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Tianeptine AND Neurogenesis

Sjoukje D Kuipers, Andrea Trentani, Eddy A van der Zee, Johan A den Boer
Growing evidence suggests neuroplasticity changes are pivotal in both the occurrence and treatment of affective disorders. Abnormal expression and/or phosphorylation of numerous plasticity-related proteins have been observed in depression, while prolonged antidepressant treatment has been associated with the attenuation of stress-mediated effects on dendritic remodeling and adult hippocampal neurogenesis in experimental animals. This study explores the neurobiological adaptations induced by chronic stress and/or long-term tianeptine treatment...
December 2013: Neuropharmacology
A Sah, C Schmuckermair, S B Sartori, S Gaburro, M Kandasamy, R Irschick, L Klimaschewski, R Landgraf, L Aigner, N Singewald
Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in affective disorders and the action of antidepressants (ADs) although the functional significance of this association is still unclear. The use of animal models closely mimicking human comorbid affective and anxiety disorders seen in the majority of patients should provide relevant novel information. Here, we used a unique genetic mouse model displaying higher trait anxiety (HAB) and comorbid depression-like behavior. We demonstrate that HABs have a lower rate of hippocampal neurogenesis and impaired functional integration of newly born neurons as compared with their normal anxiety/depression-like behavior (NAB) controls...
2012: Translational Psychiatry
Sümegi András
Recent neurobiological and clinical studies demonstrated that neuroplasticity, a principal mechanism of neuronal adaptation and survival, was disrupted in major depression and in long-term stress. Increasing research data show, that structural remodeling and maladaptive dysfunction of certain brain regions is a main component of major depressive illness. Tianeptine, an "atypical" antidepressant, which has a pharmacological action different from the "typical" reuptake blocking agents, underlined a re-evaluation of the neurobiological basis of major depression and revealed that the disorder cannot be explained only by the classic monoamine hypothesis...
December 2008: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
Serap Akyurek, Vesile Senturk, Bedriye Oncu, Gokhan Ozyigit, Sercan Yilmaz, Saban Cakir Gokce
Radiation-induced neurocognitive impairment is an undesirable radiation-induced toxicity and a common health problem in patients with primary or metastatic brain tumor. It greatly impairs quality of life for long-term brain tumor survivors. Hippocampus is the most important brain structure for neurocognitive functions. It has been shown that radiation affects the hippocampal neurogenesis due to either induce the apoptosis or reduce the precursor cell proliferation in the hippocampus. Radiation-induced microglial inflammatory response is also negative regulator of neurogenesis...
December 2008: Medical Hypotheses
Siegfried Kasper, Bruce S McEwen
The precise neurobiological processes involved in depression are not clear, but it is recognized that numerous factors are involved, including changes in neurotransmitter systems and brain plasticity. Neuroplasticity refers to the ability of the brain to adapt functionally and structurally to stimuli. Impairment of neuroplasticity in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortex is hypothesized to be the mechanism by which cognitive function, learning, memory and emotions are altered in depression. The mechanisms underlying alterations in neuroplasticity are believed to relate to changes in neurotransmitters, hormones and growth factors...
2008: CNS Drugs
Vikas Dhikav, Kuljeet Singh Anand
Hippocampus is the brain structure, vital for episodic and declarative memory. Atrophy of the human hippocampus is seen in a variety of psychiatric and neurological disorders e.g. recurrent depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, epilepsy, head injury, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Importantly, aging hippocampus also undergoes atrophy. In many instances, for example, AD, the atrophy precedes the development of symptoms while in others, there is a temporal relationship between atrophy and symptomatology...
2007: Medical Hypotheses
Michael Spedding, Pierre Lestage
Neuronal plasticity is now known to be very important in the adult, both in the formation of new synaptic connections and of new neurones (neurogenesis) and of glial cells. However, old age and stress can inhibit this plasticity and lead to cerebral atrophy. The time course of changes in neuronal plasticity involves, in the first milliseconds to seconds, changes in synaptic strength (long term potentialisation, LTP, or long term depression, LTD), then, over minutes to hours, changes in the number of synaptic connections (linked to changes in neurotrophic factors), and over weeks to months, to changes in neuronal reconfiguration...
January 2005: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Jorge Alberto Costa e Silva
The adult brain has more plasticity than previously believed. Neurogenesis, growth and branching of dendrites, and remodeling of synaptic contacts in different regions of the brain occur continuously. Numerous studies have reported a decrease in neuroplasticity in depressed patients and/or in animals subjected to stress and to different models of depression. This has led to the proposal of a new approach to the pathophysiology of depression: depression could be the result of the decrease in neuroplasticity in brain structures involved in the control of mood...
December 2004: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Bruce S McEwen, Sumantra Chattarji
The hippocampal formation, which expresses high levels of adrenal steroid receptors, is a malleable brain structure that is important for certain types of learning and memory. This structure is also vulnerable to the effects of stress hormones which have been reported to be increased in depressed patients, particularly those with severe depression. The amygdala, a structure that plays a critical role in fear learning, is also an important target of anxiety and stress. Certain animal models of depression involve application of repeated stress...
December 2004: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
B S McEwen, A M Magarinos, L P Reagan
The hippocampal formation, a structure involved in declarative, spatial and contextual memory, undergoes atrophy in depressive illness along with impairment in cognitive function. Animal model studies have shown that the hippocampus is a particularly sensitive and vulnerable brain region that responds to stress and stress hormones. Studies on models of stress and glucocorticoid actions reveal that the hippocampus shows a considerable degree of structural plasticity in the adult brain. Stress suppresses neurogenesis of dentate gyrus granule neurons, and repeated stress causes remodeling of dendrites in the CA3 region, a region that is particularly important in memory processing...
July 2002: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Lawrence P Reagan, Daniel R Rosell, Gwendolyn E Wood, Michael Spedding, Carmen Muñoz, Jeffrey Rothstein, Bruce S McEwen
Excitatory amino acids play a key role in stress-induced remodeling of dendrites in the hippocampus as well as in suppression of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. The regulation of extracellular glutamate levels has been suggested as a potential mechanism through which repeated stress causes dendritic remodeling of CA3 pyramidal neurons. Accordingly, the current study examined the distribution and regulation of the glia glutamate transporter GLT-1 and the recently identified GLT isoform, GLT-1b, in the hippocampus of rats subjected to chronic restraint stress (CRS)...
February 17, 2004: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
B Czéh, T Michaelis, T Watanabe, J Frahm, G de Biurrun, M van Kampen, A Bartolomucci, E Fuchs
Stress-induced structural remodeling in the adult hippocampus, involving debranching and shortening of dendrites and suppression of neurogenesis, provides a cellular basis for understanding the impairment of neural plasticity in the human hippocampus in depressive illness. Accordingly, reversal of structural remodeling may be a desirable goal for antidepressant therapy. The present study investigated the effect of tianeptine, a modified tricyclic antidepressant, in the chronic psychosocial stress model of adult male tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), a model with high validity for research on the pathophysiology of major depression...
October 23, 2001: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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