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Homologous chromosome pairing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927382/a-rapid-seamless-method-for-gene-knockout-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Weiliang Huang, Angela Wilks
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a model organism for the study of quorum sensing, biofilm formation, and also leading cause of nosocomial infections in immune compromised patients. As such P. aeruginosa is one of the most well studied organisms in terms of its genetics. However, the construction of gene deletions and replacements in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is relatively time-consuming, requiring multiple steps including suicide vector construction, conjugation, inactivation with insertion of antibiotic resistance cassettes and allelic exchange...
September 19, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910288/genomics-enabled-analysis-of-the-emergent-disease-cotton-bacterial-blight
#2
Anne Z Phillips, Jeffrey C Berry, Mark C Wilson, Anupama Vijayaraghavan, Jillian Burke, J Imani Bunn, Tom W Allen, Terry Wheeler, Rebecca S Bart
Cotton bacterial blight (CBB), an important disease of (Gossypium hirsutum) in the early 20th century, had been controlled by resistant germplasm for over half a century. Recently, CBB re-emerged as an agronomic problem in the United States. Here, we report analysis of cotton variety planting statistics that indicate a steady increase in the percentage of susceptible cotton varieties grown each year since 2009. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains from the current outbreak cluster with race 18 Xanthomonas citri pv...
September 14, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892406/moving-and-stopping-regulation-of-chromosome-movement-to-promote-meiotic-chromosome-pairing-and-synapsis
#3
Benjamin Alleva, Sarit Smolikove
Meiosis is a specialized cellular division occurring in organisms capable of sexual reproduction that leads to the formation of gametes containing half of the original chromosome number. During the earliest stage of meiosis, prophase I, pairing of homologous chromosomes is achieved in preparation for their proper distribution in the coming divisions. An important question is how do homologous chromosomes find each other and establish pairing interactions. Early studies demonstrated that chromosomes are dynamic in nature and move during this early stage of meiosis...
September 11, 2017: Nucleus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872922/mir-1297-promotes-cell-proliferation-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells-involving-in-pten-akt-skp2-signaling-pathway
#4
Wenjin Bu, Tianyou Luo
Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) is a lipid and protein phosphatase and possesses an antitumor effect in lung cancers. miRNAs are reportedly abnormally expressed in human lung cancers. However, whether miRNA contributes to PTEN expression in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) has not been clearly clarified. In the present study, we found that miR-1297 probably binds with 3'UTR sequence of PTEN and negatively regulated the levels of PTEN in NSCLC cells. First, the expression levels of PTEN and Skp2 were detected by western blotting in NSCLC specimens and paired normal tissue specimens...
September 5, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852033/fish-based-mitotic-and-meiotic-diakinesis-karyotypes-of-morus-notabilis-reveal-a-chromosomal-fusion-fission-cycle-between-mitotic-and-meiotic-phases
#5
Yahui Xuan, Chaoshuo Li, Yue Wu, Bi Ma, Ruiling Liu, Zhonghuai Xiang, Ningjia He
Mulberry (Morus spp.), in family Moraceae, is a plant with important economic value. Many polyploid levels of mulberry have been determined. In the present study, the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique was applied in Morus notabilis, using four single-copy sequences, telomere repeats, and 5S and 25S rDNAs as probes. All the mitotic chromosomes were clearly identified and grouped into seven pairs of homologous chromosomes. Three dot chromosome pairs were distinguished by the FISH patterns of the 25S rDNA probe and a simple sequence repeat (SSR2524)...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844861/the-dna-damage-checkpoint-eliminates-mouse-oocytes-with-chromosome-synapsis-failure
#6
Vera D Rinaldi, Ewelina Bolcun-Filas, Hiroshi Kogo, Hiroki Kurahashi, John C Schimenti
Pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes during meiosis is crucial for producing genetically normal gametes and is dependent upon repair of SPO11-induced double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination. To prevent transmission of genetic defects, diverse organisms have evolved mechanisms to eliminate meiocytes containing unrepaired DSBs or unsynapsed chromosomes. Here we show that the CHK2 (CHEK2)-dependent DNA damage checkpoint culls not only recombination-defective mouse oocytes but also SPO11-deficient oocytes that are severely defective in homolog synapsis...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840245/centromere-dynamics-in-male-and-female-germ-cells
#7
Elaine M Dunleavy, Caitríona M Collins
In sexually reproducing organisms the germ line is the cellular lineage that gives rise to gametes. All germ cells originate from germline stem cells that divide asymmetrically to generate gonial pre-cursors, which are amplified in number by mitotic divisions, undergo meiosis and eventually differentiate into mature gametes (haploid eggs and sperm). Information transmitted with gametes is inherited by offspring, and potentially by subsequent generations, instructing in organismal development and beyond. Meiosis comprises one round of DNA replication, followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation; homologous chromosomes segregate in the first division (meiosis I) and sister chromatids segregate in the second division (meiosis II)...
2017: Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838355/sixteen-years-of-meiotic-silencing-by-unpaired-dna
#8
T M Hammond
The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa possesses a process called meiotic silencing by unpaired DNA (MSUD). MSUD has a remarkable ability to scan homologous chromosomes for unpaired DNA during meiosis. After unpaired DNA is identified, MSUD silences all RNA from the unpaired DNA along with any RNA transcribed from homologous sequences at other locations in the genome, regardless of their pairing state. The mechanism by which unpaired DNA is detected is unknown. Unpaired DNA segments can be as short as 1.3kb, if not shorter, and DNA sequences with only a small level of polymorphism (6%) can be considered unpaired by MSUD...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827752/haplotype-resolved-sweet-potato-genome-traces-back-its-hexaploidization-history
#9
Jun Yang, M-Hossein Moeinzadeh, Heiner Kuhl, Johannes Helmuth, Peng Xiao, Stefan Haas, Guiling Liu, Jianli Zheng, Zhe Sun, Weijuan Fan, Gaifang Deng, Hongxia Wang, Fenhong Hu, Shanshan Zhao, Alisdair R Fernie, Stefan Boerno, Bernd Timmermann, Peng Zhang, Martin Vingron
Here we present the 15 pseudochromosomes of sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, the seventh most important crop in the world and the fourth most significant in China. By using a novel haplotyping method based on genome assembly, we have produced a half haplotype-resolved genome from ~296 Gb of paired-end sequence reads amounting to roughly 67-fold coverage. By phylogenetic tree analysis of homologous chromosomes, it was possible to estimate the time of two recent whole-genome duplication events as occurring about 0...
August 21, 2017: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809790/genome-wide-organization-and-expression-profiling-of-the-sbp-box-gene-family-in-chinese-jujube-ziziphus-jujuba-mill
#10
Shuang Song, Heying Zhou, Songbai Sheng, Ming Cao, Yingyue Li, Xiaoming Pang
Transcription factors play vital roles in the developmental processes of plants. The SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP) genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors and plays many crucial roles in plant development. In this study, 16 SBP-box gene family members were identified in Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Dongzao (Dongzao), which were distributed over 8 chromosomes. They were classified into seven groups according to their phylogenetic relationships with other SBP-box gene families. Within each group, genes shared similar exon-intron structures and motif locations...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798212/the-dna-triangle-and-its-application-to-learning-meiosis
#11
L Kate Wright, Christina M Catavero, Dina L Newman
Although instruction on meiosis is repeated many times during the undergraduate curriculum, many students show poor comprehension even as upper-level biology majors. We propose that the difficulty lies in the complexity of understanding DNA, which we explain through a new model, the DNA triangle The DNA triangle integrates three distinct scales at which one can think about DNA: chromosomal, molecular, and informational Through analysis of interview and survey data from biology faculty and students through the lens of the DNA triangle, we illustrate important differences in how novices and experts are able to explain the concepts of ploidy, homology, and mechanism of homologous pairing Similarly, analysis of passages from 16 different biology textbooks shows a large divide between introductory and advanced material, with introductory books omitting explanations of meiosis-linked concepts at the molecular level of DNA...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797117/analysis-of-the-impact-of-the-absence-of-rad51-strand-exchange-activity-in-arabidopsis-meiosis
#12
Gunjita Singh, Olivier Da Ines, Maria Eugenia Gallego, Charles I White
The ploidy of eukaryote gametes must be halved to avoid doubling of numbers of chromosomes with each generation and this is carried out by meiosis, a specialized cell division in which a single chromosomal replication phase is followed by two successive nuclear divisions. With some exceptions, programmed recombination ensures the proper pairing and distribution of homologous pairs of chromosomes in meiosis and recombination defects thus lead to sterility. Two highly related recombinases are required to catalyse the key strand-invasion step of meiotic recombination and it is the meiosis-specific DMC1 which is generally believed to catalyse the essential non-sister chromatid crossing-over, with RAD51 catalysing sister-chromatid and non-cross-over events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791037/adaptation-of-the-pivotal-differential-genome-pattern-for-the-induction-of-intergenomic-chromosome-recombination-in-hybrids-of-synthetic-amphidiploids-within-triticeae-tribe
#13
Michal T Kwiatek, Joanna Majka, Maciej Majka, Jolanta Belter, Halina Wisniewska
A pivotal-differential evolution pattern is when two allopolyploids share a common genome, which is called pivotal, and differ with respect to the other genome or genomes, called differential. This feature induces the intergenomic recombination between chromosomes of differential genomes, which can lead to speciation. Our study is a cytomolecular insight into this mechanism which was adapted for the induction of intergenomic chromosome recombination in hybrids of synthetic amphidiploids Aegilops biuncialis × S...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774726/girardia-dorotocephala-transcriptome-sequence-assembly-and-validation-through-characterization-of-piwi-homologs-and-stem-cell-progeny-markers
#14
Eugene Matthew P Almazan, Sydney L Lesko, Michael P Markey, Labib Rouhana
Planarian flatworms are popular models for the study of regeneration and stem cell biology in vivo. Technical advances and increased availability of genetic information have fueled the discovery of molecules responsible for stem cell pluripotency and regeneration in flatworms. Unfortunately, most of the planarian research performed worldwide utilizes species that are not natural habitants of North America, which limits their availability to newcomer laboratories and impedes their distribution for educational activities...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760140/the-three-dimensional-genome-organization-of-drosophila-melanogaster-through-data-integration
#15
Qingjiao Li, Harianto Tjong, Xiao Li, Ke Gong, Xianghong Jasmine Zhou, Irene Chiolo, Frank Alber
BACKGROUND: Genome structures are dynamic and non-randomly organized in the nucleus of higher eukaryotes. To maximize the accuracy and coverage of three-dimensional genome structural models, it is important to integrate all available sources of experimental information about a genome's organization. It remains a major challenge to integrate such data from various complementary experimental methods. Here, we present an approach for data integration to determine a population of complete three-dimensional genome structures that are statistically consistent with data from both genome-wide chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) and lamina-DamID experiments...
July 31, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755295/centromere-pairing-precedes-meiotic-chromosome-pairing-in-plants
#16
REVIEW
Jing Zhang, Fangpu Han
Meiosis is a specialized eukaryotic cell division, in which diploid cells undergo a single round of DNA replication and two rounds of nuclear division to produce haploid gametes. In most eukaryotes, the core events of meiotic prophase I are chromosomal pairing, synapsis and recombination. To ensure accurate chromosomal segregation, homologs have to identify and align along each other at the onset of meiosis. Although much progress has been made in elucidating meiotic processes, information on the mechanisms underlying chromosome pairing is limited in contrast to the meiotic recombination and synapsis events...
July 26, 2017: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754468/microhomology-mediated-end-joining-good-bad-and-ugly
#17
REVIEW
Ja-Hwan Seol, Eun Yong Shim, Sang Eun Lee
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are induced by a variety of genotoxic agents, including ionizing radiation and chemotherapy drugs for treating cancers. The elimination of DSBs proceeds via distinctive error-free and error-prone pathways. Repair by homologous recombination (HR) is largely error-free and mediated by RAD51/BRCA2 gene products. Classical non-homologous end joining (C-NHEJ) requires the Ku heterodimer and can efficiently rejoin breaks, with occasional loss or gain of DNA information. Recently, evidence has unveiled another DNA end-joining mechanism that is independent of recombination factors and Ku proteins, termed alternative non-homologous end joining (A-NHEJ)...
July 16, 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733400/visualization-of-a-specific-genome-locus-by-the-laco-laci-gfp-system
#18
Da-Qiao Ding, Yasushi Hiraoka
Observing the dynamics of a specific chromosome locus in living cells can provide important information as to the molecular mechanisms underlying events such as chromosome segregation, homologous chromosome pairing, chromosome arrangement, and gene expression. The lacO/LacI-GFP system provides a simple and useful method in which a chromosome locus is visualized by inserting lacO repeat arrays and then expressing an LacI-GFP fusion that specifically binds to the lacO sequence. This system has been adapted for use in Schizosaccharomyces pombe by expressing the LacI-GFP under a promoter of the dis1(+) gene...
July 21, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729552/new-insights-into-the-karyotype-evolution-of-the-free-living-flatworm-macrostomum-lignano-platyhelminthes-turbellaria
#19
Kira S Zadesenets, Lukas Schärer, Nikolay B Rubtsov
The free-living flatworm Macrostomum lignano is a model organism for evolutionary and developmental biology studies. Recently, an unusual karyotypic diversity was revealed in this species. Specifically, worms are either 'normal' 2n = 8, or they are aneuploid with one or two additional large chromosome(s) (i.e. 2n = 9 or 2n = 10, respectively). Aneuploid worms did not show visible behavioral or morphological abnormalities and were successful in reproduction. In this study, we generated microdissected DNA probes from chromosome 1 (further called MLI1), chromosome 2 (MLI2), and a pair of similar-sized smaller chromosomes (MLI3, MLI4)...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711872/cell-scientist-to-watch-kevin-corbett
#20
(no author information available yet)
Kevin Corbett graduated in biology and biochemistry from the University of Virginia. He then went to the University of California, Berkeley, to work on the structure and function of DNA topoisomerases in bacteria and archaea for his PhD with James Berger. In 2005, he moved to the laboratory of Stephen Harrison at Harvard Medical School for his postdoctoral work on kinetochore structure and function, particularly the yeast monopolin complex, which promotes proper chromosome segregation in the first meiotic division...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
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