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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921005/primary-tuberculosis-of-cervix-a-coincidental-finding
#1
Nalini Sharma, Ahanthem Santa Singh, Yookarin Khonglah, Jaya Mishra
BACKGROUND: 95% of Tuberculosis (TB) of the female genital tract (FGT) is located in tissues other than the cervix. A rare case of primary TB of the cervix which was diagnosed coincidently in a patient of endometrioma was reported in this study. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34 year old nullipara, a diagnosed case of endometrioma had a small cervical growth. Pap smear and biopsy was taken and sent for histopathological examination. Her histopathological examination revealed multiple epitheloid cell granuloma and langerhans type giant cell caeseation...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920544/pharmaceutical-interventions-in-the-management-of-tuberculosis-in-a-pneumophtisiology-department-ivory-coast
#2
Danho Pascal Abrogoua, Boua Alexis Thierry Kamenan, Brou Jean Marcel Ahui, Elisée Doffou
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to analyze the profile and relevance of pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) in the management of tuberculosis (TB) at inpatient settings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study conducted from March to December 2014 within the inpatient unit of pneumophtisiology department, Ivory Coast. Information collected was based on the classification of drug-related problems (DRPs) and PIs outlined by the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy...
2016: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919779/funding-for-tuberculosis-research-an-urgent-crisis-of-political-will-human-rights-and-global-solidarity
#3
Mike Frick
Tuberculosis (TB) killed more people in 2015 than any other single infectious agent, but funding for research to develop better prevention, diagnosis, and treatment methods for TB declined to its lowest level in seven years. TB research and development (R&D) is woefully underfunded, a situation best viewed as a crisis of political will and a failure on the part of governments to see unmet innovation needs in the TB response as a human rights issue requiring immediate action. Over 60 percent of available money for TB R&D comes from public sources, and 65% of public money comes from a single country: the United States...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914088/murine-mycobacterium-marinum-infection-as-a-model-for-tuberculosis
#4
Julia Lienard, Fredric Carlsson
Mycobacteria are a major human health problem globally. Regarding tuberculosis the situation is worsened by the poor efficacy of current vaccine regimens and by emergence of drug-resistant strains (Manjelievskaia J et al, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 110: 110, 2016; Pereira et al., Lancet Infect Dis 12:300-306, 2012; http://www.who.int/tb/publications/global_report/en/) undermining both disease-prevention and available treatments. Thus, increased basic understanding of mycobacterial-and particularly Mycobacterium tuberculosis-virulence strategies and pathogenesis is of great importance...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911140/effect-of-secondary-preventive-therapy-on-recurrence-of-tuberculosis-in-hiv-infected-individuals-a-systematic-review
#5
Wassilis Sc Bruins, Frank van Leth
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals successfully treated for tuberculosis (TB) remain at risk of recurrence of the disease, especially in high TB incidence settings. We performed a systematic review, investigating whether secondary preventive therapy (sPT) with anti-TB drugs (preventive therapy in former TB patients with treatment success) is an effective strategy to prevent recurrence of TB in this patient group. We searched the databases PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar using the keywords HIV-infections, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS, isoniazid, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), tuberculosis, TB, recurrence and recurrent disease, resulting in 253 potential publications...
December 2, 2016: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910720/the-management-of-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-young-children-post-2015-an-opportunity-to-close-the-policy-practice-gap
#6
Stephen M Graham
The treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children is supported by universal policy based on strong rationale and evidence of effectiveness, but has rarely been implemented in tuberculosis endemic countries. Areas covered: This review highlights a number of important recent developments that provide an unprecedented opportunity to close the policy-practice gap, as well as ongoing needs to facilitate implementation under programmatic conditions and scale-up. Expert commentary: The WHO's End TB Strategy and Stop TB Partnership's Plan to End TB provide ambitious targets for prevention at a time when National Tuberculosis Programs in tuberculosis endemic countries are increasing attention to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis disease in children...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906018/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#7
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
November 15, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906009/current-trends-and-intricacies-in-the-management-of-hiv-associated-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#8
REVIEW
Narendran Gopalan, Padmapriyadarsini Chandrasekaran, Soumya Swaminathan, Srikanth Tripathy
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic has undoubtedly increased the incidence of tuberculosis (TB) globally, posing a formidable global health challenge affecting 1.2 million cases. Pulmonary TB assumes utmost significance in the programmatic perspective as it is readily transmissible as well as easily diagnosable. HIV complicates every aspect of pulmonary tuberculosis from diagnosis to treatment, demanding a different approach to effectively tackle both the diseases. In order to control these converging epidemics, it is important to diagnose early, initiate appropriate therapy for both infections, prevent transmission and administer preventive therapy...
September 26, 2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900592/tuberculosis-among-incarcerated-hispanic-persons-in-the-united-states-1993-2014
#9
Godwin Mindra, Jonathan M Wortham, Maryam B Haddad, Jorge L Salinas, Krista M Powell, Lori R Armstrong
We examined the National tuberculosis surveillance system to describe Hispanic persons who were incarcerated at time of tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and to compare their characteristics with those of non-Hispanic incarcerated TB patients. After declines between 1993 and 2002, the annual proportion of Hispanic TB patients who were incarcerated grew from 4.9% in 2003 to 8.4% in 2014. During 2003-2014, 19% of incarcerated US-born TB patients were Hispanic, and 86% of the foreign-born were Hispanic. Most incarcerated TB patients were in local jails, but about a third of all foreign-born Hispanics were in the facility category that includes Immigration and Customs Enforcement detention centers...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895634/cytosolic-proteome-profiling-of-aminoglycosides-resistant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-isolates-using-maldi-tof-ms
#10
Divakar Sharma, Manju Lata, Rananjay Singh, Nirmala Deo, Krishnamurthy Venkatesan, Deepa Bisht
Emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is the consequence of the failure of second line TB treatment. Aminoglycosides are the important second line anti-TB drugs used to treat the multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Main known mechanism of action of aminoglycosides is to inhibit the protein synthesis by inhibiting the normal functioning of ribosome. Primary target of aminoglycosides are the ribosomal RNA and its associated proteins. Various mechanisms have been proposed for aminoglycosides resistance but still some are unsolved...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891160/hiv-sero-discordance-among-married-hiv-patients-initiating-anti-retroviral-therapy-in-northern-vietnam
#11
Vu Van Tam, Do Duy Cuong, Tobias Alfven, Ho Dang Phuc, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Nguyen Phuong Hoa, Vinod Diwan, Mattias Larsson
BACKGROUND: In many countries in Asia, the HIV epidemic is in a concentrated phase, with high prevalence in certain risk groups, such as men who inject drugs. There is also a rapid increase of HIV among women. The latter might be due to high levels of sero-discordant couples and increasing transmission from male to female partners over time. METHODS: All adult married patients initiating antiretroviral treatment at four out-patient clinics in Quang Ninh province in north-eastern Vietnam between 2007 and 2009 were asked to participate in the study...
2016: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887600/individual-household-and-community-level-factors-associated-with-keeping-tuberculosis-status-secret-in-ghana
#12
Joshua Amo-Adjei
BACKGROUND: In tuberculosis (TB) control, early disclosure is recommended for the purposes of treatment as well as a means of reducing or preventing person-to-person transmission of the bacteria. However, disclosure maybe avoided as a means of escaping stigma, and possible discrimination. This study aimed at providing insights into factors associated with intentions of Ghanaians to keep positive TB diagnosis in their families' a secret. METHODS: The paper was based on data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey...
November 25, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881088/perceived-risk-of-tuberculosis-infection-among-healthcare-workers-in-swaziland
#13
Yi-Hao Weng, Patience Thulile Bhembe, Hung-Yi Chiou, Chun-Yuh Yang, Ya-Wen Chiu
BACKGROUND: The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Kingdom of Swaziland is extremely high. How healthcare workers (HCWs) in Swaziland perceive infection control (IC) measures for preventing TB transmission is unclear. This study aimed to determine perceived risk of TB infection in relation to IC measures among HCWs in three institutions of Swaziland. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted in 2014. Demographic data and IC measures were collected from main and allied HCWs...
November 23, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879332/mucosal-bcg-vaccination-induces-protective-lung-resident-memory-t-cell-populations-against-tuberculosis
#14
Carolina Perdomo, Ulrike Zedler, Anja A Kühl, Laura Lozza, Philippe Saikali, Leif E Sander, Alexis Vogelzang, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Andreas Kupz
: Mycobacterium bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), yet its moderate efficacy against pulmonary TB calls for improved vaccination strategies. Mucosal BCG vaccination generates superior protection against TB in animal models; however, the mechanisms of protection remain elusive. Tissue-resident memory T (TRM) cells have been implicated in protective immune responses against viral infections, but the role of TRM cells following mycobacterial infection is unknown...
November 22, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872018/preventive-therapy-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-promise-and-the-challenges
#15
REVIEW
G J Fox, C C Dobler, B J Marais, J T Denholm
Around one third of the world's population may harbour latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), an asymptomatic immunological state that confers a heightened risk of subsequently developing tuberculosis (TB). Effectively treating LTBI will be essential if the End TB Strategy is to be realised This review evaluates the evidence the effectiveness preventive antibiotic therapy to treat LTBI due to both drug susceptible and drug resistant bacteria. We summarise current national and international preventive therapy guidelines, as well as ongoing randomised trials evaluating regimen to prevent drug resistant TB...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872016/tuberculosis-eradication-versus-control
#16
Marco Schito, Debra Hanna, Alimuddin Zumla
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 10.4 million people succumbed to tuberculosis (TB) in 2015 and is now the number one cause of death world-wide from a preventable infectious disease. Bold vision is needed from global leaders and plans have been proposed to end the TB epidemic. However enthusiasm must be matched by tangible and achievable goals based on the science and available funding. In order to reach the target and goals set by the WHO's End-TB Strategy, the challenges for TB eradication need to be addressed...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866772/h1-ic31-vaccination-is-safe-and-induces-long-lived-tnf-%C3%AE-il-2-cd4-t-cell-responses-in-m-tuberculosis-infected-and-uninfected-adolescents-a-randomized-trial
#17
Helen Mearns, Hennie D Geldenhuys, Benjamin M Kagina, Munyaradzi Musvosvi, Francesca Little, Frances Ratangee, Hassan Mahomed, Willem A Hanekom, Søren T Hoff, Morten Ruhwald, Ingrid Kromann, Peter Bang, Mark Hatherill, Peter Andersen, Thomas J Scriba
BACKGROUND: Control of the tuberculosis epidemic requires a novel vaccine that is effective in preventing tuberculosis in adolescents, a key target population for vaccination against TB. METHODS: Healthy adolescents, stratified by M. tuberculosis-infection status, were enrolled into this observer-blinded phase II clinical trial of the protein-subunit vaccine candidate, H1:IC31, comprising a fusion protein (H1) of Ag85B and ESAT-6, formulated with the IC31 adjuvant...
November 17, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865396/mycobacterium-smegmatis-proteoliposome-induce-protection-in-a-murine-progressive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-model
#18
Yanely Tirado, Alina Puig, Nadine Alvarez, Reinier Borrero, Alicia Aguilar, Frank Camacho, Fatima Reyes, Sonsire Fernandez, Jose Luis Perez, Reynaldo Acevedo, Dulce Mata Espinoza, Jorge Alberto Barrios Payan, Maria de Los A Garcia, Ramlah Kadir, María E Sarmiento, Rogelio Hernandez-Pando, Mohd-Nor Norazmi, Armando Acosta
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity. The TB vaccine, BCG, is not fully protective against the adult form of the disease and is unable to prevent its transmission although it is still useful against severe childhood TB. Hence, the search for new vaccines is of great interest. In a previous study, we have shown that proteoliposomes obtained from Mycobacterium smegmatis (PLMs) induced cross reactive humoral and cellular response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865379/antibodies-and-tuberculosis
#19
REVIEW
Ashley J Jacobs, Juthathip Mongkolsapaya, Gavin R Screaton, Helen McShane, Robert J Wilkinson
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health problem internationally, causing 9.6 million new cases and 1.5 million deaths worldwide in 2014. The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine is the only licensed vaccine against TB, but its protective effect does not extend to controlling the development of infectious pulmonary disease in adults. The development of a more effective vaccine against TB is therefore a pressing need for global health. Although it is established that cell-mediated immunity is necessary for the control of latent infection, the presupposition that such immunity is sufficient for vaccine-induced protection has recently been challenged...
December 2016: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865242/a-study-on-knowledge-and-awareness-about-tuberculosis-in-senior-school-children-in-bangalore-india
#20
K Vanaja, Reshma Banu, Lokeshwar Reddy, P Chethan Kumar, Chaitra Srinivas, T Rajani, Navyashree, H S Shekar
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis), commonly affecting the lungs. All health care professionals including the pharmacists provide a valuable public health role in promoting community awareness of TB particularly in reducing stigma attached to TB. Thus, creating awareness at a community level could play a vital role in control and prevention of TB. OBJECTIVES: To determine whether educational intervention would affect the level of TB awareness among students of selected schools and pre-university colleges (PUCs) in Bangalore urban and Bangalore rural regions...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Tuberculosis
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