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processed EEG

Jose M Sanchez Bornot, KongFatt Wong-Lin, Alwani Liyana Ahmad, Girijesh Prasad
The brain's functional connectivity (FC) estimated at sensor level from electromagnetic (EEG/MEG) signals can provide quick and useful information towards understanding cognition and brain disorders. Volume conduction (VC) is a fundamental issue in FC analysis due to the effects of instantaneous correlations. FC methods based on the imaginary part of the coherence (iCOH) of any two signals are readily robust to VC effects, but neglecting the real part of the coherence leads to negligible FC when the processes are truly connected but with zero or π-phase (modulus 2π) interaction...
March 15, 2018: Brain Topography
Kian F Wong, James Teng, Michael W L Chee, Kinjal Doshi, Julian Lim
Mindfulness based training (MBT) is becoming increasingly popular as a means to improve general wellbeing through developing enhanced control over metacognitive processes. In this preliminary study, we tested a cohort of 36 nurses (mean age = 30.3, SD = 8.52; 2 male) who participated in an 8-week MBT intervention to examine the improvements in sustained attention and its energetic costs that may result from MBT. Changes in sustained attention were measured using the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and electroencephalography (EEG) was collected both during PVT performance, and during a brief period of meditation...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Stefan Elmer, Joëlle Albrecht, Seyed Abolfazl Valizadeh, Clément François, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Word learning constitutes a human faculty which is dependent upon two anatomically distinct processing streams projecting from posterior superior temporal (pST) and inferior parietal (IP) brain regions toward the prefrontal cortex (dorsal stream) and the temporal pole (ventral stream). The ventral stream is involved in mapping sensory and phonological information onto lexical-semantic representations, whereas the dorsal stream contributes to sound-to-motor mapping, articulation, complex sequencing in the verbal domain, and to how verbal information is encoded, stored, and rehearsed from memory...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peng Li, Chandan Karmakar, John Yearwood, Svetha Venkatesh, Marimuthu Palaniswami, Changchun Liu
Entropy measures that assess signals' complexity have drawn increasing attention recently in biomedical field, as they have shown the ability of capturing unique features that are intrinsic and physiologically meaningful. In this study, we applied entropy analysis to electroencephalogram (EEG) data to examine its performance in epilepsy detection based on short-term EEG, aiming at establishing a short-term analysis protocol with optimal seizure detection performance. Two classification problems were considered, i...
2018: PloS One
Julia N Bailey, Laurence de Nijs, Dongsheng Bai, Toshimitsu Suzuki, Hiroyuki Miyamoto, Miyabi Tanaka, Christopher Patterson, Yu-Chen Lin, Marco T Medina, María E Alonso, José M Serratosa, Reyna M Durón, Viet H Nguyen, Jenny E Wight, Iris E Martínez-Juárez, Adriana Ochoa, Aurelio Jara-Prado, Laura Guilhoto, Yolly Molina, Elsa M Yacubian, Minerva López-Ruiz, Yushi Inoue, Sunao Kaneko, Shinichi Hirose, Makiko Osawa, Hirokazu Oguni, Shinji Fujimoto, Thierry M Grisar, John M Stern, Kazuhiro Yamakawa, Bernard Lakaye, Antonio V Delgado-Escueta
BACKGROUND: In juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, data are limited on the genetic basis of networks promoting convulsions with diffuse polyspikes on electroencephalography (EEG) and the subtle microscopic brain dysplasia called microdysgenesis. METHODS: Using Sanger sequencing, we sequenced the exomes of six members of a large family affected with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and confirmed cosegregation in all 37 family members. We screened an additional 310 patients with this disorder for variants on DNA melting-curve analysis and targeted real-time DNA sequencing of the gene encoding intestinal-cell kinase ( ICK)...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Jeroen J Stekelenburg, Mirjam Keetels, Jean Vroomen
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the vision of lip movements can alter the perception of auditory speech syllables (McGurk effect). While there is ample evidence for integration of text and auditory speech, there are only a few studies on the orthographic equivalent of the McGurk effect. Here, we examined whether written text, like visual speech, can induce an illusory change in the perception of speech sounds on both the behavioral and neural level. In a sound categorization task, we found that both text and visual speech changed the identity of speech sounds from an /aba/-/ada/ continuum, but the size of this audiovisual effect was considerably smaller for text than visual speech...
March 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Laurel J Gabard-Durnam, Adriana S Mendez Leal, Carol L Wilkinson, April R Levin
Electroenchephalography (EEG) recordings collected with developmental populations present particular challenges from a data processing perspective. These EEGs have a high degree of artifact contamination and often short recording lengths. As both sample sizes and EEG channel densities increase, traditional processing approaches like manual data rejection are becoming unsustainable. Moreover, such subjective approaches preclude standardized metrics of data quality, despite the heightened importance of such measures for EEGs with high rates of initial artifact contamination...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jan Cimbalnik, Gregory A Worrell
High-frequency oscillations (HFOs: 100 - 600 Hz) have been widely proposed as biomarkers of epileptic brain tissue. In addition, HFOs over a broader range of frequencies spanning 30 - 2000 Hz are potential biomarkers of both physiological and pathological brain processes. The majority of the results from humans with focal epilepsy have focused on HFOs recorded directly from the brain with intracranial EEG (iEEG) in the high gamma (65 - 100 Hz), ripple (100 - 250 Hz), and fast ripple (250 - 600 Hz) frequency ranges...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Anaëlle Camarda, Émilie Salvia, Julie Vidal, Benoit Weil, Nicolas Poirel, Olivier Houdé, Grégoire Borst, Mathieu Cassotti
Decades of problem solving and creativity research have converged to show that the ability to generate new and useful ideas can be blocked or impeded by intuitive biases leading to mental fixations. The present study aimed at investigating the neural bases of the processes involved in overcoming fixation effects during creative idea generation. Using the AU task adapted for EEG recording, we examined whether participant's ability to provide original ideas was related to alpha power changes in both the frontal and temporo-parietal regions...
March 9, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Marie Luise Schreiter, Witold Chmielewski, Christian Beste
There is a strong inter-relation of cognitive and emotional processes as evidenced by emotional conflict monitoring processes. In the cognitive domain, proactive effects of conflicts have widely been studied; i.e. effects of conflicts in the n-1 trial on trial n. Yet, the neurophysiological processes and associated functional neuroanatomical structures underlying such proactive effects during emotional conflicts have not been investigated. This is done in the current study combining EEG recordings with signal decomposition methods and source localization approaches...
March 9, 2018: NeuroImage
D J McFarland, J R Wolpaw
Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are real-time computer-based systems that translate brain signals into useful commands. To date most applications have been demonstrations of proof-of-principle; widespread use by people who could benefit from this technology requires further development. Improvements in current EEG recording technology are needed. Better sensors would be easier to apply, more confortable for the user, and produce higher quality and more stable signals. Although considerable effort has been devoted to evaluating classifiers using public datasets, more attention to real-time signal processing issues and to optimizing the mutually adaptive interaction between the brain and the BCI are essential for improving BCI performance...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Marjan Biria, Miralena I Tomescu, Anna Custo, Lucia M Cantonas, Kun-Wei Song, Maude Schneider, Micah M Murray, Stephan Eliez, Christoph M Michel, Tonia A Rihs
Carriers of the rare 22q11.2 microdeletion present with a high percentage of positive and negative symptoms and a high genetic risk for schizophrenia. Visual processing impairments have been characterized in schizophrenia, but less so in 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome (DS). Here, we focus on visual processing using high-density EEG and source imaging in 22q11.2DS participants (N = 25) and healthy controls (N = 26) with an illusory contour discrimination task. Significant differences between groups emerged at early and late stages of visual processing...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
R L van den Brink, S Nieuwenhuis, G J M van Boxtel, G van Luijtelaar, H J Eilander, V J M Wijnen
For some patients, coma is followed by a state of unresponsiveness, while other patients develop signs of awareness. In practice, detecting signs of awareness may be hindered by possible impairments in the patient's motoric, sensory, or cognitive abilities, resulting in a substantial proportion of misdiagnosed disorders of consciousness. Task-free paradigms that are independent of the patient's sensorimotor and neurocognitive abilities may offer a solution to this challenge. A limitation of previous research is that the large majority of studies on the pathophysiological processes underlying disorders of consciousness have been conducted using cross-sectional designs...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Fiorenzo Artoni, Arnaud Delorme, Scott Makeig
Independent Component Analysis (ICA) has proven to be an effective data driven method for analyzing EEG data, separating signals from temporally and functionally independent brain and non-brain source processes and thereby increasing their definition. Dimension reduction by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) has often been recommended before ICA decomposition of EEG data, both to minimize the amount of required data and computation time. Here we compared ICA decompositions of fourteen 72-channel single subject EEG data sets obtained (i) after applying preliminary dimension reduction by PCA, (ii) after applying no such dimension reduction, or else (iii) applying PCA only...
March 8, 2018: NeuroImage
Mengyang He, Changzhu Qi, Yang Lu, Amanda Song, Saba Z Hayat, Xia Xu
Extensive studies have shown that a sports expert is superior to a sports novice in visually perceptual-cognitive processes of sports scene information, however the attentional and neural basis of it has not been thoroughly explored. The present study examined whether a sport expert has the attentional superiority on scene information relevant to his/her sport skill, and explored what factor drives this superiority. To address this problem, EEGs were recorded as participants passively viewed sport scenes (tennis vs...
March 7, 2018: Neuroscience
Melle J W van der Molen, Anita Harrewijn, P Michiel Westenberg
The current study examined neural and behavioral responses to social evaluative feedback processing in social anxiety. Twenty-two non-socially and 17 socially anxious females (mean age = 19.57 years) participated in a Social Judgment Paradigm in which they received acceptance/rejection feedback that was either congruent or incongruent with their prior predictions. Results indicated that socially anxious participants believed they would receive less social acceptance feedback than non-socially anxious participants...
March 7, 2018: Biological Psychology
Richard H Epstein, Joni M Maga, Michael E Mahla, Eric S Schwenk, Marc J Bloom
BACKGROUND: Processed electroencephalogram (EEG) monitors help assess the hypnotic state during general anesthesia or sedation. Maintaining the bispectral index (BIS) or state entropy (SE) between 40 and 60 has been recommended to mitigate anesthesia awareness. Nonetheless, SEs > 70 were frequently observed at end-tidal sevoflurane concentrations unlikely to allow awareness. We sought to determine the prevalence of elevated discordant measurements during BIS and SE monitoring. METHODS: Electronic data collected over 11 months at two academic hospitals were retrospectively reviewed...
March 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
I Maini, I Ivanovski, O Djuric, S G Caraffi, E Errichiello, M Marinelli, F Franchi, V Bizzarri, S Rosato, M Pollazzon, C Gelmini, M Malacarne, C Fusco, G Gargano, S Bernasconi, O Zuffardi, L Garavelli
BACKGROUND: Since 2010, array-CGH (aCGH) has been the first-tier test in the diagnostic approach of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD) or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA) of unknown origin. Its broad application led to the detection of numerous variants of uncertain clinical significance (VOUS). How to appropriately interpret aCGH results represents a challenge for the clinician. METHOD: We present a retrospective study on 293 patients with age range 1 month - 29 years (median 7 years) with NDD and/or MCA and/or dysmorphisms, investigated through aCGH between 2005 and 2016...
March 9, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Sophia Uddin, Shannon L M Heald, Stephen C Van Hedger, Howard C Nusbaum
Environmental sounds (ES) can be understood easily when substituted for words in sentences, suggesting that linguistic context benefits may be mediated by processes more general than some language-specific theories assert. However, the underlying neural processing is not understood. EEG was recorded for spoken sentences ending in either a spoken word or a corresponding ES. Endings were either congruent or incongruent with the sentence frame, and thus were expected to produce N400 activity. However, if ES and word meanings are combined with language context by different mechanisms, different N400 responses would be expected...
March 6, 2018: Brain and Language
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