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Ryan Rosenberry, Susie Chung, Michael D Nelson
Exercise represents a major hemodynamic stress that demands a highly coordinated neurovascular response in order to match oxygen delivery to metabolic demand. Reactive hyperemia (in response to a brief period of tissue ischemia) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular events and provides important insight into vascular health and vasodilatory capacity. Skeletal muscle oxidative capacity is equally important in health and disease, as it determines the energy supply for myocellular processes. Here, we describe a simple, non-invasive approach using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess each of these major clinical endpoints (reactive hyperemia, neurovascular coupling, and muscle oxidative capacity) during a single clinic or laboratory visit...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fatima Cabral, Colton M Miller, Katrina M Kudrna, Blake E Hass, Jocelyn G Daubendiek, Brianna M Kellar, Edward N Harris
This protocol demonstrates a method for obtaining high yield and viability for mouse hepatocytes and sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs) suitable for culturing or for obtaining cell lysates. In this protocol, the portal vein is used as the site for catheterization, rather than the vena cava, as this limits contamination of other possible cell types in the final liver preparation. No special instrumentation is required throughout the procedure. A water bath is used as a source of heat to maintain the temperature of all the buffers and solutions...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tokio Higaki, Shintaro Yamazaki, Yusuke Mitsuka, Masaru Aoki, Nao Yoshida, Yutaka Midorikawa, Hisashi Nakayama, Tadatoshi Takayama
To clarify whether high transient elevation of serum transaminase predicts severe complications and is related to the ischemic area on CT. Postoperative laboratory data and ischemia area on CT were analyzed on the basis of the presence of high transaminase elevation (aspartate aminotransferase (AST) > 1,000 IU/L within postoperative day (POD) 2 after liver resection. In the high elevation group, volume of ischemic areas was assessed by CT on POD2. The 538 patients were divided into a high transaminase group (n = 51) and a control group (n = 487)...
2018: Bioscience Trends
Chun-Cai Zou, Qian-Ni Zong, Hai-Yan Yan
To investigate the spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces for rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. HPLC fingerprints of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces were established, and the values of creatinekinase-MB (CK-MB), myoglobin (MYO) and cardiac troponin-T (cTNT) in 3 dose groups (2.25, 13.5, 27.0 g·kg⁻¹, equivalent to the crude herb g·kg⁻¹) of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces with myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats were measured, and the grey relational analysis was used to study the spectrum-activity relationship of Trichosanthis Fructus and Trichosanthis Fructus strip pieces for rat myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury...
January 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Israel Ugalde, Ibrar Anjum, Saberio Lo Presti, Alfonso Tolentino
Acute coronary syndrome usually presents with retrosternal chest pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and jaw and arm pain. Some patients only present with neck, epigastric, or ear discomfort. A 47-year-old male with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department complaining of bilateral otalgia. He never felt chest pain, jaw pain, nausea, diaphoresis, or shortness of breath. He had a history of 2 acute coronary events and had a stress test 2 months prior to admission, which was unremarkable...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
Dawei Lei, Zhengbo Shao, Xinrong Zhou, Huiping Yuan
Retinal ischemia-reperfusion (RIR) injury causes neuronal degeneration and initiates various optic nerve diseases. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic neuroprotective effect of rasagiline and idebenone against RIR injury. A combination of rasagiline and idebenone was administered intraperitoneally immediately after establishment of the RIR model. Treatment with the combination of the two drugs resulted in a significant restoration of retinal thickness and retinal ganglion cells. Apoptosis of cells in ganglion cell layers was also ameliorated, suggesting that the effect of the two drugs was synergistic and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor increased...
February 23, 2018: Oncotarget
Hairong Fu, Xiaoshan Li, Jiahua Tan
The main method for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is percutaneous coronary intervention; however percutaneous coronary intervention will induce ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury, resulting in the loss of cardiac function and cardiomyocyte death. An effective drug to target this condition is necessary. N-isopropylacrylamide and methacrylic acid were used to synthesize drug delivery nanoparticles (NP) containing the natural compound visnagin for IR injury treatment. It was demonstrated that NP containing fluorescein isothiocyanate localized to the site of myocardial IR, and that NP-visnagin treatment induced cardioprotection, reducing the size of the MI and ameliorating cardiac dysfunction through the induction of autophagy and the inhibition of apoptosis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Le Kang, Mingsan Miao
Objective: To observe the intervention effect of total flavonoid of ilex pubesceus on animal models of cerebral ischemic tolerance. Methods: A rat model of global-focal cerebral ischemic tolerance was established by blocking bilateral common carotid artery blood flow and occluding left middle cerebral artery using thread-occlusion method. After the first operation, the Ginaton group and large-dosage, medium-dosage and small-dosage groups of total flavonoid of ilex pubesceus were given intragastric administration of corresponding drugs...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Le Kang, Mingsan Miao, Ming Bai, Shuo Tian
Objective: To study the protective effect of total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens on BIT model by brain ischemic tolerance (hereinafter BIT) model of mice. Method: BIT model is used to block bilateral common carotid arteries and to copy BIT model of mice. After 10 min of transient ischemia for rats in preconditioning group, the mice in the nimodipine group and naoluotong capsule group were given the total flavonoid in rabdosia rubescens (300 mg/kg, 150 mg/kg, 75 mg/kg) for gavage, sham operation group, ischemia/reperfusion injury (hereinafter IRI) group and BIT group were fed with the same volume of 0...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Takayuki Warisawa, Christopher M Cook, Yoshihiro J Akashi, Justin E Davies
It is well known that the apparent significant coronary stenosis on angiography sometimes does not cause significant ischemia, and vice versa. For this reason, decision-making based on coronary physiology is becoming more and more important. Fractional flow reserve (FFR), which has emerged as a useful tool to determine which lesions need revascularization in the catheterization laboratory, now has a class IA indication in the European Society of Cardiology guidelines. More recently, the instantaneous wave-free ratio, which is considered easier to use than FFR, has been graded as equivalent to FFR...
March 15, 2018: Revista Española de Cardiología
Pierpaolo Cerullo, Paola Brancaccio, Serenella Anzilotti, Antonio Vinciguerra, Ornella Cuomo, Ferdinando Fiorino, Beatrice Severino, Paola Di Vaio, Gianfranco Di Renzo, Lucio Annunziato, Giuseppe Pignataro
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HI) accounts for the majority of developmental, motor and cognitive deficits in children, leading to life-long neurological impairments. Since the plasmamembrane sodium/calcium exchanger (NCX) plays a fundamental role in maintaining ionic homeostasis during adult brain ischemia, in the present work we aimed to demonstrate (1)the involvement of NCX in the pathophysiology of neonatal HI and (2)a possible NCX-based pharmacological intervention. HI was induced in neonatal mice at postnatal day 7(P7) by unilateral cut of the right common carotid artery, followed by 60 min exposure to 8%O2 ...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ashish K Rehni, Vibha Shukla, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon, Kunjan R Dave
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral ischemia is a serious possible manifestation of diabetic vascular disease. Recurrent hypoglycemia (RH) enhances ischemic brain injury in insulin-treated diabetic (ITD) rats. In the present study, we determined the role of ischemic acidosis in enhanced ischemic brain damage in RH-exposed ITD rats. METHODS: Diabetic rats were treated with insulin and mild/moderate RH was induced for 5 days. Three sets of experiments were performed. The first set evaluated the effects of RH exposure on global cerebral ischemia-induced acidosis in ITD rats...
March 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ying Song, Yun Bei, Yan Xiao, Hai-Da Tong, Xie-Qi Wu, Man-Ting Chen
To investigate the neuroprotective effect of edaravone was dependent on 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) signalling pathway or not. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) were established in SD rats and PC12 cells to mimic ischemic injury. In vivo, edaravone can significantly reduce neurological deficit scores, infarct volume and expression of 5-LOX. For in vitro experiment, reduced viability, cell death which occurred via necrosis and apoptosis were shown after OGD and even severer in OGD-reperfusion (OGD-R)...
March 15, 2018: Brain Research
Ting-Bo Chen, Yi-Han Zuo, Geng-Ting Dong, Liang Liu, Hua Zhou
BACKGROUND: Guanxin Kangtai preparation (GXKT), consisting of Panax ginseng, Panax notoginseng and Ilex pubescens, is a new proprietary Chinese medicines under development for treating coronary heart disease. Like other Chinese medicines, the components of GXKT were complex and the bioactive compounds remained unclear. PURPOSE: To discover bioactive compounds as quality markers (Q-markers) for better quality control of GXKT. STUDY DESIGN: Chinese medicines was separated into fractions...
March 6, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Shih-Yen Lu, Hsiao-Jen Chung, Eric Yi-Hsiu Huang, Tzu-Pin Lin, Alex T L Lin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the perioperative outcomes between renal hilar tumors and non-hilar tumors after robotic-assisted partial nephrectomy (RAPN). METHODS: A retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent RAPN from December 2009 to September 2015 at our institution was recruited. Perioperative outcomes including demographic characteristics, perioperative, pathological and renal function outcomes were compared between the hilar group (n = 30) and non-hilar group (n = 170)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Sarah M Jacobs, Colin P McInnis, Matthew Kapeles, Shu-Hong Chang
PURPOSE: Severe vision loss is a risk of orbital surgery which physicians should counsel patients about, but the overall risk rate is unknown. This research was conducted to determine the risk of severe vision loss related to orbital surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective review. PARTICIPANTS: Patients who underwent orbital surgery at either of 2 academic medical centers between January 1994 and December 2014. METHODS: A billing database search was conducted to identify all patients who had orbital surgery during the study period, cross-checked against diagnostic codes related to vision loss...
March 15, 2018: Ophthalmology
Shiteng Suo, Lan Zhang, Hui Tang, Qihong Ni, Suqin Li, Haimin Mao, Xiangyu Liu, Shengyun He, Jianxun Qu, Qing Lu, Jianrong Xu
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques including arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD), and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM), are capable of measuring tissue perfusion-related parameters. We sought to evaluate and compare these three CMR techniques in characterizing skeletal muscle perfusion in lower extremities and to investigate their abilities to diagnose and assess the severity of peripheral arterial disease (PAD)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Sara Milanizadeh, Karrar Najm Najaf Zuwarali, Abbas Aliaghaei, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli
Brain ischemia is one of the most common causes of death and disability worldwide, which usually happens through diminished blood supply to the tissue. Cell therapy and treatments using trophic factors are some of the new methods to protect brain cells against damage. Specific properties of Sertoli cells (SCs) make them suitable for improving neurological disorders. This study is to evaluate possible neuroprotective effects of SCs transplantation on ischemic damage. Rats were divided into three experimental groups including sham, control, and SCs-treated group...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Dongwei Xu, Jianjun Zhu, Seogsong Jeong, Dawei Li, Xiangwei Hua, Lifeng Huang, Jianjun Zhang, Yi Luo, Qiang Xia
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of Rictor in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains unknown. Here, we comprehensively examined the role of Rictor in hepatic I/R injury. METHODS: We studied the expression of Rictor during hepatic I/R injury. The regulatory effects of Rictor on inflammatory responses, cytokine and chemokine release, apoptotic and anti-apoptotic responses, and autophagy induction during hepatic I/R injury were identified via the shRNA-mediated knockdown of Rictor...
March 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Concetta Irace, Salvatore De Rosa, Cesare Tripolino, Giuseppe Ambrosio, Caterina Covello, Ennio Abramo, Claudio Carallo, Annalisa Mongiardo, Carmen Spaccarotella, Daniele Torella, Agostino Gnasso, Ciro Indolfi
Endothelial dysfunction, wall thickening and plaque are progressive manifestations of atherosclerosis. Delayed or absent brachial artery dilation after ischemic stimulus has been associated with severity of extracoronary and coronary atherosclerosis. In the current study, we aimed to verify if delayed or absent dilation associates with critical coronary stenosis. We also evaluated the association between coronary stenosis, carotid artery wall thickness and peripheral artery disease. Endothelial function was investigated by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery up to 3 min after ischemia, and patients classified as early, late or no dilators...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
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