high burden countries is lacking. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out to assess the risk of TB infection among HCWs who directly engage in medical duties...
July 2017: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765186/tuberculous-pericarditis-treated-with-steroid-in-a-dialysis-patient
#13
Rie Aoyama, Joji Ishikawa, Kazumasa Harada, Yayoi Tukada
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has spread worldwide and its mortality rate had been very high. The prevention technology and antituberculosis (TB) chemotherapy has improved its prognosis. However, immunocompromised patients, such as those who had HIV infection, older age and on haemodialysis, are still at high risk of TB infection. TB pericarditis is a common cause of constrictive pericarditis and its mortality remains high. Early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate therapy are critical to improve mortality...
August 1, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763500/child-contact-management-in-high-tuberculosis-burden-countries-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#14
Daria Szkwarko, Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Lienki Du Plessis, Karen Du Preez, Catherine Carr, Anna M Mandalakas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Considering the World Health Organization recommendation to implement child contact management (CCM) for TB, we conducted a mixed-methods systematic review to summarize CCM implementation, challenges, predictors, and recommendations. We searched the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies published between 1996-2017 that reported CCM data from high TB-burden countries. Protocol details for this systematic review were registered on PROSPERO: International prospective register of systematic reviews (#CRD42016038105)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762575/changing-trends-in-the-etiology-and-management-of-vesicovaginal-fistula
#15
REVIEW
Muhammad A Malik, Muhammad Sohail, Muhammad Tb Malik, Nauman Khalid, Adeen Akram
Vesicovaginal fistula has remained a scourge and of public health importance, causing significant morbidity, and psychological and social problems to the patient. Continuous wetness, odor and discomfort cause serious social issues. The diagnosis has been traditionally based on clinical evaluation, dye testing, cystoscopic examination and contrast studies. A successful repair of such fistulas requires an accurate diagnosis and timely surgical intervention using techniques that are based on basic surgical principles with or without the use of interpositional flaps...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761946/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-an-updated-network-meta-analysis
#16
Dominik Zenner, Netta Beer, Ross J Harris, Marc C Lipman, Helen R Stagg, Marieke J van der Werf
Background: Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is an important component of tuberculosis (TB) control, and this study updates a previous network meta-analysis of the best LTBI treatment options to inform public health action and programmatic management of LTBI. Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and harms of LTBI treatment regimens aimed at preventing active TB among adults and children. Data Sources: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science from indexing to 8 May 2017; clinical trial registries; and conference abstracts...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749390/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-india-current-evidence-on-diagnosis-management
#17
REVIEW
Rajendra Prasad, Abhijeet Singh, Viswesvaran Balasubramanian, Nikhil Gupta
Emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) has significantly threatened to jeopardize global efforts to control TB, especially in HIV endemic regions. XDR-TB is mainly an iatrogenically created issue, and understanding the epidemiological and risk factors associated with it is of paramount importance in curbing this menace. Emergence of this deadly phenomenon can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and effective treatment with second-line drugs in rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB) as well as multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) patients...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747959/effect-of-prophylactic-use-of-silymarin-on-anti-tuberculosis-drugs-induced-hepatotoxicity
#18
Eunyoung Heo, Deog Kyeom Kim, So Hee Oh, Jung-Kyu Lee, Ju-Hee Park, Hee Soon Chung
BACKGROUND: The first line of anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs are the most effective standard of drugs for TB. However, the use of these drugs is associated with hepatotoxicity. Silymarin has protective effects against hepatotoxicity of anti-TB drugs in animal models. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of silymarin on hepatotoxicity caused by anti-TB drugs. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Patients were eligible if they were 20 years of age or order and started the first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs...
July 2017: Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746979/feasibility-of-a-new-model-for-early-detection-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-a-developed-setting-of-eastern-china
#19
Zhengwei Liu, Aizhen Pan, BeiBei Wu, Lin Zhou, Haibo He, Qiong Meng, Songhua Chen, Yu Pang, Xiaomeng Wang
OBJECTIVES: The poor detection rate of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) highlights the urgent need to explore new case finding model to improve the detection of MDR-TB in China. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a new model that combines molecular diagnostics and sputum transportation for early detection of MDR-TB patients in Zhejiang. METHODS: From May 2014 to January 2015, TB suspects were continuously enrolled at 6 county-level designated TB hospitals in Zhejiang...
July 26, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744149/determinants-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#20
Demelash Assefa, Berhanu Seyoum, Lemessa Oljira
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been jeopardizing the global effort to prevent and control tuberculosis (TB). However, data on MDR-TB in Ethiopia in general, and in our study area in particular, are very scarce. The aim of this study was to identify determinants of MDR-TB in a cohort of patients managed in two referral hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, between April 1, 2013 and June 30, 2013. A health facility-based case-control study was conducted. A total of 710 TB patients (229 confirmed MDR-TB and 481 drug susceptible TB patients) were enrolled in this study...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
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