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Promoter characterization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806784/structural-analysis-of-p-falciparum-kahrp-and-pfemp1-complexes-with-host-erythrocyte-spectrin-suggests-a-model-for-cytoadherent-knob-protrusions
#1
Erin E Cutts, Niklas Laasch, Dirk M Reiter, Raphael Trenker, Leanne M Slater, Phillip J Stansfeld, Ioannis Vakonakis
Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1 (PfEMP1) and Knob-associated Histidine-rich Protein (KAHRP) are directly linked to malaria pathology. PfEMP1 and KAHRP cluster on protrusions (knobs) on the P. falciparum-infected erythrocyte surface and enable pathogenic cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes to the host microvasculature, leading to restricted blood flow, oxygen deprivation and damage of tissues. Here we characterize the interactions of PfEMP1 and KAHRP with host erythrocyte spectrin using biophysical, structural and computational approaches...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806668/combination-of-electrochemical-biosensor-and-textile-threads-a-microfluidic-device-for-phenol-determination-in-tap-water
#2
F R Caetano, E A Carneiro, D Agustini, L C S Figueiredo-Filho, C E Banks, M F Bergamini, L H Marcolino-Junior
Microfluidic devices constructed using low cost materials presents as alternative for conventional flow analysis systems because they provide advantages as low consumption of reagents and samples, high speed of analysis, possibility of portability and the easiness of construction and maintenance. Herein, is described for the first time the use of an electrochemical biosensor for phenol detection combined with a very simple and efficient microfluidic device based on commercial textile threads. Taking advantages of capillary phenomena and gravity forces, the solution transportation is promoted without any external forces or injection pump...
July 29, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806404/rig-i-and-il-6-are-negative-feedback-regulators-of-sting-induced-by-double-stranded-dna
#3
Xueling Wu, Jun Yang, Tao Na, Kehua Zhang, Andrew M Davidoff, Bao-Zhu Yuan, Youchun Wang
The stimulator of interferon genes (STING) protein has emerged as a critical signal transduction molecule in the innate immune response. Sustained activation of the STING signaling induced by cytosolic DNA has been considered to be the cause of a variety of autoimmune diseases characterized by uncontrolled inflammation. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular basis of the regulation of STING signaling pathway. Here we demonstrate that the STING protein undergoes a proteasome-mediated degradation in human diploid cell (HDC) lines including MRC-5 following the transfection of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805830/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis-of-visible-light-crosslinkable-gelatin-methacryloyl-gelma-hydrogels
#4
Iman Noshadi, Seonki Hong, Kelly E Sullivan, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Roberto Portillo-Lara, Ali Tamayol, Su Ryon Shin, Albert E Gao, Whitney L Stoppel, Lauren D Black Iii, Ali Khademhosseini, Nasim Annabi
Photocrosslinkable materials have been frequently used for constructing soft and biomimetic hydrogels for tissue engineering. Although ultraviolet (UV) light is commonly used for photocrosslinking such materials, its use has been associated with several biosafety concerns such as DNA damage, accelerated aging of tissues, and cancer. Here we report an injectable visible light crosslinked gelatin-based hydrogel for myocardium regeneration. Mechanical characterization revealed that the compressive moduli of the engineered hydrogels could be tuned in the range of 5-56 kPa by changing the concentrations of the initiator, co-initiator and co-monomer in the precursor formulation...
August 14, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805701/a-pectic-polysaccharide-from-sijunzi-decoction-promotes-the-antioxidant-defenses-of-sw480-cells
#5
Chao Huang, Zhongkai Zhu, Xiyue Cao, Xingfu Chen, Yuping Fu, Zhengli Chen, Lixia Li, Xu Song, Renyong Jia, Zhongqiong Yin, Gang Ye, Bin Feng, Yuanfeng Zou
Sijunzi Decoction (SJZD) is a formula used for the treatment of spleen deficiency and gastrointestinal diseases in Traditional Chinese Medicine. Polysaccharides are reported to be the main components of SJZD responsible for its bio-functions. However, highly purified and clearly characterized polysaccharides from SJZD are not well described. Here we obtained a purified polysaccharide (SJZDP-II-I) from SJZD using ion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. Structure analysis by FT-IR and NMR identified SJZDP-II-I as a typical pectic polysaccharide with homogalacturonan and rhamnogalacturonan type I regions and arabinogalactan type I and II as side chains...
August 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805531/fabrication-and-characterization-of-the-porous-duck-s-feet-collagen-sponge-for-wound-healing-applications
#6
Md Tipu Sultan, Ju Yeon Jeong, Ye Bin Seo, Ok Joo Lee, Hyung Woo Ju, Hyun Jung Park, Young Jin Lee, Ji Seung Lee, Soon Hee Kim, Chan Hum Park
There are several artificial dermis commonly use to cover the wound and promote healing. The major goal of wound management is fast and scarless healing. However, there is no ideal skin substitute, that is effective to accelerate wound healing without scar formation. Artificial dermis substitute also has some drawbacks, such as high cost, insufficient available period and donor pathogen infection. To overcome these problems, we developed duck's feet collagen (DFC) sponge as artificial dermal substitutes for the treatment of full-thickness skin defects...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805228/highly-dispersed-tio2-nanoparticles-with-abundant-active-sites-induced-by-surfactants-as-a-prominent-substrate-for-sers-charge-transfer-contribution
#7
Libin Yang, Di Yin, Yu Shen, Ming Yang, Xiuling Li, Xiaoxia Han, Xin Jiang, Bing Zhao
In this study, highly-dispersed TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with abundant active sites were synthesized by a simple sol-hydrothermal method with the assistance of surfactant polyethylene glycol (PEG) which served as an effective SERS-active substrate for the first time. The observed considerable SERS enhancement of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) probe molecules on TiO2 NPs is attributed to the contribution of the charge transfer mechanism from the substrate to the probe molecule. It is suggested that PEG can act as a protective agent in the reductive calcination of the surfactant-coated nanocrystallite and consequently brings about abundant surface oxygen vacancies for TiO2 NPs, which provide more effective sites for the adsorption of probe molecules and promote the charge transfer effect and its consequent SERS enhancement...
August 14, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805141/inhibited-attachment-disordered-behavior-in-institutionalized-preschool-children-links-with-early-and-current-relational-experiences
#8
Raquel Corval, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Paula Oliveira, Ana Mesquita, Isabel Soares
Inhibited attachment disordered behavior (IADB) is characterized by difficulty in establishing an attachment relationship with a primary caregiver; is associated with persistent social and emotional problems; and is observed most frequently in contexts of pathological care such as institutional rearing. Here, we seek to enhance understanding of the conditions that give rise to IADB among institutionalized children by examining prior family experiences of neglect and deprivation and concurrent relational experiences at the institution...
August 14, 2017: Attachment & Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804824/laboratory-testing-for-activated-protein-c-resistance-apcr
#9
Soma Mohammed, Emmanuel J Favaloro
Activated protein C resistance (APCR) describes a hemostatic disorder characterized by a poor anticoagulant response to activated protein C (APC). This results in an increased risk of venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Protein C is a natural anticoagulant that is synthesized in the liver and is activated to APC via proteolysis. APC then degrades Factors Va and VIIIa. APCR describes the reduced inability of APC to cleave Factors Va and VIIIa, which therefore promotes increased thrombin generation and potentially leads to a prothrombotic state...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804544/sirt3-attenuates-angii-induced-cardiac-fibrosis-by-inhibiting-myofibroblasts-transdifferentiation-via-stat3-nfatc2-pathway
#10
Xiaobin Guo, Fangying Yan, Jingyuan Li, Chunmei Zhang, Peili Bu
Cardiac fibrosis is a maladaptive response to various stresses, characterized by increased interstitial collagen deposition and progressive cardiac dysfunction. The transdifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts is an essential process in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis. SIRT3, as a mitochondrial NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, has been demonstrated beneficial in many cardiovascular diseases. However, the specific mechanism of its protective role in cardiac fibrosis needs to be elucidated further...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804535/hongjingtian-injection-attenuates-myocardial-oxidative-damage-via-promoting-autophagy-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#11
Shujing Zhang, Ling Zhang, Han Zhang, Guanwei Fan, Jiuwen Qiu, Zongbao Fang, Haibo Wu, Yi Wang, Xiaoping Zhao
Natural products with antioxidative activities are widely applied to prevent and treat various oxidative stress related diseases, including ischemic heart disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of those therapies are still needed to be illustrated. In this study, we characterized the cardioprotective effects of Hongjingtian Injection (HJT), an extensively used botanical drug for treating coronary heart disease. The H/R-induced profound elevation of oxidative stress was suppressed by HJT. HJT also attenuates oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, intracellular ATP contents, and mitochondrial oxygen consumption...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803964/tgf%C3%AE-smad-signalling-modulates-mll-and-mll-af4-mediated-5-lipoxygenase-promoter-activation
#12
Meike J Saul, Florian Groher, Anett B Hegewald, Michaela Müller-McNicoll, Rolf Marschalek, Beatrix Suess, Dieter Steinhilber
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the initial two steps of the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes which represent a group of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators involved in immune defense reactions as well as inflammation, allergy and cancer. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and calcitriol strongly upregulate 5-LO expression during myeloid cell differentiation and MLL-AF4 has been shown to strongly activate the 5-LO promoter. Here, we investigated the role of TGFβ/SMAD signalling in 5-LO promoter activation...
August 10, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803829/the-vascular-niche-regulates-hematopoietic-stem-and-progenitor-cell-lodgment-and-expansion-via-klf6a-ccl25b
#13
Yuanyuan Xue, Junhua Lv, Chunxia Zhang, Lu Wang, Dongyuan Ma, Feng Liu
In mammals, hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) rapidly expand in the fetal liver (FL), but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we characterize zebrafish caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT) and identify an important cellular and molecular mechanism of HSPC expansion. Time-lapse imaging showed that HSPCs localize adjacent to vascular endothelial cells (ECs), and their migration and expansion display caudal vein-specific orientation in the CHT. RNA sequencing and functional analysis identified that an EC-expressed transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 6a (Klf6a), is essential for the CHT niche...
August 9, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803697/tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-gene-polymorphisms-and-haplotypes-in-egyptian-children-with-nephrotic-syndrome
#14
Doaa M Youssef, Amal S El-Shal, Samia Hussein, Khaled Salah, Abd El Rahman E Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Nephrotic syndrome (NS) characterized by complex pathogenesis and clinical course with relapses; and needs novel breakthroughs for decades. Polymorphisms of cytokines genes including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)may influence susceptibility to NS as well as different patients' steroid responses. In the current study, we demonstrated the potential roles of TNF-α promoter gene polymorphisms [-238, -308, -863] and haplotypes in susceptibility to childhood NS. Also, elucidating their possible influence on patients' steroid response and serum TNF-α level...
August 10, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803556/buffering-effects-of-safe-supportive-and-nurturing-relationships-among-women-with-childhood-histories-of-maltreatment
#15
S R Jaffee, R Takizawa, L Arseneault
BACKGROUND: Adults who were victims of childhood maltreatment tend to have poorer health compared with adults who did not experience abuse. However, many are in good health. We tested whether safe, supportive, and nurturing relationships buffer women with a history of childhood maltreatment from poor health outcomes in later life. METHODS: Participants included women from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study who were involved in an intimate relationship at some point by the time their twin children were 10 years old...
August 14, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803467/not-gate-genetic-circuits-to-control-gene-expression-in-cyanobacteria
#16
Arnaud Taton, Amy T Ma, Mizuho Ota, Susan Golden, James W Golden
To downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, we constructed NOT gate genetic circuits using orthogonal promoters and their cognate repressors regulated translationally by synthetic riboswitches. Four NOT gates were tested and characterized in five cyanobacterial strains using fluorescent reporter-gene assays. In comparison to alternative systems used to downregulate gene expression in cyanobacteria, these NOT gates performed well, reducing YFP reporter expression by 4 to 50-fold. We further evaluated these NOT gates by controlling the expression of the ftsZ gene, which encodes a prokaryotic tubulin homolog that is required for cell division and is essential for Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
August 14, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802884/astrocytes-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-a-bridge-between-obesity-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Cynthia A Martin-Jiménez, Ángela García-Vega, Ricardo Cabezas, Gjumrakch Aliev, Valentina Echeverria, Janneth González, George E Barreto
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a subcellular organelle involved in protein folding and processing. ER stress constitutes a cellular process characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired lipid metabolism and induction of inflammatory responses. ER stress has been suggested to be involved in several human pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases and obesity. Different studies have shown that both neurodegenerative diseases and obesity trigger similar cellular responses to ER stress. Moreover, both diseases are assessed in astrocytes as evidences suggest these cells as key regulators of brain homeostasis...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802862/microrna-21-expression-in-oligodendrocytes-and-correlation-with-low-myelin-mrnas-in-depression-and-alcoholism
#18
José Javier Miguel-Hidalgo, Katherine O Hall, Hannah Bonner, Anna M Roller, Maryam Syed, Casey J Park, Jana P Ball, Marc E Rothenberg, Craig A Stockmeier, Damian G Romero
MiR-21 is a microRNA implicated in cancer, development, and cardiovascular diseases and expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), especially after injury. However, the cellular expression of miR-21 in the adult CNS has not been clearly established either in mice or human subjects, while its alteration in psychiatric disorders is unknown. MiR-21 expression was characterized in reporter mice expressing β-galactosidase (LacZ) under the endogenous miR-21 promoter (miR-21/LacZ). Brain co-localization of miR-21/LacZ with specific neural markers was examined by double immunofluorescence in reporter mice, while extent of immunostaining for myelin basic protein and PDGFRα was determined in miR-21 knockout and wild-type mice...
August 9, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802569/gender-and-subspecialty-of-urology-faculty-in-department-based-leadership-roles
#19
Julia Han, Stephanie Stillings, Harold Hamann, Russell Terry, Louis Moy
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the current gender and subspecialty of those holding academic departmental administrative and educational leadership roles in urology. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of U.S. Urology Residency Programs in 2016 to 2017. Inclusion criteria were participation in the Urology Residency Match Program and having a department of urology website. From June 1, 2016 to August 20, 2016, each department's website was queried...
August 9, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802563/metabolic-circuit-involving-free-fatty-acids-microrna-122-and-triglyceride-synthesis-in-liver-and-muscle-tissues
#20
Chofit Chai, Mila Rivkin, Liav Berkovits, Alina Simerzin, Elina Zorde-Khvalevsky, Nofar Rosenberg, Shiri Klein, Dayana Yaish, Ronen Durst, Shoshana Shpitzen, Shiran Udi, Joseph Tam, Joerg Heeren, Anna Worthmann, Christoph Schramm, Johannes Kluwe, Revital Ravid, Eran Hornstein, Hilla Giladi, Eithan Galun
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Effective treatments are needed for hepatic steatosis characterized by accumulation of triglycerides in hepatocytes, which leads to hepatocellular carcinoma. MicroRNA 122 (MIR122) is expressed only in the liver, where it regulates lipid metabolism. We investigated the mechanism by which free fatty acids (FFAs) regulate MIR122 expression and the effect of MIR122 on triglyceride synthesis. METHODS: We analyzed MIR122 promoter activity and validated its target mRNAs by transfection of luciferase reporter plasmids into Huh7, BNL-1ME, and HEK293 cultured cell lines...
August 9, 2017: Gastroenterology
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