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Homologous chromosome pairing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771908/elevated-temperature-increases-meiotic-crossover-frequency-via-the-interfering-type-i-pathway-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Jennifer L Modliszewski, Hongkuan Wang, Ashley R Albright, Scott M Lewis, Alexander R Bennett, Jiyue Huang, Hong Ma, Yingxiang Wang, Gregory P Copenhaver
For most eukaryotes, sexual reproduction is a fundamental process that requires meiosis. In turn, meiosis typically depends on a reciprocal exchange of DNA between each pair of homologous chromosomes, known as a crossover (CO), to ensure proper chromosome segregation. The frequency and distribution of COs are regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic environmental factors, but much more is known about the molecular mechanisms governing the former compared to the latter. Here we show that elevated temperature induces meiotic hyper-recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana and we use genetic analysis with mutants in different recombination pathways to demonstrate that the extra COs are derived from the major Type I interference sensitive pathway...
May 17, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765389/homoeologous-chromosomes-from-two-hordeum-species-can-recognize-and-associate-during-meiosis-in-wheat-in-the-presence-of-the-ph1-locus
#2
María C Calderón, María-Dolores Rey, Antonio Martín, Pilar Prieto
Understanding the system of a basic eukaryotic cellular mechanism like meiosis is of fundamental importance in plant biology. Moreover, it is also of great strategic interest in plant breeding since unzipping the mechanism of chromosome specificity/pairing during meiosis will allow its manipulation to introduce genetic variability from related species into a crop. The success of meiosis in a polyploid like wheat strongly depends on regular pairing of homologous (identical) chromosomes and recombination, processes mainly controlled by the Ph1 locus...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760772/engineering-a-palette-of-eukaryotic-chromoproteins-for-bacterial-synthetic-biology
#3
Josefine Liljeruhm, Saskia K Funk, Sandra Tietscher, Anders D Edlund, Sabri Jamal, Pikkei Wistrand-Yuen, Karl Dyrhage, Arvid Gynnå, Katarina Ivermark, Jessica Lövgren, Viktor Törnblom, Anders Virtanen, Erik R Lundin, Erik Wistrand-Yuen, Anthony C Forster
Background: Coral reefs are colored by eukaryotic chromoproteins (CPs) that are homologous to green fluorescent protein. CPs differ from fluorescent proteins (FPs) by intensely absorbing visible light to give strong colors in ambient light. This endows CPs with certain advantages over FPs, such as instrument-free detection uncomplicated by ultra-violet light damage or background fluorescence, efficient Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) quenching, and photoacoustic imaging. Thus, CPs have found utility as genetic markers and in teaching, and are attractive for potential cell biosensor applications in the field...
2018: Journal of Biological Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751570/shared-and-species-specific-patterns-of-nascent-y-chromosome-evolution-in-two-guppy-species
#4
Jake Morris, Iulia Darolti, Natasha I Bloch, Alison E Wright, Judith E Mank
Sex chromosomes form once recombination is halted around the sex-determining locus between a homologous pair of chromosomes, resulting in a male-limited Y chromosome. We recently characterized the nascent sex chromosome system in the Trinidadian guppy ( Poecilia reticulata ). The guppy Y is one of the youngest animal sex chromosomes yet identified, and therefore offers a unique window into the early evolutionary forces shaping sex chromosome formation, particularly the rate of accumulation of repetitive elements and Y-specific sequence...
May 3, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749794/molecular-cytogenetics-guides-massively-parallel-sequencing-of-a-radiation-induced-chromosome-translocation-in-human-cells
#5
Michael N Cornforth, Pavana Anur, Nicholas Wang, Erin Robinson, F Andrew Ray, Joel S Bedford, Bradford D Loucas, Eli S Williams, Myron Peto, Paul Spellman, Rahul Kollipara, Ralf Kittler, Joe W Gray, Susan M Bailey
Chromosome rearrangements are large-scale structural variants that are recognized drivers of oncogenic events in cancers of all types. Cytogenetics allows for their rapid, genome-wide detection, but does not provide gene-level resolution. Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) promises DNA sequence-level characterization of the specific breakpoints involved, but is strongly influenced by bioinformatics filters that affect detection efficiency. We sought to characterize the breakpoint junctions of chromosomal translocations and inversions in the clonal derivatives of human cells exposed to ionizing radiation...
May 11, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742103/shoc1-is-a-ercc4-hhh-2-like-protein-integral-to-the-formation-of-crossover-recombination-intermediates-during-mammalian-meiosis
#6
Michel F Guiraldelli, Anna Felberg, Luciana P Almeida, Aniruddha Parikh, Rodrigo O de Castro, Roberto J Pezza
Chromosome segregation errors during meiosis result in the formation of aneuploid gametes and are the leading cause of pregnancy loss and birth defects in humans. Proper chromosome segregation requires pairwise associations of maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes. Chiasmata, which are the cytological manifestations of crossovers (COs), provide a physical link that holds the homologs together as a pair, facilitating their orientation on the spindle at meiosis I. Although CO-promoting activities ensure a balanced number and position of COs, their identity and mechanism of action in mammals remain understudied...
May 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739090/expression-analysis-of-microrna-222-in-breast-cancer
#7
Sima Amini, Atefeh Abak, Mehrdad A Estiar, Vahid Montazeri, Alireza Abhari, Ebrahim Sakhinia
BACKGROUND: miR-221 and miR-222 are homologous miRNAs located in tandem, within 1 kb from each other, on human x chromosome. Recent studies declared that microRNA-222 is aberrantly expressed in various malignancies. The goal of this research was to measure the expression level of has-miR-222-3P and reveal its diagnostic and prognostic importance in breast malignancy. METHODS: In this study, 40 pairs of cancerous and matched adjacent non-cancerous breast tissue were collected from patients, and real-time PCR was used to measure the relative expression of miR-222...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681056/a-cytological-approach-to-study-meiotic-recombination-and-chromosome-dynamics-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-male-meiocytes-in-three-dimensions
#8
Aurélie Hurel, Dylan Phillips, Nathalie Vrielynck, Christine Mézard, Mathilde Grelon, Nicolas Christophorou
During meiotic prophase I chromosomes undergo dramatic conformational changes that accompany chromosome condensation, pairing and recombination between homologs. These changes include the anchoring of telomeres to the nuclear envelope and their clustering to form a bouquet. In plants, these events have been studied and illustrated in intact meiocytes of large genome species. Arabidopsis thaliana is an excellent genetic model where major molecular pathways that control synapsis and recombination between homologs have been uncovered...
April 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644457/an-interplay-between-shugoshin-and-spo13-for-centromeric-cohesin-protection-and-sister-kinetochore-mono-orientation-during-meiosis-i-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#9
Gunjan Mehta, Guhan Kaliyaperumal Anbalagan, Akhilendra Pratap Bharati, Purna Gadre, Santanu Kumar Ghosh
Meiosis is a specialized cell division process by which haploid gametes are produced from a diploid mother cell. Reductional chromosome segregation during meiosis I (MI) is achieved by two unique and conserved events: centromeric cohesin protection (CCP) and sister kinetochore mono-orientation (SKM). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a meiosis-specific protein Spo13 plays a role in both these centromere-specific events. Despite genome-wide association of Spo13, we failed to detect its function in global processes such as cohesin loading, cohesion establishment and homologs pairing...
April 11, 2018: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29621242/comparison-of-phasing-strategies-for-whole-human-genomes
#10
Yongwook Choi, Agnes P Chan, Ewen Kirkness, Amalio Telenti, Nicholas J Schork
Humans are a diploid species that inherit one set of chromosomes paternally and one homologous set of chromosomes maternally. Unfortunately, most human sequencing initiatives ignore this fact in that they do not directly delineate the nucleotide content of the maternal and paternal copies of the 23 chromosomes individuals possess (i.e., they do not 'phase' the genome) often because of the costs and complexities of doing so. We compared 11 different widely-used approaches to phasing human genomes using the publicly available 'Genome-In-A-Bottle' (GIAB) phased version of the NA12878 genome as a gold standard...
April 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618374/transient-reduction-of-dna-methylation-at-the-onset-of-meiosis-in-male-mice
#11
Valeriya Gaysinskaya, Brendan F Miller, Chiara De Luca, Godfried W van der Heijden, Kasper D Hansen, Alex Bortvin
BACKGROUND: Meiosis is a specialized germ cell cycle that generates haploid gametes. In the initial stage of meiosis, meiotic prophase I (MPI), homologous chromosomes pair and recombine. Extensive changes in chromatin in MPI raise an important question concerning the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation to meiosis. Interestingly, previous studies concluded that in male mice, genome-wide DNA methylation patters are set in place prior to meiosis and remain constant subsequently...
April 4, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610216/hybrid-sterility-in-fish-caused-by-mitotic-arrest-of-primordial-germ-cells
#12
Hiroyuki Yoshikawa, Dongdong Xu, Yasuko Ino, Tasuku Yoshino, Takao Hayashida, Junije Wang, Ryosuke Yazawa, Goro Yoshizaki, Yutaka Takeuchi
Sterility in hybrid animals is widely known to be due to a cytological mechanism of aberrant homologous chromosome pairing during meiosis in hybrid germ cells. In this study, the gametes of four marine fish species belonging to Sciaenid were artificially fertilized, and germ cell development was examined at the cellular and molecular levels. One of the intergeneric hybrids had gonads that were testis-like in structure, small in size, and lacked germ cells. Specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs) and their migration towards genital ridges were normally occurred in hybrid embryos, but these PGCs did not proliferate in the hybrid gonads...
April 2, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606591/visualization-of-transvection-in-living-drosophila-embryos
#13
Bomyi Lim, Tyler Heist, Michael Levine, Takashi Fukaya
How remote enhancers interact with appropriate target genes persists as a central mystery in gene regulation. Here, we exploit the properties of transvection to explore enhancer-promoter communication between homologous chromosomes in living Drosophila embryos. We successfully visualized the activation of an MS2-tagged reporter gene by a defined developmental enhancer located in trans on the other homolog. This trans-homolog activation depends on insulator DNAs, which increase the stability-but not the frequency-of homolog pairing...
March 23, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553540/chromatin-spread-preparations-for-the-analysis-of-mouse-oocyte-progression-from-prophase-to-metaphase-ii
#14
Grace H Hwang, Jessica L Hopkins, Philip W Jordan
Chromatin spread techniques have been widely used to assess the dynamic localization of various proteins during gametogenesis, particularly for spermatogenesis. These techniques allow for visualization of protein and DNA localization patterns during meiotic events such as homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis and DNA repair. While a few protocols have been described in the literature, general chromatin spread techniques using mammalian prophase oocytes are limited and difficult due to the timing of meiosis initiation in fetal ovaries...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540500/puf-8-facilitates-homologous-chromosome-pairing-by-promoting-proteasome-activity-during-meiotic-entry-in-c-elegans
#15
Ganga Anil Kumar, Kuppuswamy Subramaniam
Pairing of homologous chromosomes is essential for genetic recombination during gametogenesis. In many organisms, chromosome ends are attached to cytoplasmic dynein, and dynein-driven chromosomal movements facilitate the pairing process. Factors that promote or control the cytoskeletal tethering of chromosomes are largely unknown. Here, we show that the conserved RNA-binding protein PUF-8 facilitates the tethering and pairing processes in the C. elegans germline by promoting proteasome activity. We have isolated a hypomorphic allele of pas-1 , which encodes a proteasome core subunit, and find that the homologous chromosomes fail to pair in the puf-8; pas-1 double mutant due to failure of chromosome tethering...
March 29, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537370/modulation-of-prdm9-controlled-meiotic-chromosome-asynapsis-overrides-hybrid-sterility-in-mice
#16
Sona Gregorova, Vaclav Gergelits, Irena Chvatalova, Tanmoy Bhattacharyya, Barbora Valiskova, Vladana Fotopulosova, Petr Jansa, Diana Wiatrowska, Jiri Forejt
Hybrid sterility is one of the reproductive isolation mechanisms leading to speciation. Prdm9 , the only known vertebrate hybrid-sterility gene, causes failure of meiotic chromosome synapsis and infertility in male hybrids that are the offspring of two mouse subspecies. Within species, Prdm9 determines the sites of programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and meiotic recombination hotspots. To investigate the relation between Prdm9 -controlled meiotic arrest and asynapsis, we inserted random stretches of consubspecific homology on several autosomal pairs in sterile hybrids, and analyzed their ability to form synaptonemal complexes and to rescue male fertility...
March 14, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526484/de-novo-sequencing-and-initial-annotation-of-the-mongolian-gerbil-meriones-unguiculatus-genome
#17
Diego A R Zorio, Scott Monsma, Dan H Sanes, Nace L Golding, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a member of the rodent family that displays several features not found in mice or rats, including sensory specializations and social patterns more similar to those in humans. These features have made gerbils a valuable animal for research studies of auditory and visual processing, brain development, learning and memory, and neurological disorders. Here, we report the whole gerbil annotated genome sequence, and identify important similarities and differences to the human and mouse genomes...
March 8, 2018: Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523236/monitoring-recombination-during-meiosis-in-budding-yeast
#18
Shannon Owens, Shangming Tang, Neil Hunter
Homologous recombination is fundamental to sexual reproduction, facilitating accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first division of meiosis, and creating novel allele combinations that fuel evolution. Following initiation of meiotic recombination by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange form joint molecule (JM) intermediates that are ultimately resolved into crossover and noncrossover repair products. Physical monitoring of the DNA steps of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cultures undergoing synchronous meiosis has provided seminal insights into the molecular basis of meiotic recombination and affords a powerful tool for dissecting the molecular roles of recombination factors...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29521627/a-compartmentalized-signaling-network-mediates-crossover-control-in-meiosis
#19
Liangyu Zhang, Simone Köhler, Regina Rillo-Bohn, Abby F Dernburg
During meiosis, each pair of homologous chromosomes typically undergoes at least one crossover (crossover assurance), but these exchanges are strictly limited in number and widely spaced along chromosomes (crossover interference). The molecular basis for this chromosome-wide regulation remains mysterious. A family of meiotic RING finger proteins has been implicated in crossover regulation across eukaryotes. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses four such proteins, of which one (ZHP-3) is known to be required for crossovers...
March 9, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499648/genome-wide-identification-phylogeny-evolution-and-expression-patterns-of-mtn3-saliva-sweet-genes-and-functional-analysis-of-bcns-in-brassica-rapa
#20
Liming Miao, Yanxia Lv, Lijun Kong, Qizhen Chen, Chaoquan Chen, Jia Li, Fanhuan Zeng, Shenyun Wang, Jianbin Li, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao, Xiaolin Yu
BACKGROUND: Members of the MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family are present in various organisms and are highly conserved. Their precise biochemical functions remain unclear, especially in Chinese cabbage. Based on the whole genome sequence, this study aims to identify the MtN3/saliva/SWEETs family members in Chinese cabbage and to analyze their classification, gene structure, chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationship, expression pattern, and biological functions. RESULTS: We identified 34 SWEET genes in Chinese cabbage and analyzed their localization on chromosomes and transmembrane regions of their corresponding proteins...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
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