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Homologous chromosome pairing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420610/the-diversity-of-dna-fragment-editing-by-crispr-cas9-in-highly-homologous-or-repetitive-sequences
#1
Wang Leyang, Huang Haiyan, Wu Qiang
In complex genomes, there are a large number of duplicated genes in the coding regions and many more repetitive sequences in the non-coding regions. Repetitive sequences can exert great impacts on the heredity and evolution of the organisms, as well as their genome 3D architecture and transcriptional regulation. The high homology nature of repetitive sequences renders their editing by CRISPR/Cas9 very complex. At diploid or polyploid situations, such repetitive sequences could be edited differently on each chromosome or chromatid...
April 20, 2017: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413152/loss-of-pten-expression-is-associated-with-high-microrna-24-level-and-poor-prognosis-in-patients-with-tongue-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#2
Jingzhu Zhao, Jiadong Chi, Ming Gao, Jingtai Zhi, Yigong Li, Xiangqian Zheng
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to detect the relationship between phosphatase and tensin homolog deletion on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and microRNA 24 (miR-24) and correlate PTEN expression with important clinical parameters of patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case series, all TSCC patients treated at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital between March 2005 and October 2011 were retrospectively reviewed...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396582/a-pair-of-maternal-chromosomes-derived-from-meiotic-nondisjunction-in-trisomy-21-affects-nuclear-architecture-and-transcriptional-regulation
#3
Sayaka Omori, Hideyuki Tanabe, Kimihiko Banno, Ayumi Tsuji, Nobutoshi Nawa, Katsuya Hirata, Keiji Kawatani, Chikara Kokubu, Junji Takeda, Hidetoshi Taniguchi, Hitomi Arahori, Kazuko Wada, Yasuji Kitabatake, Keiichi Ozono
Eukaryotic genomes are organised into complex higher-order structures within the nucleus, and the three-dimensional arrangement of chromosomes is functionally important for global gene regulation. The existence of supernumerary chromosome 21 in Down syndrome may perturb the nuclear architecture at different levels, which is normally optimised to maintain the physiological balance of gene expression. However, it has not been clearly elucidated whether and how aberrant configuration of chromosomes affects gene activities...
April 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380054/meioc-maintains-an-extended-meiotic-prophase-i-in-mice
#4
Y Q Shirleen Soh, Maria M Mikedis, Mina Kojima, Alexander K Godfrey, Dirk G de Rooij, David C Page
The meiosis-specific chromosomal events of homolog pairing, synapsis, and recombination occur over an extended meiotic prophase I that is many times longer than prophase of mitosis. Here we show that, in mice, maintenance of an extended meiotic prophase I requires the gene Meioc, a germ-cell specific factor conserved in most metazoans. In mice, Meioc is expressed in male and female germ cells upon initiation of and throughout meiotic prophase I. Mouse germ cells lacking Meioc initiate meiosis: they undergo pre-meiotic DNA replication, they express proteins involved in synapsis and recombination, and a subset of cells progress as far as the zygotene stage of prophase I...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373435/clinical-significance-of-dna-damage-response-factors-and-chromosomal-instability-in-primary-lung-adenocarcinoma
#5
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Tatsuro Okamoto, Mikihiro Kohno, Kensaku Ito, Kazuki Takada, Masakazu Katsura, Yosuke Morodomi, Gouji Toyokawa, Fumihiro Shoji, Yoshihiko Maehara
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological role of DNA damage-response genes and chromosomal instability in primary lung adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 60 surgically-resected lung adenocarcinomas. Levels of checkpoint kinase 2 gene (CHEK2) and breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein gene (BRCA1) mRNA expression were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations (exon 19 deletion and exon 21 mutation) were detected by the PCR clamp method...
April 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349399/imaging-of-chromosome-dynamics-in-mouse-testis-tissue-by-immuno-fish
#6
Harry Scherthan
The mouse (Mus musculus) represents the central mammalian genetic model system for biomedical and developmental research. Mutant mouse models have provided important insights into chromosome dynamics during the complex meiotic differentiation program that compensates for the genome doubling at fertilization. Homologous chromosomes (homologues) undergo dynamic pairing and recombine during first meiotic prophase before they become partitioned into four haploid sets by two consecutive meiotic divisions that lack an intervening S-phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346135/polo-like-kinase-dependent-phosphorylation-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-protein-syp-4-regulates-double-strand-break-formation-through-a-negative-feedback-loop
#7
Saravanapriah Nadarajan, Talley J Lambert, Elisabeth Altendorfer, Jinmin Gao, Michael D Blower, Jennifer C Waters, Monica P Colaiácovo
The synaptonemal complex (SC) is an ultrastructurally conserved proteinaceous structure that holds homologous chromosomes together and is required for the stabilization of pairing interactions and the completion of crossover (CO) formation between homologs during meiosis I. Here, we identify a novel role for a central region component of the SC, SYP-4, in negatively regulating formation of recombination-initiating double-strand breaks (DSBs) via a feedback loop triggered by crossover designation in C. elegans...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339470/meiotic-recombination-modulates-the-structure-and-dynamics-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-during-c-elegans-meiosis
#8
Divya Pattabiraman, Baptiste Roelens, Alexander Woglar, Anne M Villeneuve
During meiotic prophase, a structure called the synaptonemal complex (SC) assembles at the interface between aligned pairs of homologous chromosomes, and crossover recombination events occur between their DNA molecules. Here we investigate the inter-relationships between these two hallmark features of the meiotic program in the nematode C. elegans, revealing dynamic properties of the SC that are modulated by recombination. We demonstrate that the SC incorporates new subunits and switches from a more highly dynamic/labile state to a more stable state as germ cells progress through the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329013/the-origin-of-b-chromosomes-in-yellow-necked-mice-apodemus-flavicollis-break-rules-but-keep-playing-the-game
#9
M Rajičić, S A Romanenko, T V Karamysheva, J Blagojević, T Adnađević, I Budinski, A S Bogdanov, V A Trifonov, N B Rubtsov, M Vujošević
B chromosomes (Bs) are known for more than hundred years but their origin, structure and pattern of evolution are not well understood. In the past few years new methodological approaches, involving isolation of Bs followed by whole DNA amplification, DNA probe generation, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) or the B chromosome DNA sequencing, has allowed detailed analysis of their origin and molecular structure in different species. In this study we explored the origin of Bs in the yellow-necked wood mouse, Apodemus flavicollis, using generation of microdissected DNA probes followed by FISH on metaphase chromosomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327641/sequential-displacement-of-type-vi-secretion-system-effector-genes-leads-to-evolution-of-diverse-immunity-gene-arrays-in-vibrio-cholerae
#10
Paul C Kirchberger, Daniel Unterweger, Daniele Provenzano, Stefan Pukatzki, Yan Boucher
Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) enable bacteria to engage neighboring cells in contact-dependent competition. In Vibrio cholerae, three chromosomal clusters each encode a pair of effector and immunity genes downstream of those encoding the T6SS structural machinery for effector delivery. Different combinations of effector-immunity proteins lead to competition between strains of V. cholerae, which are thought to be protected only from the toxicity of their own effectors. Screening of all publically available V...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315832/modulating-crossover-frequency-and-interference-for-obligate-crossovers-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-meiosis
#11
Parijat Chakraborty, Ajith V Pankajam, Gen Lin, Abhishek Dutta, Krishnaprasad G Nandanan, Manu M Tekkedil, Akira Shinohara, Lars M Steinmetz, Nishant K Thazath
Meiotic crossover frequencies show wide variation among organisms. But most organisms maintain at least one crossover per homolog pair (obligate crossover). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, previous studies have shown crossover frequencies are reduced in the mismatch repair related mutant mlh3Δ and enhanced in a meiotic checkpoint mutant pch2Δ by up to two-fold at specific chromosomal loci, but both mutants maintain high spore viability. We analyzed meiotic recombination events genome-wide in mlh3Δ, pch2Δ and mlh3Δ pch2Δ mutants to test the effect of variation in crossover frequency on obligate crossovers...
March 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314937/phylogenetic-analysis-of-idd-gene-family-and-characterization-of-its-expression-in-response-to-flower-induction-in-malus
#12
Sheng Fan, Dong Zhang, Libo Xing, Siyan Qi, Lisha Du, Haiqin Wu, Hongxia Shao, Youmei Li, Juanjuan Ma, Mingyu Han
Although INDETERMINATE DOMAIN (IDD) genes encoding specific plant transcription factors have important roles in plant growth and development, little is known about apple IDD (MdIDD) genes and their potential functions in the flower induction. In this study, we identified 20 putative IDD genes in apple and named them according to their chromosomal locations. All identified MdIDD genes shared a conserved IDD domain. A phylogenetic analysis separated MdIDDs and other plant IDD genes into four groups. Bioinformatic analysis of chemical characteristics, gene structure, and prediction of protein-protein interactions demonstrated the functional and structural diversity of MdIDD genes...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287591/cell-lineage-analyses-and-gene-function-studies-using-twin-spot-marcm
#13
Hung-Chang Shen, Tsai-Chi Hsu, Pei-Chi Chung, Hung-Hsiang Yu
Mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker (MARCM) is a positive mosaic labeling system that has been widely applied in Drosophila neurobiological studies to depict intricate morphologies and to manipulate the function of genes in subsets of neurons within otherwise unmarked and unperturbed organisms. Genetic mosaics generated in the MARCM system are mediated through site-specific recombination between homologous chromosomes within dividing precursor cells to produce both marked (MARCM clones) and unmarked daughter cells during mitosis...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266542/proteasomes-on-the-chromosome
#14
Michael Lichten
Targeted proteolysis plays an important role in the execution and regulation of many cellular events. Two recent papers in Science identify novel roles for proteasome-mediated proteolysis in homologous chromosome pairing, recombination, and segregation during meiosis.
March 7, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262707/management-of-e-coli-sister-chromatid-cohesion-in-response-to-genotoxic-stress
#15
Elise Vickridge, Charlene Planchenault, Charlotte Cockram, Isabel Garcia Junceda, Olivier Espéli
Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosomal rearrangements associated with pathological disorders. In bacteria, several different DNA lesions are repaired by homologous recombination, a process that involves sister chromatid pairing. Previous work in Escherichia coli has demonstrated that sister chromatid interactions (SCIs) mediated by topological links termed precatenanes, are controlled by topoisomerase IV. In the present work, we demonstrate that during the repair of mitomycin C-induced lesions, topological links are rapidly substituted by an SOS-induced sister chromatid cohesion process involving the RecN protein...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257444/mechanisms-of-fast-and-stringent-search-in-homologous-pairing-of-double-stranded-dna
#16
Amir Bitran, Wei-Yin Chiang, Erel Levine, Mara Prentiss
Self-organization in the cell relies on the rapid and specific binding of molecules to their cognate targets. Correct bindings must be stable enough to promote the desired function even in the crowded and fluctuating cellular environment. In systems with many nearly matched targets, rapid and stringent formation of stable products is challenging. Mechanisms that overcome this challenge have been previously proposed, including separating the process into multiple stages; however, how particular in vivo systems overcome the challenge remains unclear...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243829/meiotic-pairing-as-an-indicator-of-genome-composition-in-polyploid-prairie-cordgrass-spartina-pectinata-link
#17
Jeffrey W Bishop, Sumin Kim, María B Villamil, D K Lee, A Lane Rayburn
The existence of neopolyploidy in prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata Link) has been documented. The neohexaploid was discovered coexisting with tetraploids in central Illinois, and has been reported to exhibit competitiveness in the natural environment. It is hypothesized that the natural tetraploid cytotype produced the hexaploid cytotype via production of unreduced gametes. Meiosis I chromosome pairing was observed in tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40), hexaploid (2n = 6x = 60), and octoploid (2n = 8x = 80) accessions and the percentage of meiotic abnormality was determined...
April 2017: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239026/ectopic-expression-of-meiotic-cohesin-rad21l-promotes-adjacency-of-homologous-chromosomes-in-somatic-cells
#18
Mei Rong, Sachi Miyauchi, Jibak Lee
Pairing, synapsis, and crossover recombination of homologous chromosomes (homologs) are prerequisite for the proper segregation of homologs during meiosis I. The meiosis-specific cohesin subunit, RAD21L, is essential for such meiotic chromosomal events, but it is unknown to what extent RAD21L by itself contributes to the process since various meiotic genes are also involved. To reveal the exclusive contribution of RAD21L to the specific regulation of homologs, we examined the effects of ectopic RAD21L expression on chromosome dynamics in somatic cells...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199302/untimely-expression-of-gametogenic-genes-in-vegetative-cells-causes-uniparental-disomy
#19
H Diego Folco, Venkata R Chalamcharla, Tomoyasu Sugiyama, Gobi Thillainadesan, Martin Zofall, Vanivilasini Balachandran, Jothy Dhakshnamoorthy, Takeshi Mizuguchi, Shiv I S Grewal
Uniparental disomy (UPD), in which an individual contains a pair of homologous chromosomes originating from only one parent, is a frequent phenomenon that is linked to congenital disorders and various cancers. UPD is thought to result mostly from pre- or post-zygotic chromosome missegregation. However, the factors that drive UPD remain unknown. Here we use the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model to investigate UPD, and show that defects in the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery or in the YTH domain-containing RNA elimination factor Mmi1 cause high levels of UPD in vegetative diploid cells...
March 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174243/efficient-talen-mediated-gene-targeting-of-chicken-primordial-germ-cells
#20
Lorna Taylor, Daniel F Carlson, Sunil Nandi, Adrian Sherman, Scott C Fahrenkrug, Michael J McGrew
In this work we use TALE nucleases (TALENs) to target a reporter construct to the DDX4 (vasa) locus in chicken primordial germ cells (PGCs). Vasa is a key germ cell determinant in many animal species and is posited to control avian germ cell formation. We show that TALENs mediate homology-directed repair of the DDX4 locus on the Z sex chromosome at high (8.1%) efficiencies. Large genetic deletions of 30 kb encompassing the entire DDX4 locus were also created using a single TALEN pair. The targeted PGCs were germline competent and were used to produce DDX4 null offspring...
March 1, 2017: Development
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