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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907075/erp-correlates-of-encoding-success-and-encoding-selectivity-in-attention-switching
#1
Franziska R Richter, Nick Yeung
Long-term memory encoding depends critically on effective processing of incoming information. The degree to which participants engage in effective encoding can be indexed in electroencephalographic (EEG) data by studying event-related potential (ERP) subsequent memory effects. The current study investigated ERP correlates of memory success operationalised with two different measures-memory selectivity and global memory-to assess whether previously observed ERP subsequent memory effects reflect focused encoding of task-relevant information (memory selectivity), general encoding success (global memory), or both...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902738/induced-and-evoked-human-electrophysiological-correlates-of-visual-working-memory-set-size-effects-at-encoding
#2
Gennadiy Gurariy, Kyle W Killebrew, Marian E Berryhill, Gideon P Caplovitz
The ability to encode, store, and retrieve visually presented objects is referred to as visual working memory (VWM). Although crucial for many cognitive processes, previous research reveals that VWM strictly capacity limited. This capacity limitation is behaviorally observable in the set size effect: the ability to successfully report items in VWM asymptotes at a small number of items. Research into the neural correlates of set size effects and VWM capacity limits in general largely focus on the maintenance period of VWM...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902711/eeg-to-primary-rewards-predictive-utility-and-malleability-by-brain-stimulation
#3
Nicole Prause, Greg J Siegle, Choi Deblieck, Allan Wu, Marco Iacoboni
Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is thought to affect reward processing mechanisms, which may increase and decrease reward sensitivity. To test the ability of TBS to modulate response to strong primary rewards, participants hypersensitive to primary rewards were recruited. Twenty men and women with at least two opposite-sex, sexual partners in the last year received two forms of TBS. Stimulations were randomized to avoid order effects and separated by 2 hours to reduce carryover. The two TBS forms have been demonstrated to inhibit (continuous) or excite (intermittent) the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using different pulse patterns, which links to brain areas associated with reward conditioning...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901053/visual-search-performance-is-predicted-by-both-prestimulus-and-poststimulus-electrical-brain-activity
#4
Berry van den Berg, Lawrence G Appelbaum, Kait Clark, Monicque M Lorist, Marty G Woldorff
An individual's performance on cognitive and perceptual tasks varies considerably across time and circumstances. We investigated neural mechanisms underlying such performance variability using regression-based analyses to examine trial-by-trial relationships between response times (RTs) and different facets of electrical brain activity. Thirteen participants trained five days on a color-popout visual-search task, with EEG recorded on days one and five. The task was to find a color-popout target ellipse in a briefly presented array of ellipses and discriminate its orientation...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897669/domain-general-stroop-performance-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-a-resting-state-eeg-study
#5
Ettore Ambrosini, Antonino Vallesi
The ability to suppress irrelevant information while executing a task or interference resistance is a function of pFC that is critical for successful goal-directed human behavior. In the study of interference resistance and, more generally, executive functions, two key questions are still open: Does pFC contribute to cognitive control abilities through lateralized but domain-general mechanisms or through hemispheric specialization of domain-specific processes? And what are the underlying causes of interindividual differences in executive control performance? To shed light on these issues, here we employed an interindividual difference approach to investigate whether participants' hemispheric asymmetry in resting-state electrophysiological brain dynamics may reflect their variability in domain-general interference resistance...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896005/cerebral-blood-flow-is-decoupled-from-blood-pressure-and-linked-to-eeg-bursting-after-resuscitation-from-cardiac-arrest
#6
Christian Crouzet, Robert H Wilson, Afsheen Bazrafkan, Maryam H Farahabadi, Donald Lee, Juan Alcocer, Bruce J Tromberg, Bernard Choi, Yama Akbari
In the present study, we have developed a multi-modal instrument that combines laser speckle imaging, arterial blood pressure, and electroencephalography (EEG) to quantitatively assess cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and brain electrophysiology before, during, and after asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) and resuscitation. Using the acquired data, we quantified the time and magnitude of the CBF hyperemic peak and stabilized hypoperfusion after resuscitation. Furthermore, we assessed the correlation between CBF and MAP before and after stabilized hypoperfusion...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894944/surface-projected-flair-supr-flair-analysis-a-novel-tool-for-advanced-imaging-of-epilepsy
#7
Francesco Cardinale, Stefano Francione, Luciana Gennari, Alberto Citterio, Maurizio Sberna, Laura Tassi, Roberto Mai, Ivana Sartori, Lino Nobili, Massimo Cossu, Laura Castana, Giorgio Lo Russo, Nadia Colombo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this pilot retrospective study is to describe the SUrface-PRojected FLuid-Attenuation-Inversion-Recovery (SUPR-FLAIR) analysis, a novel method mainly aimed at revealing cortical areas with subtle signal hyper-intensity. METHODS: Images from 101 healthy controls and ten patients suffering from drug-resistant partial epilepsy were retrospectively post-processed. Brain surface was reconstructed from a 3D T1-weighted fast field echo (3D T1W-FFE) MRI scan...
November 25, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894782/transitioning-eeg-experiments-away-from-the-laboratory-using-a-raspberry-pi-2
#8
Jonathan W P Kuziek, Axita Shienh, Kyle E Mathewson
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) experiments are typically performed in controlled laboratory settings to minimise noise and produce reliable measurements. These controlled conditions also reduce the applicability of the obtained results to more varied environments and may limit their relevance to everyday situations. NEW METHOD: Advances in computer portability may increase the mobility and applicability of EEG results while decreasing costs. In this experiment we show that stimulus presentation using a Raspberry Pi 2 computer provides a low cost, reliable alternative to a traditional desktop PC in the administration of EEG experimental tasks...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890323/ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-generates-pre-stimulus-theta-coherence-desynchronization-a-schema-instantiation-hypothesis
#9
Asaf Gilboa, Morris Moscovitch
The ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has long been implicated in monitoring of memory veracity, and more recently also in memory schema functions. In our model of strategic retrieval the two are related. We have proposed that the vmPFC has two schema-dependent functions: (i) to establish context-relevant templates against which the output of memory systems can be compared; (ii) to mediate automatic decision monitoring processes to ensure that only those responses that meet the criterion are enacted...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889426/a-selective-review-of-dharana-and-dhyana-in-healthy-participants
#10
REVIEW
Shirley Telles, Nilkamal Singh, Ram Kumar Gupta, Acharya Balkrishna
Attention is an important part of the process of meditation. Traditional Yoga texts describe two stages of meditation which follow each other in sequence. These are meditative focusing (dharana in Sanskrit) and effortless meditation (dhyana in Sanskrit). This review evaluated eight experimental studies conducted on participants in normal health, who practiced dharana and dhyana. The studies included evaluation of autonomic and respiratory variables, eLORETA and sLORETA assessments of the EEG, evoked potentials, functional magnetic resonance imaging, cancellation task performance and emotional intelligence...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888723/deconstructing-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-a-cross-diagnostic-cluster-analysis-of-cognitive-phenotypes
#11
Junghee Lee, Shemra Rizzo, Lori Altshuler, David C Glahn, David J Miklowitz, Catherine A Sugar, Jonathan K Wynn, Michael F Green
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ) show substantial overlap. It has been suggested that a subgroup of patients might contribute to these overlapping features. This study employed a cross-diagnostic cluster analysis to identify subgroups of individuals with shared cognitive phenotypes. METHOD: 143 participants (68 BD patients, 39 SZ patients and 36 healthy controls) completed a battery of EEG and performance assessments on perception, nonsocial cognition and social cognition...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888527/electrophysiological-correlates-of-decision-making-impairment-in-multiple-sclerosis
#12
Elisa Azcárraga-Guirola, Yaneth Rodríguez-Agudelo, Julia Velázquez-Cardoso, Yamel Rito-García, Rodolfo Solís-Vivanco
Although previous studies have shown that patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may exhibit impaired decision making (DM), the specific neuro-cognitive processes that underlie this deficiency remain unknown. Inefficient DM may occur due to poor option assessment or a deficit in the evaluation of choice outcomes. This study uses, for the first time, the event-related potential (ERP) technique to analyze these DM subprocesses in patients with MS. Sixteen MS patients and nineteen control subjects performed a DM task based on the Iowa Gambling Task while a digital EEG was recorded...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888065/comparing-the-effects-of-sustained-and-transient-spatial-attention-on-the-orienting-towards-and-the-processing-of-electrical-nociceptive-stimuli
#13
Rob H J Van der Lubbe, Jorian H G Blom, Elian De Kleine, Ernst T Bohlmeijer
We examined whether sustained vs. transient spatial attention differentially affect the processing of electrical nociceptive stimuli. Cued nociceptive stimuli of a relevant intensity (low or high) on the left or right forearm required a foot pedal press. The cued side varied trial wise in the transient attention condition, while it remained constant during a series of trials in the sustained attention condition. The orienting phase preceding the nociceptive stimuli was examined by focusing on lateralized EEG activity...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887994/tactile-stimulation-during-sleep-alters-slow-oscillation-and-spindle-densities-but-not-motor-skill
#14
Sofia Isabel Ribeiro Pereira, Felipe Beijamini, Frederik D Weber, Roberta Almeida Vincenzi, Felipe Augusto Cini da Silva, Fernando Mazzilli Louzada
Studies using targeted memory reactivation have shown that presentation of auditory or olfactory contextual cues during sleep can bias hippocampal reactivations towards the preferential replay of the cue-associated material, thereby resulting in enhanced consolidation of that information. If the same cortical ensembles are indeed used for encoding and storage of a given piece of information, forcing the sleeping brain to re-engage in task-intrinsic information processing should disturb the natural ongoing consolidation processes and therefore impair possible sleep benefits...
November 23, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886023/quantifying-the-dynamic-of-osa-brain-using-multifractal-formalism-a-novel-measure-for-sleep-fragmentation
#15
Somayeh Raiesdana
It is thought that the critical brain dynamics in sleep is modulated during frequent periods of wakefulness. This paper utilizes the capacity of EEG based scaling analysis to quantify sleep fragmentation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea. The scale-free (fractal) behavior refers to a state where no characteristic scale dominates the dynamics of the underlying process which is evident as long range correlations in a time series. Here, Multiscaling (multifractal) spectrum is utilized to quantify the disturbed dynamic of an OSA brain with fragmented sleep...
November 18, 2016: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884662/integrity-of-central-nervous-function-in-diabetes-mellitus-assessed-by-resting-state-eeg-frequency-analysis-and-source-localization
#16
Jens B Frøkjær, Carina Graversen, Christina Brock, Ahmad Khodayari-Rostamabad, Søren S Olesen, Tine M Hansen, Eirik Søfteland, Magnus Simrén, Asbjørn M Drewes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with structural and functional changes of the central nervous system. We used electroencephalography (EEG) to assess resting state cortical activity and explored associations to relevant clinical features. Multichannel resting state EEG was recorded in 27 healthy controls and 24 patients with longstanding DM and signs of autonomic dysfunction. The power distribution based on wavelet analysis was summarized into frequency bands with corresponding topographic mapping. Source localization analysis was applied to explore the electrical cortical sources underlying the EEG...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883068/-cerebellar-contribution-to-visuo-attentional-alpha-rhythm-insights-from-weightlessness
#17
A M Cebolla, M Petieau, B Dan, L Balazs, J McIntyre, G Cheron
Human brain adaptation in weightlessness follows the necessity to reshape the dynamic integration of the neural information acquired in the new environment. This basic aspect was here studied by the electroencephalogram (EEG) dynamics where oscillatory modulations were measured during a visuo-attentional state preceding a visuo-motor docking task. Astronauts in microgravity conducted the experiment in free-floating aboard the International Space Station, before the space flight and afterwards. We observed stronger power decrease (~ERD: event related desynchronization) of the ~10 Hz oscillation from the occipital-parietal (alpha ERD) to the central areas (mu ERD)...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882594/-cuts-in-action-a-high-density-eeg-study-investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-different-editing-techniques-in-film
#18
Katrin S Heimann, Sebo Uithol, Marta Calbi, Maria A Umiltà, Michele Guerra, Vittorio Gallese
In spite of their striking differences with real-life perception, films are perceived and understood without effort. Cognitive film theory attributes this to the system of continuity editing, a system of editing guidelines outlining the effect of different cuts and edits on spectators. A major principle in this framework is the 180° rule, a rule recommendation that, to avoid spectators' attention to the editing, two edited shots of the same event or action should not be filmed from angles differing in a way that expectations of spatial continuity are strongly violated...
November 24, 2016: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881960/testing-the-limits-of-skill-transfer-for-scrabble-experts-in-behavior-and-brain
#19
Sophia van Hees, Penny M Pexman, Ian S Hargreaves, Lenka Zdrazilova, Jessie M Hart, Kaia Myers-Stewart, Filomeno Cortese, Andrea B Protzner
We investigated transfer of the skills developed by competitive Scrabble players. Previous studies reported superior performance for Scrabble experts on the lexical decision task (LDT), suggesting near transfer of Scrabble skills. Here we investigated the potential for far transfer to a symbol decision task (SDT); in particular, transfer of enhanced long-term working memory for vertically presented stimuli. Our behavioral results showed no evidence for far transfer. Despite years of intensive practice, Scrabble experts were no faster and no more accurate than controls in the SDT...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880776/early-left-parietal-activity-elicited-by-direct-gaze-a-high-density-eeg-study
#20
Nicolas Burra, Dirk Kerzel, Nathalie George
Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40-80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze...
2016: PloS One
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