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Anti-arrhythmic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340103/diagnosis-to-ablation-time-as-a-predictor-of-success-early-choice-for-pulmonary-vein-isolation-and-long-term-outcome-in-atrial-fibrillation-results-from-the-middelheim-pvi-registry
#1
Y De Greef, B Schwagten, G B Chierchia, C de Asmundis, D Stockman, I Buysschaert
Aims: The aim of the study is to define long-term outcome of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) in atrial fibrillation (AF) and to determine whether time window between AF diagnosis and PVI affects outcome. Methods and results: Consecutive AF patients undergoing PVI (2006-14) were followed for 5 years. Primary outcome was clinical success, defined as freedom of documented AF without anti-arrhythmic drugs respecting a 1-month blanking period. A 1000 patients were included (age 60 ± 10 years, CHA2DS2-VASc score 1 ± 1)...
March 2, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340054/outcomes-of-atrial-arrhythmia-radiofrequency-catheter-ablation-in-patients-with-ebstein-s-anomaly
#2
Abdallah Hassan, Nicholas Y Tan, Htin Aung, Heidi M Connolly, David O Hodge, Emily R Vargas, Bryan C Cannon, Douglas L Packer, Samuel J Asirvatham, Christopher J McLeod
Aims: Atrial arrhythmias are common in patients with Ebstein's anomaly (EA) despite cardiac surgical repair and concomitant Maze procedures. We aimed to evaluate the outcome of radiofrequency catheter ablation in this group of patients. Methods and results: All patients with EA and atrial arrhythmias who underwent catheter ablation for atrial arrhythmias between 1/1999 and 1/2016 were included. Atrial arrhythmia recurrence was identified as the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included repeat ablation, need for antiarrhythmic medications after ablation, and death...
February 27, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336184/atrial-fibrillation-management-in-a-breeding-stallion
#3
N Heliczer, K Mitchell, O Lorello, J Dauvillier, D Burger, C C Schwarzwald, C Navas de Solis
A 20-year-old warmblood breeding stallion presented to a University practice for semen collection and evaluation was incidentally diagnosed with atrial fibrillation (AF). Electrocardiogram recordings during breeding revealed inappropriately rapid tachycardia and occasional ventricular premature depolarizations/aberrant ventricular conduction. Transvenous electrical cardioversion was performed. After successful cardioversion the horse displayed supraventricular ectopy and atrial contractile dysfunction and was administered sotalol hydrochloride in an attempt to decrease the risk of AF recurrence...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332202/calcium-signalling-silencing-in-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Maura Greiser
Sub-cellular calcium signalling silencing is a novel and distinct cellular and molecular adaptive response to rapid cardiac activation. Calcium signalling silencing develops during short-term sustained rapid atrial activation as seen clinically during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). It is the first 'anti-arrhythmic' adaptive response in the setting of AF and appears to counteract the maladaptive changes that lead to intracellular Ca(2+) signalling instability and Ca(2+) based arrhythmogenicity. Calcium signalling silencing results in a failed propagation of the [Ca(2+) ]i signal to the myocyte centre in both patients with AF and in a rabbit model...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330759/amiodarone-reduces-depolarization-evoked-glutamate-release-from-hippocampual-synaptosomes
#5
Chia Yu Chang, Chi Feng Hung, Shu Kuei Huang, Jinn Rung Kuo, Su Jane Wang
Decreased brain glutamate level has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for epilepsy. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug with antiepileptic activity, on glutamate release in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, amiodarone reduced 4-aminopyridine-evoked Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration elevation. Amiodarone did not affect the 4-aminopyridine-evoked depolarization of the synaptosomal membrane potential or the Na(+) channel activator veratridine-evoked glutamate release, indicating that the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release is not caused by a decrease in synaptosomal excitability...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327188/allopurinol-and-the-risk-of-ventricular-arrhythmias-in-the-elderly-a-study-using-us-medicare-data
#6
Jasvinder A Singh, John Cleveland
BACKGROUND: There are no published human studies investigating whether the use of allopurinol, the most commonly used medication for the treatment of hyperuricemia in gout, the most common type of inflammatory arthritis in adults, has any beneficial effects on ventricular electrophysiology. The objective of our study was to assess whether allopurinol use is associated with a reduction in the risk of ventricular arrhythmias (VA). METHODS: We used the 5% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2006-2012 to examine new allopurinol use and the risk of incident VA...
March 22, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268301/pro-arrhythmic-effect-of-heart-rate-variability-during-periodic-pacing
#7
Kanchan Kulkarni, Steven W Lee, Elena G Tolkacheva
Clinically, healthy hearts have been associated with a high ventricular heart rate variability (HRV) while diseased hearts have been known to exhibit low ventricular HRV. Hence, low HRV is suggested to be a marker of cardiac ventricular arrhythmias. Over the past few years, there has been considerable amount of interest in incorporating HRV in pacing to emulate healthy heart conditions and re-stabilize the electrical activity in diseased hearts. Recently, we used single cell numerical simulations to demonstrate that HRV incorporated into periodic pacing promotes alternans formation and thus, can be pro-arrhythmic...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240517/pattern-of-initiation-of-monomorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-and-implications-on-tachycardia-mechanism
#8
Rodrigo S Barbosa, Leon Glass, Riccardo Proietti, Barry Burstein, Lyndon Sobolik, Zhubo D Zhang, Guillaume Viart, Alvin Shrier, Vidal Essebag
The incidence of sudden cardiac death, predominantly caused by ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation, is high in patients with congestive heart failure. Implantable cardiac defibrillators have improved survival in this population but defibrillator shocks can lead to low quality of life and heart failure progression. The current management of recurrent ventricular tachycardia includes ablation and anti-arrhythmic drugs and both are associated with high recurrence rates. Better understanding the mechanism of ventricular tachycardia allowing individualization of treatment may improve outcomes...
February 27, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233036/avoiding-sports-related-sudden-cardiac-death-in-children-with-congenital-channelopathy-recommendations-for-sports-activities
#9
C N Lang, J Steinfurt, K E Odening
For the past few years, children affected by an inherited channelopathy have been counseled to avoid (recreational) sports activities and all competitive sports so as to prevent exercise-induced arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. An increased understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms, better anti-arrhythmic strategies, and, in particular, more epidemiological data on exercise-induced arrhythmia in active athletes with channelopathies have changed the universal recommendation of "no sports," leading to revised, less strict, and more differentiated guidelines (published by the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology in 2015)...
April 2017: Herz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229272/prophylactic-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-in-heart-failure-the-growing-evidence-for-all-or-primum-non-nocere-for-some
#10
REVIEW
Khang-Li Looi, Nigel Lever, Anthony Tang, Sharad Agarwal
Heart failure (HF) is a common health problem and has reached epidemic in many western countries. Despite the current era of HF treatment, the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in HF remains significant. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) support has been shown to reduce the risk of SCD in patients with HF and impaired left ventricular function. Prophylactic ICD implantation in HF patients seems a logical step to reduce mortality through a reduction in SCD. However, ICD implantation is an invasive procedure, and both short- and long-term complications can occur...
February 23, 2017: Heart Failure Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226460/pro-arrhythmic-effect-of-heart-rate-variability-during-periodic-pacing
#11
Kanchan Kulkarni, Steven W Lee, Elena G Tolkacheva, Kanchan Kulkarni, Steven W Lee, Elena G Tolkacheva, Elena G Tolkacheva, Steven W Lee, Kanchan Kulkarni
Clinically, healthy hearts have been associated with a high ventricular heart rate variability (HRV) while diseased hearts have been known to exhibit low ventricular HRV. Hence, low HRV is suggested to be a marker of cardiac ventricular arrhythmias. Over the past few years, there has been considerable amount of interest in incorporating HRV in pacing to emulate healthy heart conditions and re-stabilize the electrical activity in diseased hearts. Recently, we used single cell numerical simulations to demonstrate that HRV incorporated into periodic pacing promotes alternans formation and thus, can be pro-arrhythmic...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217939/pitx2-dependent-gene-regulation-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-rhythm-control
#12
Fahima Syeda, Paulus Kirchhof, Larissa Fabritz
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia. Better prevention and treatment of AF are needed to reduce AF-associated morbidity and mortality. There are several major mechanisms that cause AF in patients, including a genetic predisposition to develop AF. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with AF populations, with the strongest hits clustering on chromosome 4q25, close to the gene for the homeobox transcription factor PITX2. The effect of these common gene variants on cardiac PITX2 mRNA is currently under study...
February 19, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185351/persistent-atrial-fibrillation-ablation-with-or-without-contact-force-sensing
#13
Ayman A Hussein, Amr F Barakat, Walid I Saliba, Khaldoun G Tarakji, Mohamed Bassiouny, Bryan Baranowski, Patrick Tchou, Mandeep Bhargava, Thomas Dresing, Thomas Callahan, Daniel Cantillon, Mohamed Kanj, Bruce D Lindsay, Oussama M Wazni
INTRODUCTION: Arrhythmia recurrences remain common after ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PersAF). Contact force sensing catheters have been introduced for objective assessment of contact during radiofrequency application and have been suggested to improve outcomes in ablation of paroxysmal AF, but little is known about their role in PersAF ablation. We aimed to compare the procedural profiles and outcomes of (PersAF) ablation with or without using contact force (CF) sensing catheters...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167219/the-pro-or-antiarrhythmic-actions-of-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-of-cholesterol
#14
REVIEW
R Coronel
In this review, the pro- and anti-arrhythmic effects of a diet rich in fish oil fatty acids and hypercholesterolemia will be discussed in relation to two major mechanisms of arrhythmogenesis (triggered activity and re-entry). Whereas a diet rich in fish oil is pro-arrhythmic in relation to re-entry based arrhythmias (as occur in acute myocardial ischemia) and anti-arrhythmic in relation to triggered activity based arrhythmias (as occur in heart failure), the reverse is true for hypercholesterolemia. Changing the lipid composition of cardiomyocytes likely has powerful pro- or anti-arrhythmic consequences, depending on the mechanism of arrhythmias, and has corresponding therapeutic potential...
February 3, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111350/antiarrhythmic-effects-of-interleukin-1-inhibition-after-myocardial-infarction
#15
Nicole M De Jesus, Lianguo Wang, Johnny Lai, Robert R Rigor, Samantha D Francis Stuart, Donald M Bers, Merry L Lindsey, Crystal M Ripplinger
BACKGROUND: Interleukin 1β (IL-1β) is a key regulator of the inflammatory response after myocardial infarction (MI) by modulating immune cell recruitment, cytokine production, and extracellular matrix turnover. Elevated levels of IL-1β are associated with adverse remodeling, and inhibition of IL-1 signaling after MI results in improved contractile function. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether IL-1 signaling also contributes to post-MI arrhythmogenesis...
January 19, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090681/excess-of-exercise-increases-the-risk-of-atrial-fibrillation
#16
REVIEW
A Müssigbrodt, A Weber, J Mandrola, Y van Belle, S Richter, M Döring, A Arya, P Sommer, A Bollmann, G Hindricks
An interesting and still not well-understood example for old medical wisdom "Sola dosis facit venenum" is the increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in athletes. Numerous studies have shown a fourfold to eightfold increased risk of AF in athletes compared to the normal population. Analysis of the existing data suggests a dose-dependent effect of exercise. Moderate exercise seems to have a protective effect and decreases the risk of AF, whereas excessive exercise seems to increase the risk of AF. The described cases illustrate clinical manifestations within the spectrum of AF in elderly athletes, that is, exercise-induced AF, vagal AF, chronic AF, and atrial flutter...
January 16, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079354/effect-of-excess-iodine-intake-on-thyroid-on-human-health
#17
REVIEW
Eftychia G Koukkou, Nikolaos D Roupas, Kostas B Markou
The recommended daily intake of iodide, is 150 μg for adolescents and adults, 250 μg for pregnancy and lactation. Thyroid gland is an effective collector of iodine. The active iodine uptake along the basolateral membrane of thyroid cell is followed by its transport to the apical edge of the cell and then to the follicle lumen. TSH acts through cAMP and stimulates NIS gene expression and protein synthesis. The major proportion of iodine in the thyroid gland is bound to Thyroglobulin. The non-organic intrathyroidal iodine is usually low, but significantly greater compared to plasma...
April 2017: Minerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053220/application-of-static-modeling-in-the-prediction-of-in-vivo-drug-drug-interactions-between-rivaroxaban-and-anti-arrhythmic-agents-based-on-in-vitro-inhibition-studies
#18
Eleanor Jing Yi Cheong, Janice Jia Ni Goh, Yanjun Hong, Gopalakrishnan Venkatesan, Yuanjie Liu, Gigi Ngar Chee Chiu, Pipin Kojodjojo, Eric Chun Yong Chan
Rivaroxaban, a direct Factor Xa inhibitor, is indicated for stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). Studies have revealed that the clearance of rivaroxaban is largely attributed to CYP3A4, CYP2J2 metabolism and P-gp efflux pathways. Amiodarone and dronedarone are anti-arrhythmic agents employed in AF management. Amiodarone, dronedarone and their major metabolites, N-desethylamiodarone (NDEA) and N-desbutyldronedarone (NDBD) demonstrate inhibitory effects on CYP3A4 and CYP2J2 with FDA recommended probe substrates...
January 4, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011590/cardiac-sympathetic-innervation-via-the-middle-cervical-and-stellate-ganglia-and-anti-arrhythmic-mechanism-of-bilateral-stellectomy
#19
Tadanobu Irie, Kentaro Yamakawa, David Hamon, Keijiro Nakamura, Kalyanam Shivkumar, Marmar Vaseghi
Cardiac sympathetic denervation, CSD, is reported to reduce burden of ventricular tachy-arrhythmias (VT/VF) in cardiomyopathy patients, but the mechanisms behind this benefit are unknown. In addition, the relative contribution to cardiac innervation of the middle cervical ganglia (MCG), which may contain cardiac neurons, and is not removed during this procedure, is unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare sympathetic innervation of the heart via the MCG vs. stellate ganglia, assess effects of bilateral CSD on cardiac function and VT/VF, and determine changes in cardiac sympathetic innervation after CSD to elucidate mechanisms of benefit in 6 normal and 18 infarcted pigs...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996317/cardiac-arrest-with-clozapine-and-olanzapine-revealing-long-qt-syndrome
#20
Edward Woloszyn, Nishant Whig, Eileen Trigoboff, Jeffery J Grace
The authors describe a rare case of "concealed" congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) Type 3 in a patient with treatment resistant schizophrenia and no known personal or family history of cardiac disease. The patient in this Case Report had a hidden genetic condition revealed only following the essential administration of antipsychotics. As a result, this patient experienced an aborted cardiac arrest and a total of five episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) requiring cardioversion. Successful control of the VT occurred with an Automatic Internal Defibrillator (AID), judicious use of antipsychotic medications, and anti-arrhythmic medications...
December 20, 2016: Clinical Schizophrenia & related Psychoses
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