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Chromosome pairing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053571/chromosome-synapsis-and-recombination-in-male-hybrids-between-two-chromosome-races-of-the-common-shrew-sorex-araneus-l-soricidae-eulipotyphla
#1
Nadezhda M Belonogova, Andrei V Polyakov, Tatyana V Karamysheva, Anna A Torgasheva, Jeremy B Searle, Pavel M Borodin
Hybrid zones between chromosome races of the common shrew (Sorex araneus) provide exceptional models to study the potential role of chromosome rearrangements in the initial steps of speciation. The Novosibirsk and Tomsk races differ by a series of Robertsonian fusions with monobrachial homology. They form a narrow hybrid zone and generate hybrids with both simple (chain of three chromosomes) and complex (chain of eight or nine) synaptic configurations. Using immunolocalisation of the meiotic proteins, we examined chromosome pairing and recombination in males from the hybrid zone...
October 20, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052098/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-whole-genome-duplications-and-gene-selection-patterns-in-cultivated-and-wild-chrysanthemum-species
#2
So Youn Won, Soo-Jin Kwon, Tae-Ho Lee, Jae-A Jung, Jung Sun Kim, Sang-Ho Kang, Seong-Han Sohn
Comparative transcriptome analysis of wild and cultivated chrysanthemums provides valuable genomic resources and helps uncover common and divergent patterns of genome and gene evolution in these species. Plants are unique in that they employ polyploidy (or whole-genome duplication, WGD) as a key process for speciation and evolution. The Chrysanthemum genus is closely associated with hybridization and polyploidization, with Chrysanthemum species exhibiting diverse ploidy levels. The commercially important species, C...
October 19, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046707/comparative-cytogenetic-analysis-of-marine-palaemon-species-reveals-a-x1x1x2x2-x1x2y-sex-chromosome-system-in-palaemon-elegans
#3
Zeltia Torrecilla, Andrés Martínez-Lage, Alejandra Perina, Enrique González-Ortegón, Ana M González-Tizón
BACKGROUND: The maintenance of species and the promotion of speciation are closely related to chromosomal rearrangements throughout evolution. Decapoda represents the most species-rich order among crustaceans and, despite its ecological and economic importance, little is known about decapod karyology. We aim at cytogenetically characterizing two sympatric prawn species. RESULTS: Analysis of mitotic metaphases and meiotic diakinesis of the common prawn Palaemon serratus and the rockpool prawn P...
2017: Frontiers in Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046576/a-sex-chromosome-inversion-causes-strong-overdominance-for-sperm-traits-that-affect-siring-success
#4
Ulrich Knief, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Yifan Pei, Malika Ihle, Daiping Wang, Katrin Martin, Pavlína Opatová, Jana Albrechtová, Michael Wittig, Andre Franke, Tomáš Albrecht, Bart Kempenaers
Male reproductive success depends on the competitive ability of sperm to fertilize the ova, which should lead to strong selection on sperm characteristics. This raises the question of how heritable variation in sperm traits is maintained. Here we show that in zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) nearly half of the variance in sperm morphology is explained by an inversion on the Z chromosome with a 40% allele frequency in the wild. The sperm of males that are heterozygous for the inversion had the longest midpieces and the highest velocity...
August 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043636/analysis-of-de-novo-telomere-addition-by-southern-blot
#5
Diego Bonetti, Maria Pia Longhese
Telomere length is maintained in most eukaryotes by the action of a specialized enzyme, the telomerase. However, the complexity of mechanisms regulating telomeric DNA length as well as the heterogeneity in length of each telomere in a population of cells has made it very difficult to understand how telomerase is regulated in vivo. Here, we describe a method developed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to monitor the addition of telomeric sequences to a single newly generated telomere in vivo. The primary strain consists of a HO endonuclease cleavage site that is placed directly adjacent to an 81-base-pair stretch of telomeric DNA inserted into the ADH4 locus of chromosome VII...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043597/do-holocentric-chromosomes-represent-an-evolutionary-advantage-a-study-of-paired-analyses-of-diversification-rates-of-lineages-with-holocentric-chromosomes-and-their-monocentric-closest-relatives
#6
José Ignacio Márquez-Corro, Marcial Escudero, Modesto Luceño
Despite most of the cytogenetic research is focused on monocentric chromosomes, chromosomes with kinetochoric activity localized in a single centromere, several studies have been centered on holocentric chromosomes which have diffuse kinetochoric activity along the chromosomes. The eukaryotic organisms that present this type of chromosomes have been relatively understudied despite they constitute rather diversified species lineages. On the one hand, holocentric chromosomes may present intrinsic benefits (chromosome mutations such as fissions and fusions are potentially neutral in holocentrics)...
October 17, 2017: Chromosome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040682/dose-response-curves-for-analyzing-of-dicentric-chromosomes-and-chromosome-translocations-following-doses-of-1000-mgy-or-less-based-on-irradiated-peripheral-blood-samples-from-five-healthy-individuals
#7
Y Abe, Mitsuaki A Yoshida, Kurumi Fujioka, Yumiko Kurosu, Risa Ujiie, Aki Yanagi, Naohiro Tsuyama, Tomisato Miura, Toshiya Inaba, Kenji Kamiya, Akira Sakai
In terms of biological dosimetry at the time of radiation exposure, the dicentric chromosome (Dic) assay (DCA) is the gold standard for assessing for the acute phase and chromosome translocation (Tr) analysis is the gold standard for assessing the chronic phase. It is desirable to have individual dose-response curves (DRCs) for each laboratory because the analysis criteria differ between laboratories. We constructed the DRCs for radiation dose estimation (with three methods) using peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy individuals...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037560/application-of-non-invasive-prenatal-testing-in-late-gestation-in-a-pregnancy-associated-with-intrauterine-growth-restriction-and-trisomy-22-confined-placental-mosaicism
#8
Chih-Ping Chen, Chris Tsai, Ming-Huei Lin, Schu-Rern Chern, Shin-Wen Chen, Shih-Ting Lai, Wen-Lin Chen, Chen-Wen Pan, Wayseen Wang
OBJECTIVE: We present the application of non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in late gestation in a pregnancy associated with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and trisomy 22 confined placental mosaicism (CPM). CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old pregnant woman underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) at 12 weeks of gestation. The pregnancy was conceived by in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. CVS revealed a karyotype of 47,XY,+22 in all of 15 cultured chorionic villi cells...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036650/characteristic-arrangement-of-nucleosomes-is-predictive-of-chromatin-interactions-at-kilobase-resolution
#9
Hui Zhang, Feifei Li, Yan Jia, Bingxiang Xu, Yiqun Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Zhihua Zhang
High-throughput chromosome conformation capture (3C) technologies, such as Hi-C, have made it possible to survey 3D genome structure. However, obtaining 3D profiles at kilobase resolution at low cost remains a major challenge. Therefore, we herein present an algorithm for precise identification of chromatin interaction sites at kilobase resolution from MNase-seq data, termed chromatin interaction site detector (CISD), and a CISD-based chromatin loop predictor (CISD_loop) that predicts chromatin-chromatin interactions (CCIs) from low-resolution Hi-C data...
October 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032424/not-just-gene-expression-3d-implications-of-chromatin-modifications-during-sexual-plant-reproduction
#10
Stefanie Dukowic-Schulze, Chang Liu, Changbin Chen
DNA methylation and histone modifications are epigenetic changes on a DNA molecule that alter the three-dimensional (3D) structure locally as well as globally, impacting chromatin looping and packaging on a larger scale. Epigenetic marks thus inform higher-order chromosome organization and placement in the nucleus. Conventional epigenetic marks are joined by chromatin modifiers like cohesins, condensins and membrane-anchoring complexes to support particularly 3D chromosome organization. The most popular consequences of epigenetic modifications are gene expression changes, but chromatin modifications have implications beyond this, particularly in actively dividing cells and during sexual reproduction...
October 14, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030920/identification-of-sesame-sesamum-indicum-l-chromosomes-using-the-bac-fish-system
#11
Ruihong Zhao, Hongmei Miao, Wenqin Song, Chengbin Chen, Haiyang Zhang
Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.; family Pedaliaceae) is a commercially valuable oilseed crop with high oil content. Its small genome size favors the genomic analysis of key biological processes such as oil synthesis and metabolism. However, the 13 chromosome pairs of sesame have not been characterized because of technological limitations and their small size. To address these issues, we constructed a BAC library comprising 57,600 BAC clones for sesame. The estimated genome coverage of the sesame BAC library was 13...
October 14, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030445/microhomology-mediated-high-throughput-gene-inactivation-strategy-for-hyperthermophilic-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-islandicus
#12
Changyi Zhang, Rachel J Whitaker
Sulfolobus islandicus is rapidly emerging as a model system for studying the biology and evolution within the TACK lineage of the Archaeal domain. As the tree of life grows, identifying the cellular function of genes within this lineage will have significant impacts on our understanding of the evolution of Last Archaeal Eukaryote Common Ancestor (LEACA) and the differentiation of Archaea from Eukaryotes during the evolution of the modernday cell. To progress our understanding of this key Archaeal organism, we report a novel high-throughput method for targeted gene inactivation in S...
October 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027959/radiation-induced-changes-of-microrna-expression-profiles-in-radiosensitive-and-radioresistant-leukemia-cell-lines-with-different-levels-of-chromosome-abnormalities
#13
Daria Liamina, Wladimir Sibirnyj, Anna Khokhlova, Viacheslav Saenko, Eugenia Rastorgueva, Aleksandr Fomin, Yury Saenko
In our study, we estimate an effect from chromosome aberrations and genome mutations on changes in microRNA expression profiles in cancer cell lines demonstrating different radiosensitivity. Here, cell viability and microRNA spectrum have been estimated 1, 4, and 24 h after irradiation. MiSeq high-throughput sequencing system (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA) is employed to perform microRNA spectrum estimation. In the K562 cell line, the number of expressed microRNAs in chromosomes demonstrates a more pronounced variation...
October 13, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021693/a-refined-panax-ginseng-karyotype-based-on-an-ultra-high-copy-167-bp-tandem-repeat-and-ribosomal-dnas
#14
Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Hong-Il Choi, Nam-Hoon Kim, Woojong Jang, Junki Lee, Jee Young Park, Hyun Hee Kim, Tae-Jin Yang
BACKGROUND: Panax ginseng Meyer (Asian ginseng) has a large nuclear genome size of > 3.5 Gbp in haploid genome equivalent of 24 chromosomes. Tandem repeats (TRs) occupy significant portions of the genome in many plants and are often found in specific genomic loci, making them a valuable molecular cytogenetic tool in discriminating chromosomes. In an effort to understand the P. ginseng genome structure, we characterized an ultrahigh copy 167-bp TR (Pg167TR) and explored its chromosomal distribution as well as its utility for chromosome identification...
October 2017: Journal of Ginseng Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021279/long-term-fragility-of-y-chromosomes-is-dominated-by-short-term-resolution-of-sexual-antagonism
#15
Heath Blackmon, Yaniv Brandvain
The evolution of heteromorphic sex chromosomes has fascinated biologists, inspiring theoretical models, experimental studies, and studies of genome structure. This work has produced a clear model, in which heteromorphic sex chromosomes result from repeated fixations of inversions (or other recombination suppression mechanisms) that tether sexually antagonistic alleles to sex-determining regions, followed by the degeneration of these regions induced by the lack of sex chromosome recombination in the heterogametic sex...
October 11, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021238/asy2-mer2-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mediator-of-meiotic-recombination-pairing-and-global-chromosome-compaction
#16
Sophie Tessé, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Robert Debuchy, Karine Budin, Emeline Dubois, Zhang Liangran, Romain Antoine, Tristan Piolot, Nancy Kleckner, Denise Zickler, Eric Espagne
Meiosis is the cellular program by which a diploid cell gives rise to haploid gametes for sexual reproduction. Meiotic progression depends on tight physical and functional coupling of recombination steps at the DNA level with specific organizational features of meiotic-prophase chromosomes. The present study reveals that every step of this coupling is mediated by a single molecule: Asy2/Mer2. We show that Mer2, identified so far only in budding and fission yeasts, is in fact evolutionarily conserved from fungi (Mer2/Rec15/Asy2/Bad42) to plants (PRD3/PAIR1) and mammals (IHO1)...
October 11, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019057/duplication-of-yq-and-proximal-yp-arms-with-deletion-of-almost-all-par1-including-shox-in-a-young-man-with-non-obstructive-azoospermia-short-stature-and-skeletal-defects
#17
Dino Cancemi, Alessandra Iannuzzi, Angela Perucatti, Luigi Montano, Oronzo Capozzi, Carmine Spampanato, Maria Luisa Ventruto, Maria Urciuoli, Leopoldo Iannuzzi, Valerio Ventruto
Duplications of Yq arm (and AZF) seems to be tolerated by fertile males, while mutations, deletions, duplications or haploinsufficiency of SHOX can originate a wide range of phenotypes, including short stature and skeletal abnormalities. We report a case of non-obstructive azoospermia in a young man with short stature, skeletal anomalies, normal intelligence and hormonal parameters. This male showed a very singular Y-chromosome aberration, consisting of a duplication of Yq and proximal regions of Yp, with a deletion of almost all PAR1 in Yptel, including SHOX...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016897/genome-wide-analysis-and-expression-profile-of-the-myb-genes-in-brachypodium-distachyon
#18
Shoukun Chen, Xin Niu, Yuxiang Guan, Haifeng Li
MYB transcription factors are widespread in plants and play key roles in plant development. Although MYB transcription factors have been thoroughly characterized in many plants, genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family has not yet been undertaken in Brachypodium distachyon. In this study, 122 BdMYB transcription factors were identified, including 85 MYB-R2R3, 34 MYB-related and 3 MYB-R1R2R3. Phylogenetic analysis showed that BdMYBs, OsMYBs, and AtMYBs with similar functions were clustered in the same sub-group, and the phylogenetic relationships of BdMYB transcription factors were supported by highly conserved motifs and gene structures...
August 29, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993668/non-mendelian-assortment-of-homologous-autosomes-of-different-sizes-in-males-is-the-ancestral-state-in-the-caenorhabditis-lineage
#19
Tho Son Le, Fang-Jung Yang, Yun-Hua Lo, Tiffany C Chang, Jung-Chen Hsu, Chia-Yi Kao, John Wang
Organismal genome sizes vary by six orders of magnitude and appear positively correlated with organismal size and complexity. Neutral models have been proposed to explain the broad patterns of genome size variation based on organism population sizes. In the Caenorhabditis genus, hermaphrodite genomes are smaller than those of gonochoristic species. One possible driving force for this genome size difference could be non-random chromosome segregation. In Caenorhabditis elegans, chromosome assortment is non-independent and violates Mendel's second law...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993641/revealing-hidden-complexities-of-genomic-rearrangements-generated-with-cas9
#20
Katharina Boroviak, Beiyuan Fu, Fengtang Yang, Brendan Doe, Allan Bradley
Modelling human diseases caused by large genomic rearrangements has become more accessible since the utilization of CRISPR/Cas9 in mammalian systems. In a previous study, we showed that genomic rearrangements of up to one million base pairs can be generated by direct injection of CRISPR/Cas9 reagents into mouse zygotes. Although these rearrangements are ascertained by junction PCR, we describe here a variety of anticipated structural changes often involving reintegration of the region demarcated by the gRNAs in the vicinity of the edited locus...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
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