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Homologous chromosome pairing

Diego A R Zorio, Scott Monsma, Dan H Sanes, Nace L Golding, Edwin W Rubel, Yuan Wang
The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is a member of the rodent family that displays several features not found in mice or rats, including sensory specializations and social patterns more similar to those in humans. These features have made gerbils a valuable animal for research studies of auditory and visual processing, brain development, learning and memory, and neurological disorders. Here, we report the whole gerbil annotated genome sequence, and identify important similarities and differences to the human and mouse genomes...
March 8, 2018: Genomics
Shannon Owens, Shangming Tang, Neil Hunter
Homologous recombination is fundamental to sexual reproduction, facilitating accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes at the first division of meiosis, and creating novel allele combinations that fuel evolution. Following initiation of meiotic recombination by programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), homologous pairing and DNA strand exchange form joint molecule (JM) intermediates that are ultimately resolved into crossover and noncrossover repair products. Physical monitoring of the DNA steps of meiotic recombination in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (budding yeast) cultures undergoing synchronous meiosis has provided seminal insights into the molecular basis of meiotic recombination and affords a powerful tool for dissecting the molecular roles of recombination factors...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Liangyu Zhang, Simone Köhler, Regina Rillo-Bohn, Abby F Dernburg
During meiosis, each pair of homologous chromosomes typically undergoes at least one crossover (crossover assurance), but these exchanges are strictly limited in number and widely spaced along chromosomes (crossover interference). The molecular basis for this chromosome-wide regulation remains mysterious. A family of meiotic RING finger proteins has been implicated in crossover regulation across eukaryotes. Caenorhabditis elegans expresses four such proteins, of which one (ZHP-3) is known to be required for crossovers...
March 9, 2018: ELife
Liming Miao, Yanxia Lv, Lijun Kong, Qizhen Chen, Chaoquan Chen, Jia Li, Fanhuan Zeng, Shenyun Wang, Jianbin Li, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao, Xiaolin Yu
BACKGROUND: Members of the MtN3/saliva/SWEET gene family are present in various organisms and are highly conserved. Their precise biochemical functions remain unclear, especially in Chinese cabbage. Based on the whole genome sequence, this study aims to identify the MtN3/saliva/SWEETs family members in Chinese cabbage and to analyze their classification, gene structure, chromosome distribution, phylogenetic relationship, expression pattern, and biological functions. RESULTS: We identified 34 SWEET genes in Chinese cabbage and analyzed their localization on chromosomes and transmembrane regions of their corresponding proteins...
March 2, 2018: BMC Genomics
Stacie E Hughes, Danny E Miller, Angela L Miller, R Scott Hawley
A century of genetic studies of the meiotic process in Drosophila melanogaster females has been greatly augmented by both modern molecular biology and major advances in cytology. These approaches, and the findings they have allowed, are the subject of this review. Specifically, these efforts have revealed that meiotic pairing in Drosophila females is not an extension of somatic pairing, but rather occurs by a poorly understood process during premeiotic mitoses. This process of meiotic pairing requires the function of several components of the synaptonemal complex (SC)...
March 2018: Genetics
Nuria Ferrandiz, Consuelo Barroso, Oana Telecan, Nan Shao, Hyun-Min Kim, Sarah Testori, Peter Faull, Pedro Cutillas, Ambrosious P Snijders, Monica P Colaiácovo, Enrique Martinez-Perez
The formation of haploid gametes from diploid germ cells requires the regulated two-step release of sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) during the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that phosphorylation of cohesin subunit REC-8 by Aurora B promotes SCC release at anaphase I onset in C. elegans oocytes. Aurora B loading to chromatin displaying Haspin-mediated H3 T3 phosphorylation induces spatially restricted REC-8 phosphorylation, preventing full SCC release during anaphase I. H3 T3 phosphorylation is locally antagonized by protein phosphatase 1, which is recruited to chromosomes by HTP-1/2 and LAB-1...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Tomoki Yoshikawa, Hikaru Fujii, Akiko Okutani, Miho Shibamura, Natsumi Omura, Kazutaka Egawa, Hirofumi Kato, Takuya Inagaki, Shizuko Harada, Souichi Yamada, Shigeru Morikawa, Masayuki Saijo
LC16m8 (m8), a highly attenuated vaccinia virus (VAC) strain, was developed as a smallpox vaccine, and its safety and immunogenicity have been confirmed. Here, we aimed to develop a system that recovers infectious m8 from a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) that retains the full-length viral genomic DNA (m8-BAC system). The infectious virus was successfully recovered from a VAC-BAC plasmid, named pLC16m8-BAC. Furthermore, the bacterial replicon-free virus was generated by intramolecular homologous recombination and was successfully recovered from a modified VAC-BAC plasmid, named pLC16m8...
2018: PloS One
Sahin Naqvi, Daniel W Bellott, Kathy S Lin, David C Page
Mammalian X and Y Chromosomes evolved from an ordinary autosomal pair. Genetic decay of the Y led to X Chromosome inactivation (XCI) in females, but some Y-linked genes were retained during the course of sex chromosome evolution, and many X-linked genes did not become subject to XCI. We reconstructed gene-by-gene dosage sensitivities on the ancestral autosomes through phylogenetic analysis of microRNA (miRNA) target sites and compared these preexisting characteristics to the current status of Y-linked and X-linked genes in mammals...
February 15, 2018: Genome Research
Juan M Ferro, Dario E Cardozo, Pablo Suárez, Juan M Boeris, Ailin Blasco-Zúñiga, Gastón Barbero, Anderson Gomes, Thiago Gazoni, William Costa, Cleusa Y Nagamachi, Miryan Rivera, Patricia P Parise-Maltempi, John E Wiley, Julio C Pieczarka, Celio F B Haddad, Julián Faivovich, Diego Baldo
The hylid tribe Cophomantini is a diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs composed of the genera Aplastodiscus, Boana, Bokermannohyla, Hyloscirtus, and Myersiohyla. The phylogenetic relationships of Cophomantini have been comprehensively reviewed in the literature, providing a suitable framework for the study of chromosome evolution. Employing different banding techniques, we studied the chromosomes of 25 species of Boana and 3 of Hyloscirtus; thus providing, for the first time, data for Hyloscirtus and for 15 species of Boana...
2018: PloS One
Milla de Andrade Machado, Julio C Pieczarka, Fernando H R Silva, Patricia C M O'Brien, Malcolm A Ferguson-Smith, Cleusa Y Nagamachi
The genus Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes) contains over 40 species of freshwater electric fishes exhibiting a wide distribution throughout Central and South America, and being particularly prevalent in the Amazon basin. Cytogenetics has been an important tool in the cytotaxonomy and elucidation of evolutionary processes in this genus, including the unraveling the variety of diploid chromosome number (2n = from 34 to 54), the high karyotype diversity among species with a shared diploid number, different sex chromosome systems, and variation in the distribution of several Repetitive DNAs and colocation and association between those sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Sofia Mazzoleni, Michail Rovatsos, Odessa Schillaci, Francesca Dumas
We explored the topology of 18S and 28S rDNA units by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the karyotypes of thirteen species representatives from major groups of Primates and Tupaia minor (Günther, 1876) (Scandentia), in order to expand our knowledge of Primate genome reshuffling and to identify the possible dispersion mechanisms of rDNA sequences. We documented that rDNA probe signals were identified on one to six pairs of chromosomes, both acrocentric and metacentric ones. In addition, we examined the potential homology of chromosomes bearing rDNA genes across different species and in a wide phylogenetic perspective, based on the DAPI-inverted pattern and their synteny to human...
2018: Comparative Cytogenetics
Brian Burke
Meiosis is a key processes of sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. By combining two cell division cycles with a single round of DNA replication meiosis provides a mechanism to generate haploid gametes. Coincidentally, processes involved in ensuring appropriate segregation of homologous chromosomes also result in genetic recombination and shuffling of genes between each generation. During the first meiotic prophase, rapid telomere-led chromosome movements facilitate alignment and pairing of homologous chromosomes...
January 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
Fabrizia Carofiglio, Esther Sleddens-Linkels, Evelyne Wassenaar, Akiko Inagaki, Wiggert A van Cappellen, J Anton Grootegoed, Attila Toth, Willy M Baarends
Repair of SPO11-dependent DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination (HR) is essential for stable homologous chromosome pairing and synapsis during meiotic prophase. Here, we induced radiation-induced DSBs to study meiotic recombination and homologous chromosome pairing in mouse meiocytes in the absence of SPO11 activity (Spo11YF/YF model), and in the absence of both SPO11 and HORMAD1 (Spo11/Hormad1 dko). Within 30 min after 5 Gy irradiation of Spo11YF/YF mice, 140-160 DSB repair foci were detected, which specifically localized to the synaptonemal complex axes...
January 31, 2018: DNA Repair
Larissa Glugoski, Lucia Giuliano-Caetano, Orlando Moreira-Filho, Marcelo R Vicari, Viviane Nogaroto
Co-located 5S rDNA genes and interstitial telomeric sites (ITS) revealed the involvement of multiple 5S rDNA clusters in chromosome rearrangements of Loricariidae. Interstitial (TTAGGG)n vestiges, in addition to telomeric sites, can coincide with locations of chromosomal rearrangements, and they are considered to be hotspots for chromosome breaks. This study aimed the molecular characterization of 5S rDNA in two Rineloricaria latirostris populations and examination of roles of 5S rDNA in breakpoint sites and its in situ localization...
January 31, 2018: Gene
Deng Luo, Meng Zhang, Ting Liu, Wei Cao, Jiajie Guo, Caiping Mao, Yifan Li, Juanmei Wang, Weiren Huang, Daru Lu, Shuo Zhang, Zhoufang Li, Jiankui He
The longest possible haplotype is chromosome haplotype that is a set of co-inherited alleles occurred on a single strand chromosome inherited from one parent. Standard whole-genome shotgun sequencing technologies are limited by the inability to independently study the haplotype of homologous chromosomes due to the short-reads sequencing strategy and disturbance of homologue chromosomes. Here, we investigated several types of chromosomal abnormalities by a dilution-based method to separate an intact copy of homologous chromosome from human metaphase cells, and then single chromosomes were independently amplified by whole-genome amplification methods, converted into barcoded sequencing libraries, and sequenced in multiplexed pools by Illumina sequencers...
January 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jan Vazač, Zoltán Füssy, Irena Hladová, Sireesha Killi, Miroslav Oborník
Chromera velia is an alveolate alga which represents the closest known phototrophic relative to apicomplexan parasites. Although the nuclear, mitochondrial, and plastid genomes of this alga have been sequenced, the number of chromosomes and ploidy of C. velia are unknown. We explored ploidy in the vegetative cell, the predominant stage in cultures of Chromera, using the tyramide signal amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH) in isolated nuclei of C. velia. Probes were derived from three single copy genes coding for 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-D-erythritol (CDP-ME) kinase, 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate (MEcPP) synthase and Topoisomerase II...
December 18, 2017: Protist
Yu Ren, Feiyang Diao, Sunita Katari, Svetlana Yatsenko, Huaiyang Jiang, Michelle A Wood-Trageser, Aleksandar Rajkovic
BACKGROUND: Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder that usually presents with amenorrhea, atrophic ovaries, and low estrogen. Most cases of HH are idiopathic and nonsyndromic. Nucleoporin 107 (NUP107), a protein involved in transport between cytoplasm and nucleus with putative roles in meiosis/mitosis progression, was recently implicated as a cause of HH. We identified a NUP107 genetic variant in a nonconsanguineous family with two sisters affected with primary amenorrhea and HH, and generated a mouse model that carried the human variant...
January 24, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Tingwei Guo, Alexander Diacou, Nomaru Hiroko, Donna M McDonald-McGinn, Matthew Hestand, Wolfram Demaerel, Liangtian Zhang, Yingjie Zhao, Francisco Ujueta, Jidong Shan, Cristina Montagna, Deyou Zheng, Terrence B Crowley, Leila Kushan-Wells, Carrie E Bearden, Wendy R Kates, Doron Gothelf, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez, Jeroen Breckpot, Ann Swillen, Jacob Vorstman, Elaine Zackai, Felipe Gonzalez Benavides, Gabriela M Repetto, Beverly S Emanuel, Anne S Bassett, Joris R Vermeesch, Christian R Marshall, Bernice E Morrow
Recurrent, de novo, meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination events between low copy repeats, termed LCR22s, leads to the 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS; velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome). Although most 22q11.2DS patients have a similar sized 3 million base pair (Mb), LCR22A-D deletion, some have nested LCR22A-B or LCR22A-C deletions. Our goal is to identify additional recurrent 22q11.2 deletions associated with 22q11.2DS, serving as recombination hotspots for meiotic chromosomal rearrangements...
January 18, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Xiaoliang Ren, Runsheng Li, Xiaolin Wei, Yu Bi, Vincy Wing Sze Ho, Qiutao Ding, Zhichao Xu, Zhihong Zhang, Chia-Ling Hsieh, Amanda Young, Jianyang Zeng, Xiao Liu, Zhongying Zhao
DNA recombination is required for effective segregation and diversification of genomes and for the successful completion of meiosis. Recent studies in various species hybrids have demonstrated a genetic link between DNA recombination and speciation. Consistent with this, we observed a striking suppression of recombination in the hybrids between two nematodes, the hermaphroditic Caenorhabditis briggsae and the gonochoristic C. nigoni. To unravel the molecular basis underlying the recombination suppression in their hybrids, we generated a C...
January 9, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Jinmin Gao, Monica P Colaiácovo
The proteinaceous zipper-like structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC), which forms between pairs of homologous chromosomes during meiosis from yeast to humans, plays important roles in promoting interhomolog crossover formation, regulating cessation of DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation following crossover designation, and ensuring accurate meiotic chromosome segregation. Recent studies are starting to reveal critical roles for different protein modifications in regulating SC dynamics. Protein SUMOylation, N-terminal acetylation, and phosphorylation have been shown to be essential for the regulated assembly and disassembly of the SC...
December 28, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
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