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Cardiac fi

Dustin Scott Kehler
Physical activity and sedentary behaviours are associated with frailty. However, it is unknown if different accumulation patterns of these behaviours are linked with frailty. Four studies were conducted: the first 3 determined if bouts of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and patterns of sedentary behaviours were associated with frailty (study 1), and if sex (study 2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) status (study 3) affected these associations. Study 4 systematically reviewed the evidence to determine if preoperative physical activity and sedentary behaviours were linked to postcardiac surgical outcomes...
May 7, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Gregory P Barton, Lauren Vildberg, Kara Goss, Niti Aggarwal, Marlowe Eldridge, Alan B McMillan
BACKGROUND: Cardiac metabolic changes in heart disease precede overt contractile dysfunction. However, metabolism and function are not typically assessed together in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to develop a cardiac positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) stress test to assess the dynamic relationship between contractile function and metabolism in a preclinical model. METHODS: Following an overnight fast, healthy pigs (45-50 kg) were anesthetized and mechanically ventilated...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
E Yin, M Uchiyama, M Niimi
Rikkunshito (TJ-43), an eight-component traditional Japanese herbal medicine, has been used in clinics for gastritis, vomiting, and appetite loss. We investigated the effects of TJ-43 on the amelioration of appetite loss in the surgical-exposed model of murine cardiac allograft transplantation. CBA mice underwent transplantation of a CBA (syngeneic group) or C57BL/6 heart (allogeneic group) and received oral administration of 2 g/kg/d of TJ-43 from the day of transplantation until 7 days afterward. The amount of food intake (FI) and weight change after operation were recorded from 1 to 28 postoperative days...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
H A Feridooni, A E Kane, O Ayaz, A Boroumandi, N Polidovitch, R G Tsushima, R A Rose, S E Howlett
KEY POINTS: Heart size increases with age (called hypertrophy), and its ability to contract declines. However, these reflect average changes that may not be present, or present to the same extent, in all older individuals. That aging happens at different rates is well accepted clinically. People who are aging rapidly are frail and frailty is measured with a 'frailty index'. We quantified frailty with a validated mouse frailty index tool and evaluated the impacts of age and frailty on cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
Roberta Meroni, Stefano Gianni, Marcello Guarnieri, Francesco Saglietti, Marco Gemma, Alberto Zangrillo, Elena Bignami
OBJECTIVE: Adequate maintenance of hypnosis during anesthesia throughout surgery using sevoflurane alone was investigated. In addition, sevoflurane pharmacokinetics during cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed. DESIGN: This was a pilot pharmacokinetic study. SETTING: Tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: The study comprised 10 patients aged between 18 and 75 years who underwent elective mitral valve surgery...
December 18, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Zsolt Fi, Veronika Szentes
Among the variety of cardiologic pharmacological therapy options, beta-blockers stand on a prominent position. There are several reasons for this. On one hand they have numerous indication rounds, even though professional guidelines have recently tended to de-emphasize them for treatments of hypertension without complication or comorbidity. However, in addition to hypertonic cases associated with cardiac complication, they play a fundamental role in treating heart failure and arrhythmia and the different clinical manifestations (stable angina pectoris, myocardial state) of ischemic heart disease...
June 26, 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
Renata S Auriemma, Ludovica F S Grasso, Mariano Galdiero, Maurizio Galderisi, Claudia Pivonello, Chiara Simeoli, Maria Cristina De Martino, Rosario Ferrigno, Mariarosaria Negri, Cristina de Angelis, Rosario Pivonello, Annamaria Colao
To date, no data are available on the effects of long-term combined treatment with somatostatin analogues (SA) and pegvisomant (PEG) on cardiovascular complications in acromegaly. The current study aimed at investigating the effects of long-term SA + PEG on cardiac structure and performance. Thirty-six patients (14 M, 22 F, aged 52.3 ± 10.2 years) entered this study. Weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, IGF-I, fasting glucose (FG), fasting insulin (FI), HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and lipids were evaluated at baseline (T0), after long-term (median 36 months) SA (T1), after 12 (T12) and 60 (T60) months of SA + PEG, and at last follow-up (LFU, median 78 months)...
March 2017: Endocrine
Elizabeth A Freiheit, David B Hogan, Scott B Patten, Hannah Wunsch, Todd Anderson, William A Ghali, Merril Knudtson, Colleen J Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Frailty is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. However, its trajectory after coronary artery disease treatment is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-four patients undergoing nonemergent cardiac catheterization followed by treatment (ie, 128 coronary artery bypass graft [CABG], 150 percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI], 96 medical therapy only) were observed for 30 months. A frailty index (FI) score was calculated at baseline (before initial treatment) and 6, 12, and 30 months after treatment...
May 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Jan Hendrickx, Philip Peyton, Rik Carette, Andre De Wolf
This review re-examines existing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic concepts of inhaled anaesthetics. After showing where uptake is hidden in the classic FA/FI curve, it is argued that target-controlled delivery of inhaled agents warrants a different interpretation of the factors affecting this curve (cardiac output, ventilation and blood/gas partition coefficient). Blood/gas partition coefficients of modern agents may be less important clinically than generally assumed. The partial pressure cascade from delivered to inspired to end-expired is re-examined to better understand the effect of rebreathing during low-flow anaesthesia, including the possibility of developing a hypoxic inspired mixture despite existing machine standards...
September 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Vu Thi Thu, Hyoung Kyu Kim, Le Thanh Long, To Thanh Thuy, Nguyen Quang Huy, Soon Ha Kim, Nari Kim, Kyung Soo Ko, Byoung Doo Rhee, Jin Han
Inflammatory and fibrotic responses are accelerated during the reperfusion period, and excessive fibrosis and inflammation contribute to cardiac malfunction. NecroX compounds have been shown to protect the liver and heart from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The aim of this study was to further define the role and mechanism of action of NecroX-5 in regulating infl ammation and fi brosis responses in a model of hypoxia/reoxygenation (HR). We utilized HR-treated rat hearts and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated H9C2 culture cells in the presence or absence of NecroX-5 (10 µmol/L) treatment as experimental models...
May 2016: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
Brian G Reid, Matthew S Stratton, Samantha Bowers, Maria A Cavasin, Kimberley M Demos-Davies, Isidro Susano, Timothy A McKinsey
Chronic cardiac hypertrophy is maladaptive and contributes to the pathogenesis of heart failure. The objective of this study was to identify small molecule inhibitors of pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. High content screening was performed with primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) cultured on 96-well plates and treated with a library of 3241 distinct small molecules. Non-toxic hit compounds that blocked hypertrophy in response to phenylephrine (PE) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) were identified based on their ability to reduce cell size and inhibit expression of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which is a biomarker of pathological cardiac hypertrophy...
August 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Takashi Hitosugi, Masanori Tsukamoto, Kentaro Ishii, Masanori Kadowaki, Shigeki Fujiwara, Takeshi Yokoyama
The patient was a 6-year-old girl with pulmonary atresia, intact ventricular septum and major aortopulmonary collateral artery with tetralogy of Fallot Her Sp(O2) was around 60% under room air, and she could not walk long. She underwent dental treatment under general anesthesia. Invasive monitoring using pulmonary artery catheter should have been avoided, since the risk of monitoring greatly exceeds that of the treatment. The patient entered the operating room with her mother, and anesthesia was induced with intravenous midazolam, propofol and vecuronium...
March 2016: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
Liron Borenstein-Levin, Dawod Sharif, Annat Amshalom, Arieh Riskin, Miri Hemo, Amen Khalil, David Bader, Amir Kugelman
BACKGROUND: Phototherapy has been reported to alter blood flow to various tissues. We hypothesized that during phototherapy the coronary blood flow will decrease because of a 'steal effect' to the periphery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of phototherapy on coronary blood flow in healthy, jaundiced, term neonates. METHODS: Flow velocity [peak diastolic velocity (Vd)] and flow measures [diastolic time velocity integral (TVId) and flow index (FI)] in the left main (LM) and left anterior descending (LAD) coronary arteries were prospectively studied with 2D/pulsed Doppler ultrasound before, during and after phototherapy in 19 healthy term, jaundiced neonates (study group) and in matched nonjaundiced controls (25 neonates)...
2016: Neonatology
Jaideep Mahendra, Little Mahendra, Aishwarya Nagarajan, Kurien Mathew
BACKGROUND: The study was aimed to assess the prevalence of periodontal pathogens namely Tannerella forsythia (T.f), Campylobacter rectus (C.r), Eikenella corrodens (E.c), Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g), Treponema denticola (T.d), Prevotella nigrescens (P.n) ,Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a), P.g (fi mA gene) and Prevotella intermedia (P.i), in the subgingival and the atheromatous plaque of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), and comparing them with the noncardiac subjects thereby indicating the role of periodontal pathogenic bacteria in the progression of atherosclerosis in south Indian population...
March 2015: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Patrick Jung, Michael Ashley Pereira, Brett Hiebert, Xiaiwei Song, Kenneth Rockwood, Navdeep Tangri, Rakesh C Arora
OBJECTIVE: To determine if adding frailty measures to the EuroSCORE II improves model performance in predicting postoperative delirium. METHODS: In a prospective observational study in elective cardiac surgery patients, frailty was defined using the Modified Fried Criteria (MFC), the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and a 35-item Frailty Index (FI). The primary outcome was postoperative delirium, assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). RESULTS: Seventy-two (54...
March 2015: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Bellal Joseph, Viraj Pandit, Bardiya Zangbar, Narong Kulvatunyou, Ammar Hashmi, Donald J Green, Terence O'Keeffe, Andrew Tang, Gary Vercruysse, Mindy J Fain, Randall S Friese, Peter Rhee
IMPORTANCE: The Frailty Index (FI) is a known predictor of adverse outcomes in geriatric patients. The usefulness of the FI as an outcome measure in geriatric trauma patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the usefulness of the FI as an effective assessment tool in predicting adverse outcomes in geriatric trauma patients. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A 2-year (June 2011 to February 2013) prospective cohort study at a level I trauma center at the University of Arizona...
August 2014: JAMA Surgery
Sina Mossahebi, Sándor J Kovács
Abstract Although catheterization is the gold standard, Doppler echocardiography is the preferred diastolic function (DF) characterization method. The physiology of diastole requires continuity of left ventricular pressure (LVP)-generating forces before and after mitral valve opening (MVO). Correlations between isovolumic relaxation (IVR) indexes such as tau (time-constant of IVR) and noninvasive, Doppler E-wave-derived metrics, such as peak A-V gradient or deceleration time (DT), have been established. However, what has been missing is the model-predicted causal link that connects isovolumic relaxation (IVR) to suction-initiated filling (E-wave)...
2014: Physiological Reports
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The burden of stroke on health systems in low-income and middle-income countries is increasing. However, high-quality data for modifiable stroke risk factors in sub-Saharan Africa are scarce, with no community based, case-control studies previously published. We aimed to identify risk factors for stroke in an incident population from rural and urban Tanzania. METHODS: Stroke cases from urban Dar-es-Salaam and the rural Hai district were recruited in a wider study of stroke incidence between June 15, 2003, and June 15, 2006...
November 2013: Lancet Global Health
Usama Boles, Ying Zhao, Roby Rakhit, Man Fi Shiu, Alexandros Papachristidis, Santosh David, Sudheer Koganti, Timothy Gilbert, Michael Y Henein
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between hematological inflammatory signs, cardiovascular risk (CV) factors and prognosis in patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and coronary artery ectasia (CAE). DESIGN: We investigated 3321 AMI patients who required urgent primary percutaneous intervention in two centres in the United Kingdom between January 2009 and August 2012. Thirty patients with CAE were compared with 60 age- and gender-matched controls...
June 2014: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal: SCJ
Florian Streitner, Karsten Hamm, Ilan S Wittstein, Adrian Baranchuk, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Holger M Nef, Laurent Bonello, Christian Wolpert, Martin Borggrefe, Dariusch Haghi
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of cardiac repolarization are a hallmark of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TC), but their association with the occurrence of syncope and ventricular tachyarrhythmias is unknown. This study sought to assess the relationship between myocardial repolarization and malignant tachyarrhythmias in TC. METHODS: Clinical data and electrocardiographic repolarization parameters of 28 patients with TC and ventricular tachyarrhythmias (n = 26) or syncope (n = 2) were compared to data from 20 randomly selected patients with TC but without ventricular tachyarrhythmias or syncope...
2013: Cardiology Journal
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