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Homologous chromosome pairing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913618/meiotic-centromere-coupling-and-pairing-function-by-two-separate-mechanisms-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Emily L Kurdzo, David Obeso, Hoa Chuong, Dean S Dawson
In meiosis I, chromosomes become paired with their homologous partners and then are pulled towards opposite poles of the spindle. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in early meiotic prophase, centromeres are observed to associate in pairs in a homology-independent manner, a process called centromere coupling. Later, as homologous chromosomes align, their centromeres associate in a process called centromere pairing. The synaptonemal complex protein Zip1 is necessary for both types of centromere association...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909815/homoeologous-recombination-in-the-presence-of-ph1-gene-in-wheat
#2
Dal-Hoe Koo, Wenxuan Liu, Bernd Friebe, Bikram S Gill
A crossover (CO) and its cytological signature, the chiasma, are major features of eukaryotic meiosis. The formation of at least one CO/chiasma between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division and genetic recombination. Polyploid organisms with multiple sets of homoeologous chromosomes have evolved additional mechanisms for the regulation of CO/chiasma. In hexaploid wheat (2n = 6× = 42), this is accomplished by pairing homoeologous (Ph) genes, with Ph1 having the strongest effect on suppressing homoeologous recombination and homoeologous COs...
December 1, 2016: Chromosoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900493/mining-the-cicer-arietinum-genome-for-the-mildew-locus-o-mlo-gene-family-and-comparative-evolutionary-analysis-of-the-mlo-genes-from-medicago-truncatula-and-some-other-plant-species
#3
Reena Deshmukh, V K Singh, Brahma Deo Singh
The mildew locus O (Mlo) gene family is ubiquitous in land plants. Some members of this gene family are involved in negative regulation of powdery mildew resistance, while others are involved in several other biological functions. Mlo proteins have characteristic seven transmembrane domains and a calmodulin-binding domain at their C-termini, and are associated with plasma membrane. The Mlo gene family has been studied in several economically important cereals, but little information is available on this gene family in the important legumes, Medicago truncatula Gaertn...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892892/impact-of-lymphocyte-culture-media-on-the-number-of-metaphases-and-chromosome-band-resolution
#4
Piotr Chomik, Magdalena Gryzinska, Justyna Batkowska, Grazyna Jezewska-Witkowska, Janusz Kocki
A special type of differential staining of chromosomes is replication banding. This staining technique reveals the band pattern characteristic of each homologous pair of chromosomes, which is a reflection of heterogeneous euchromatin structure. Banding enables identification of homologous chromosomes and detection of chromosomal aberrations, both structural and numerical. Slide preparation requires knowledge of many techniques, and the procedure is often different for each laboratory. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of selected media for lymphocyte cultures on the number of metaphases and the band resolution of chromosomes...
October 10, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892792/e2fl1-is-a-meiosis-specific-transcription-factor-in-the-protist-tetrahymena-thermophila
#5
Jing Zhang, Miao Tian, Guan-Xiong Yan, Anura Shodhan, Wei Miao
Members of the E2F family of transcription factors have been reported to regulate the expression of genes involved in cell cycle control, DNA replication, and DNA repair in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, E2FL1, a meiosis-specific E2F transcription factor gene, was identified in the model ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila. Loss of this gene resulted in meiotic arrest prior to anaphase I. The cytological experiments revealed that the meiotic homologous pairing was not affected in the absence of E2FL1, but the paired homologous chromosomes did not separate and assumed a peculiar tandem arrangement...
November 28, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862604/whole-genome-sequencing-of-cytogenetically-balanced-chromosome-translocations-identifies-potentially-pathological-gene-disruptions-and-highlights-the-importance-of-microhomology-in-the-mechanism-of-formation
#6
Daniel Nilsson, Maria Pettersson, Peter Gustavsson, Alisa Förster, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Josephine Wincent, Vasilios Zachariadis, Britt-Marie Anderlid, Ann Nordgren, Outi Mäkitie, Valtteri Wirta, Max Käller, Francesco Vezzi, James R Lupski, Magnus Nordenskjöld, Elisabeth Syk Lundberg, Claudia M B Carvalho, Anna Lindstrand
Most balanced translocations are thought to result mechanistically from nonhomologous end joining or, in rare cases of recurrent events, by nonallelic homologous recombination. Here, we use low-coverage mate pair whole-genome sequencing to fine map rearrangement breakpoint junctions in both phenotypically normal and affected translocation carriers. In total, 46 junctions from 22 carriers of balanced translocations were characterized. Genes were disrupted in 48% of the breakpoints; recessive genes in four normal carriers and known dominant intellectual disability genes in three affected carriers...
November 16, 2016: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861941/interconnections-between-meiotic-recombination-and-sequence-polymorphism-in-plant-genomes
#7
REVIEW
Piotr A Ziolkowski, Ian R Henderson
I. II. III. IV. V. References SUMMARY: Meiosis is fundamental to sexual reproduction and creates genetic variation in progeny. During meiosis paired homologous chromosomes undergo recombination, which can result in reciprocal crossovers. This process can recombine independently arising mutations onto the same chromosome. Recombination locations are highly variable between meioses, although total crossover numbers are tightly regulated. In addition to the effect of meiosis on genetic variation, sequence polymorphisms between homologous chromosomes can feedback onto the recombination pathways...
November 10, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856620/genomic-characterization-of-dehalococcoides-mccartyi-strain-11a5-reveals-a-circular-extrachromosomal-genetic-element-and-a-new-tetrachloroethene-reductive-dehalogenase-gene
#8
Siyan Zhao, Chang Ding, Jianzhong He
Dehalococcoides mccartyi exhibits versatile capabilities to respire halogenated compounds under anaerobic conditions. In this study, we report the assembly and annotation of the complete genome of a chloroethene dechlorinating D. mccartyi strain 11a5. Bearing a 1,461,973 base-pair chromosome, strain 11a5 distinguishes itself from other D. mccartyi strains by possessing a 5,940 base-pair circular extrachromosomal genetic element which contains a reductive dehalogenase homolog. The whole genome of strain 11a5 harbors 31 putative reductive dehalogenase genes...
November 16, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811955/cytological-basis-of-sterility-in-male-and-female-hybrids-between-sibling-species-of-grey-voles-microtus-arvalis-and-m-levis
#9
Anna A Torgasheva, Pavel M Borodin
To make insight into the cytological basis of reproductive isolation, we examined chromosome synapsis and recombination in sterile male and female hybrids between Microtus arvalis and M. levis. These sibling species differ by a series of chromosomal rearrangements (fusions, inversions, centromere shifts and heterochromatin insertions). We found that meiosis in male hybrids was arrested at leptotene with complete failure of chromosome pairing and DNA double-strand breaks repair. In the female hybrids meiosis proceeded to pachytene; however, the oocytes varied in the degree of pairing errors...
November 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806301/meiotic-nuclear-oscillations-are-necessary-to-avoid-excessive-chromosome-associations
#10
Mariola R Chacón, Petrina Delivani, Iva M Tolić
Pairing of homologous chromosomes is a crucial step in meiosis, which in fission yeast depends on nuclear oscillations. However, how nuclear oscillations help pairing is unknown. Here, we show that homologous loci typically pair when the spindle pole body is at the cell pole and the nucleus is elongated, whereas they unpair when the spindle pole body is in the cell center and the nucleus is round. Inhibition of oscillations demonstrated that movement is required for initial pairing and that prolonged association of loci leads to mis-segregation...
November 1, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802173/widespread-failure-to-complete-meiosis-does-not-impair-fecundity-in-parthenogenetic-whiptail-lizards
#11
Aracely A Newton, Robert R Schnittker, Zulin Yu, Sarah S Munday, Diana P Baumann, William B Neaves, Peter Baumann
Parthenogenetic species of whiptail lizards in the genus Aspidoscelis constitute a striking example of speciation by hybridization, in which first-generation hybrids instantly attain reproductive isolation and procreate as clonal all-female lineages. Production of eggs containing a full complement of chromosomes in the absence of fertilization involves genome duplication prior to the meiotic divisions. In these pseudo-tetraploid oocytes, pairing and recombination occur exclusively between identical chromosomes instead of homologs; a deviation from the normal meiotic program that maintains heterozygosity...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800017/development-of-a-modularized-two-step-m2s-chromosome-integration-technique-for-integration-of-multiple-transcription-units-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Siwei Li, Wentao Ding, Xueli Zhang, Huifeng Jiang, Changhao Bi
BACKGROUND: Saccharomyces cerevisiae has already been used for heterologous production of fuel chemicals and valuable natural products. The establishment of complicated heterologous biosynthetic pathways in S. cerevisiae became the research focus of Synthetic Biology and Metabolic Engineering. Thus, simple and efficient genomic integration techniques of large number of transcription units are demanded urgently. RESULTS: An efficient DNA assembly and chromosomal integration method was created by combining homologous recombination (HR) in S...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796301/c14orf39-six6os1-is-a-constituent-of-the-synaptonemal-complex-and-is-essential-for-mouse-fertility
#13
Laura Gómez-H, Natalia Felipe-Medina, Manuel Sánchez-Martín, Owen R Davies, Isabel Ramos, Ignacio García-Tuñón, Dirk G de Rooij, Ihsan Dereli, Attila Tóth, José Luis Barbero, Ricardo Benavente, Elena Llano, Alberto M Pendas
Meiotic recombination generates crossovers between homologous chromosomes that are essential for genome haploidization. The synaptonemal complex is a 'zipper'-like protein assembly that synapses homologue pairs together and provides the structural framework for processing recombination sites into crossovers. Humans show individual differences in the number of crossovers generated across the genome. Recently, an anonymous gene variant in C14ORF39/SIX6OS1 was identified that influences the recombination rate in humans...
October 31, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795677/cytological-identification-of-an-aegilops-variabilis-chromosome-carrying-stripe-rust-resistance-in-wheat
#14
Laibin Zhao, Shunzong Ning, Jianjun Yu, Ming Hao, Lianquan Zhang, Zhongwei Yuan, Youliang Zheng, Dengcai Liu
Aegilops variabilis (UUS(v)S(v)), an important sources for wheat improvement, originated from chromosome doubling of a natural hybrid between Ae. umbellulata (UU) with Ae. longissima (S(l)S(l)). The Ae. variabilis karyotype was poorly characterized by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The FISH probe combination of pSc119.2, pTa71 and pTa-713 identified each of the 14 pairs of Ae. variabilis chromosomes. Our FISH ideogram was further used to detect an Ae. variabilis chromosome carrying stripe rust resistance in the background of wheat lines developed from crosses of the stripe rust susceptible bread wheat cultivar Yiyuan 2 with a resistant Ae...
September 2016: Breeding Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790846/identifying-homomorphic-sex-chromosomes-from-wild-caught-adults-with-limited-genomic-resources
#15
Alan Brelsford, Guillaume Lavanchy, Roberto Sermier, Anna Rausch, Nicolas Perrin
We demonstrate a genotyping-by-sequencing approach to identify homomorphic sex chromosomes and their homolog in a distantly related reference genome, based on non-invasive sampling of wild-caught individuals, in the moor frog Rana arvalis. Double-digest RADseq libraries were generated using buccal swabs from 30 males and 21 females from the same population. Search for sex-limited markers from the unfiltered dataset (411,446 RADtags) was more successful than searches from a filtered dataset (33,073 RADtags) for markers showing sex differences in heterozygosity or in allele frequencies...
October 28, 2016: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783630/sex-linked-chromosome-heterozygosity-in-males-of-tityus-confluens-buthidae-a-clue-about-the-presence-of-sex-chromosomes-in-scorpions
#16
Renzo Sebastián Adilardi, Andrés Alejandro Ojanguren-Affilastro, Liliana María Mola
Scorpions of the genus Tityus show holokinetic chromosomes, achiasmatic male meiosis and an absence of heteromorphic sex chromosomes, like all Buthidae. In this work, we analysed the meiotic behaviour and chromosome rearrangements of a population of the scorpion Tityus confluens, characterising the cytotypes of males, females and embryos with different cytogenetic techniques. This revealed that all the females were structural homozygotes, while all the males were structural heterozygotes for different chromosome rearrangements...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768699/multiple-pairwise-analysis-of-non-homologous-centromere-coupling-reveals-preferential-chromosome-size-dependent-interactions-and-a-role-for-bouquet-formation-in-establishing-the-interaction-pattern
#17
Philippe Lefrançois, Beth Rockmill, Pingxing Xie, G Shirleen Roeder, Michael Snyder
During meiosis, chromosomes undergo a homology search in order to locate their homolog to form stable pairs and exchange genetic material. Early in prophase, chromosomes associate in mostly non-homologous pairs, tethered only at their centromeres. This phenomenon, conserved through higher eukaryotes, is termed centromere coupling in budding yeast. Both initiation of recombination and the presence of homologs are dispensable for centromere coupling (occurring in spo11 mutants and haploids induced to undergo meiosis) but the presence of the synaptonemal complex (SC) protein Zip1 is required...
October 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738715/development-of-the-first-consensus-genetic-map-of-intermediate-wheatgrass-thinopyrum-intermedium-using-genotyping-by-sequencing
#18
Traci Kantarski, Steve Larson, Xiaofei Zhang, Lee DeHaan, Justin Borevitz, James Anderson, Jesse Poland
Development of the first consensus genetic map of intermediate wheatgrass gives insight into the genome and tools for molecular breeding. Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium) has been identified as a candidate for domestication and improvement as a perennial grain, forage, and biofuel crop and is actively being improved by several breeding programs. To accelerate this process using genomics-assisted breeding, efficient genotyping methods and genetic marker reference maps are needed. We present here the first consensus genetic map for intermediate wheatgrass (IWG), which confirms the species' allohexaploid nature (2n = 6x = 42) and homology to Triticeae genomes...
October 13, 2016: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733511/assembly-and-transfer-of-tripartite-integrative-and-conjugative-genetic-elements
#19
Timothy L Haskett, Jason J Terpolilli, Amanuel Bekuma, Graham W O'Hara, John T Sullivan, Penghao Wang, Clive W Ronson, Joshua P Ramsay
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements present as "genomic islands" within bacterial chromosomes. Symbiosis islands are ICEs that convert nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia into symbionts of legumes. Here we report the discovery of symbiosis ICEs that exist as three separate chromosomal regions when integrated in their hosts, but through recombination assemble as a single circular ICE for conjugative transfer. Whole-genome comparisons revealed exconjugants derived from nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia received three separate chromosomal regions from the donor Mesorhizobium ciceri WSM1271...
October 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729494/dosage-compensation-in-drosophila-a-model-for-the-coordinate-regulation-of-transcription
#20
Mitzi I Kuroda, Andres Hilfiker, John C Lucchesi
The sex chromosomes have special significance in the history of genetics. The chromosomal basis of inheritance was firmly established when Calvin Bridges demonstrated that exceptions to Mendel's laws of segregation were accompanied at the cytological level by exceptional sex chromosome segregation. The morphological differences between X and Y exploited in Bridges' experiments arose as a consequence of the evolution of the sex chromosomes. Originally a homologous chromosome pair, the degeneration of the Y chromosome has been accompanied by a requirement for increased expression of the single X chromosome in males...
October 2016: Genetics
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