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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242290/a-failsafe-for-sensing-chromatid-tension-in-mitosis-with-the-histone-h3-tail-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#1
Christopher J Buehl, Xiexiong Deng, Jianjun Luo, Visarut Buranasudja, Tony Hazbun, Min-Hao Kuo
Mitotic fidelity is ensured by achieving biorientation on all paired chromosomes. The key signal for proper chromosome alignment is the tension between sister chromatids created by opposing poleward force from the spindles. In the budding yeast, the tension sensing function requires that the Shugoshin protein, Shugoshin 1, be recruited to the centromeres and the neighboring pericentric regions. Concerted actions integrating proteins at centromeres and pericentromeres create highly specific Shugoshin 1 domains on mitotic chromosomes...
December 14, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237819/condensins-promote-chromosome-individualization-and-segregation-during-mitosis-meiosis-and-amitosis-in-tetrahymena-thermophila
#2
Rachel Howard-Till, Josef Loidl
Condensin is a protein complex with diverse functions in chromatin packaging and chromosome condensation and segregation. We studied condensin in the evolutionarily distant protist model Tetrahymena, which features non-canonical nuclear organization and divisions. In Tetrahymena, the germline and soma are partitioned into two different nuclei within a single cell. Consistent with their functional specializations in sexual reproduction and gene expression, condensins of the germline nucleus and the polyploid somatic nucleus are composed of different subunits...
December 13, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234333/putative-microsatellite-dna-marker-based-wheat-genomic-resource-for-varietal-improvement-and-management
#3
Sarika Jaiswal, Sonia Sheoran, Vasu Arora, Ulavappa B Angadi, Mir A Iquebal, Nishu Raghav, Bharti Aneja, Deepender Kumar, Rajender Singh, Pradeep Sharma, G P Singh, Anil Rai, Ratan Tiwari, Dinesh Kumar
Wheat fulfills 20% of global caloric requirement. World needs 60% more wheat for 9 billion population by 2050 but climate change with increasing temperature is projected to affect wheat productivity adversely. Trait improvement and management of wheat germplasm requires genomic resource. Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) being highly polymorphic and ubiquitously distributed in the genome, can be a marker of choice but there is no structured marker database with options to generate primer pairs for genotyping on desired chromosome/physical location...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233499/the-role-of-the-carboxyl-ester-lipase-cel-gene-in-pancreatic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Bente B Johansson, Karianne Fjeld, Khadija El Jellas, Anny Gravdal, Monica Dalva, Erling Tjora, Helge Ræder, Rohit N Kulkarni, Stefan Johansson, Pål R Njølstad, Anders Molven
The enzyme carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), also known as bile salt-dependent or -stimulated lipase (BSDL, BSSL), hydrolyzes dietary fat, cholesteryl esters and fat-soluble vitamins in the duodenum. CEL is mainly expressed in pancreatic acinar cells and lactating mammary glands. The human CEL gene resides on chromosome 9q34.3 and contains a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) region that encodes a mucin-like protein tail. Although the number of normal repeats does not appear to significantly influence the risk for pancreatic disease, single-base pair deletions in the first VNTR repeat cause a syndrome of endocrine and exocrine dysfunction denoted MODY8...
December 5, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232963/integrative-study-of-cell-damage-and-cancer-risk-in-gas-station-attendants
#5
Antônio P R Filho, Maruhen A D Silveira, Camila B do Nascimento, Luciana P G d'Arce
Gas station attendants are potentially exposed to carcinogenic substances. This study aimed to evaluate chronic occupational exposed gas station attendant's according to genetic parameters and its relationship with cancer predisposition. Forty gas station attendants were recruited and paired with 40 control subjects. Thousand cells from each subject were analyzed counting the number of pyknotic (PYC), karyolitic (KYL), karyorrhetic (KHC), condensed chromatin (CC), binucleated (BN), basal cells (BC), Nuclear buds (Nbud), and differentiated cells (DIFF)...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230394/acetylome-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-sk17-reveals-a-highly-conserved-modification-of-histone-like-protein-hu
#6
Jiahn-Haur Liao, Cheng-Han Tsai, Sanjay G Patel, Jhih-Tian Yang, I-Fan Tu, Matteo Lo Cicero, Magdalena Lipka-Lloyd, Wan-Ling Wu, Wen-Jie Shen, Meng-Ru Ho, Chi-Chi Chou, Garima R Sharma, Hiroki Okanishi, Louis Y P Luk, Yu-Hsuan Tsai, Shih-Hsiung Wu
Lysine acetylation is a prevalent post-translational modification in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Whereas this modification is known to play pivotal roles in eukaryotes, the function and extent of this modification in prokaryotic cells remain largely unexplored. Here we report the acetylome of a pair of antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii SK17-S and SK17-R. A total of 145 lysine acetylation sites on 125 proteins was identified, and there are 23 acetylated proteins found in both strains, including histone-like protein HU which was found to be acetylated at Lys13...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228723/an-ngs-based-approach-for-the-identification-of-sex-specific-markers-in-snakehead-channa-argus
#7
Mi Ou, Cheng Yang, Qing Luo, Rong Huang, Ai-Di Zhang, Lan-Jie Liao, Yong-Ming Li, Li-Bo He, Zuo-Yan Zhu, Kun-Ci Chen, Ya-Ping Wang
We described a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based approach to identify sex-specific markers and subsequently determine whether a species has male or female heterogamety. To test the accuracy of this technique, we examined the snakehead (Channa argus), which is economically important freshwater fish in China. Males grow faster than females, and there is significant interest in developing methods to skew breeding towards all-males to increase biomass yields. NGS was conducted on DNAs of individual female and male, the male reads were spitted into 60 bp K-mers and aligned to the female reference genome assembled by female reads, unaligned male K-mers-60 were kept in next filter process...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225612/hidden-diversity-in-the-populations-of-the-armored-catfish-ancistrus-kner-1854-loricariidae-hypostominae-from-the-paran%C3%A3-river-basin-revealed-by-molecular-and-cytogenetic-data
#8
Ana C Prizon, Daniel P Bruschi, Luciana A Borin-Carvalho, Andréa Cius, Ligia M Barbosa, Henrique B Ruiz, Claudio H Zawadzki, Alberto S Fenocchio, Ana L de Brito Portela-Castro
Only one species of armored catfish, Ancistrus cirrhosus Valenciennes 1836, has been historically described in the basin of the Paraná River, from Misiones (Argentina). However, the ample variation found in the morphology and coloration of the populations sampled in the tributaries of the Brazilian state of Paraná makes it difficult to establish the real taxonomic status and evolutionary history of the Ancistrus specimens, suggesting that A. cirrhosus is not the only species found in this basin. By combining data on mitochondrial DNA (COI gene) and chromosomal markers from different Ancistrus populations, totaling 144 specimens, in the tributaries of the Paraná, and specimens from Misiones (type-locality of A...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222342/regulation-of-crossover-frequency-and-distribution-during-meiotic-recombination
#9
Takamune T Saito, Monica P Colaiácovo
Crossover recombination is essential for generating genetic diversity and promoting accurate chromosome segregation during meiosis. The process of crossover recombination is tightly regulated and is initiated by the formation of programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The number of DSBs is around 10-fold higher than the number of crossovers in most species, because only a limited number of DSBs are repaired as crossovers during meiosis. Moreover, crossovers are not randomly distributed. Most crossovers are located on chromosomal arm regions and both centromeres and telomeres are usually devoid of crossovers...
December 8, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220655/aid-and-reactive-oxygen-species-can-induce-dna-breaks-within-human-chromosomal-translocation-fragile-zones
#10
Nicholas R Pannunzio, Michael R Lieber
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occurring within fragile zones of less than 200 base pairs account for the formation of the most common human chromosomal translocations in lymphoid malignancies, yet the mechanism of how breaks occur remains unknown. Here, we have transferred human fragile zones into S. cerevisiae in the context of a genetic assay to understand the mechanism leading to DSBs at these sites. Our findings indicate that a combination of factors is required to sensitize these regions. Foremost, DNA strand separation by transcription or increased torsional stress can expose these DNA regions to damage from either the expression of human AID or increased oxidative stress...
December 7, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219038/duplication-and-variation-in-the-major-histocompatibility-complex-genes-in-blakiston-s-fish-owl-bubo-blakistoni
#11
Keita Omote, Tetsuo I Kohyama, Chizuko Nishida, Keisuke Saito, Satoshi Fujimoto, Ryuichi Masuda
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) includes many genes that are essential for the adaptive immune system, and variation in the antigen binding site (ABS) is related to resistance against pathogens. In the present study, quantitative real-time PCR indicated a larger number of MHC gene copies in the endangered population of Blakiston's fish owl (Bubo blakistoni) than in five other owl species, and massively parallel pyrosequencing detected more MHC class IIβ per individual alleles in B. blakistoni than in the other species...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215567/are-pericentric-inversions-reorganizing-wedge-shell-genomes
#12
Daniel García-Souto, Concepción Pérez-García, Juan J Pasantes
Wedge shells belonging to the Donacidae family are the dominant bivalves in exposed beaches in almost all areas of the world. Typically, two or more sympatric species of wedge shells differentially occupy intertidal, sublittoral, and offshore coastal waters in any given locality. A molecular cytogenetic analysis of two sympatric and closely related wedge shell species, Donax trunculus and Donax vittatus, was performed. Results showed that the karyotypes of these two species were both strikingly different and closely alike; whilst metacentric and submetacentric chromosome pairs were the main components of the karyotype of D...
December 7, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207465/%C3%AE-pna-fret-pair-miniprobes-for-quantitative-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-to-telomeric-dna-in-cells-and-tissue
#13
Alexander Orenstein, April S Berlyoung, Elizabeth E Rastede, Ha H Pham, Elise Fouquerel, Connor T Murphy, Brian J Leibowitz, Jian Yu, Tumul Srivastava, Bruce A Armitage, Patricia L Opresko
Measurement of telomere length by fluorescent in situ hybridization is widely used for biomedical and epidemiological research, but there has been relatively little development of the technology in the 20 years since it was first reported. This report describes the use of dual gammaPNA (γPNA) probes that hybridize at alternating sites along a telomere and give rise to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) signals. Bright staining of telomeres is observed in nuclei, chromosome spreads and tissue samples...
December 2, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197323/alignment-free-comparative-genomic-screen-for-structured-rnas-using-coarse-grained-secondary-structure-dot-plots
#14
Yuki Kato, Jan Gorodkin, Jakob Hull Havgaard
BACKGROUND: Structured non-coding RNAs play many different roles in the cells, but the annotation of these RNAs is lacking even within the human genome. The currently available computational tools are either too computationally heavy for use in full genomic screens or rely on pre-aligned sequences. METHODS: Here we present a fast and efficient method, DotcodeR, for detecting structurally similar RNAs in genomic sequences by comparing their corresponding coarse-grained secondary structure dot plots at string level...
December 2, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193730/the-3p14-2-tumour-suppressor-adamts9-is-inactivated-by-promoter-cpg-methylation-and-inhibits-tumour-cell-growth-in-breast-cancer
#15
Bianfei Shao, Yixiao Feng, Hongbin Zhang, Fang Yu, Qianqian Li, Cui Tan, Hongying Xu, Jianming Ying, Lili Li, Dejuan Yang, Weiyan Peng, Jun Tang, Shuman Li, Guosheng Ren, Qian Tao, Tingxiu Xiang
Chromosome region 3p12-14 is an important tumour suppressor gene (TSG) locus for multiple cancers. ADAMTS9, a member of the metalloprotease large family, has been identified as a candidate 3p14.2 TSG inactivated by aberrant promoter CpG methylation in several carcinomas, but little known about its expression and function in breast cancer. In this report, ADAMTS9 expression and methylation was analysed in breast cancer cell lines and tissue samples. ADAMTS9 RNA was significantly down-regulated in breast cancer cell lines (6/8)...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192580/copy-number-variants-and-exome-sequencing-analysis-in-six-pairs-of-chinese-monozygotic-twins-discordant-for-congenital-heart-disease
#16
Yuejuan Xu, Tingting Li, Tian Pu, Ruixue Cao, Fei Long, Sun Chen, Kun Sun, Rang Xu
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is one of the most common birth defects. More than 200 susceptibility loci have been identified for CHDs, yet a large part of the genetic risk factors remain unexplained. Monozygotic (MZ) twins are thought to be completely genetically identical; however, discordant phenotypes have been found in MZ twins. Recent studies have demonstrated genetic differences between MZ twins. We aimed to test whether copy number variants (CNVs) and/or genetic mutation differences play a role in the etiology of CHDs by using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping arrays and whole exome sequencing of twin pairs discordant for CHDs...
December 2017: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186711/genomic-organization-of-repetitive-dnas-and-differentiation-of-an-xx-xy-sex-chromosome-system-in-the-amazonian-puffer-fish-colomesus-asellus-tetraodontiformes
#17
Patrik F Viana, Tariq Ezaz, Leandro Marajó, Milena Ferreira, Jansen Zuanon, Marcelo B Cioffi, Luiz A C Bertollo, Maria C Gross, Eliana Feldberg
The genus Colomesus is the sole representative of the family Tetraodontidae in the Amazon region. Here, Colomesus asellus was analyzed using conventional and molecular cytogenetic protocols. Its diploid chromosome number is 2n = 46 with 12 meta-, 10 submeta-, 16 subtelo-, and 8 acrocentric chromosomes and a fundamental number of FN = 84. An XX/XY sex chromosome system was identified. Mapping of 18S rDNA correlated with the nucleolus organizer regions (Ag-NORs) in the short arms of the 2 X chromosomes in females and in the Y chromosome in males...
November 30, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185124/the-role-of-dna-sequence-in-nucleosome-breathing
#18
Jamie Culkin, Lennart de Bruin, Marco Tompitak, Rob Phillips, Helmut Schiessel
Roughly 3/4 of human genomes are sequestered by nucleosomes, DNA spools with a protein core, dictating a broad range of biological processes, ranging from gene regulation, recombination, and replication, to chromosome condensation. Nucleosomes are dynamical structures and temporarily expose wrapped DNA through spontaneous unspooling from either end, a process called site exposure or nucleosome breathing. Here we ask how this process is influenced by the mechanical properties of the wrapped DNA, which is known to depend on the underlying base pair sequence...
November 30, 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184138/centromere-evolution-and-cpg-methylation-during-vertebrate-speciation
#19
Kazuki Ichikawa, Shingo Tomioka, Yuta Suzuki, Ryohei Nakamura, Koichiro Doi, Jun Yoshimura, Masahiko Kumagai, Yusuke Inoue, Yui Uchida, Naoki Irie, Hiroyuki Takeda, Shinich Morishita
Centromeres and large-scale structural variants evolve and contribute to genome diversity during vertebrate speciation. Here, we perform de novo long-read genome assembly of three inbred medaka strains that are derived from geographically isolated subpopulations and undergo speciation. Using single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, we obtain three chromosome-mapped genomes of length ~734, ~678, and ~744Mbp with a resource of twenty-two centromeric regions of length 20-345kbp. Centromeres are positionally conserved among the three strains and even between four pairs of chromosomes that were duplicated by the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320-350 million years ago...
November 28, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183972/unleashing-meiotic-crossovers-in-hybrid-plants
#20
Joiselle Blanche Fernandes, Mathilde Seguéla-Arnaud, Cécile Larchevêque, Andrew H Lloyd, Raphael Mercier
Meiotic crossovers shuffle parental genetic information, providing novel combinations of alleles on which natural or artificial selection can act. However, crossover events are relatively rare, typically one to three exchange points per chromosome pair. Recent work has identified three pathways limiting meiotic crossovers in Arabidopsis thaliana that rely on the activity of FANCM [Crismani W, et al. (2012) Science 336:1588-1590], RECQ4 [Séguéla-Arnaud M, et al. (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112:4713-4718], and FIGL1 [Girard C, et al...
November 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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