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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524772/effects-of-stereoscopic-disparity-on-early-erp-components-during-classification-of-three-dimensional-objects
#1
Alan J Pegna, Alexandre Darque, Mark V Roberts, E Charles Leek
This study investigates the effects of stereo disparity on the perception of three-dimensional (3D) object shape. We tested the hypothesis that stereo input modulates the brain activity related to perceptual analyses of 3D shape configuration during image classification. High-density (256-channel) EEG was used to record the temporal dynamics of visual shape processing under conditions of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) visual presentation. On each trial, observers made image classification judgements ('Same'/'Different') to two briefly presented, multi-part, novel objects...
May 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523733/the-development-of-cognitive-empathy-and-concern-in-preschool-children-a-behavioral-neuroscience-investigation
#2
Jean Decety, Kimberly L Meidenbauer, Jason M Cowell
This developmental neuroscience study examined the electrophysiological responses (EEG and ERPs) associated with perspective taking and empathic concern in preschool children, as well as their relation to parental empathy dispositions and children's own prosocial behavior. Consistent with a body of previous studies using stimuli depicting somatic pain in both children and adults, larger early (~200 ms) ERPs were identified when perceiving painful versus neutral stimuli. In the slow wave window (~800 ms), a significant interaction of empathy condition and stimulus type was driven by a greater difference between painful and neutral images in the empathic concern condition...
May 18, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523228/resting-state-and-personality-component-bis-bas-predict-the-brain-activity-eeg-and-fnirs-measure-in-response-to-emotional-cues
#3
Michela Balconi, Maria E Vanutelli, Elisabetta Grippa
INTRODUCTION: The present study explored the role of resting state and personality component (BIS/BAS measure) on prefrontal cortical responsiveness to emotional cues. Indeed, we supposed that lateralized resting activity (right vs. left) and approach (BAS) versus avoidance (BIS) attitude may explain the successive emotional processing within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) based on the stimulus valence (positive and negative emotional cues). METHODS: Hemodynamic (functional near-infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS) and electroencephalographic (EEG) measures were considered...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523218/valence-and-magnitude-ambiguity-in-feedback-processing
#4
Ruolei Gu, Xue Feng, Lucas S Broster, Lu Yuan, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Outcome feedback which indicates behavioral consequences are crucial for reinforcement learning and environmental adaptation. Nevertheless, outcome information in daily life is often totally or partially ambiguous. Studying how people interpret this kind of information would provide important knowledge about the human evaluative system. METHODS: This study concentrates on the neural processing of partially ambiguous feedback, that is, either its valence or magnitude is unknown to participants...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521049/22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-is-associated-with-impaired-auditory-steady-state-gamma-response
#5
Kit Melissa Larsen, Giovanni Pellegrino, Michelle Rosgaard Birknow, Trine Nørgaard Kjær, William Frans Christiaan Baaré, Michael Didriksen, Line Olsen, Thomas Werge, Morten Mørup, Hartwig Roman Siebner
Background: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome confers a markedly increased risk for schizophrenia. 22q11.2 deletion carriers without manifest psychotic disorder offer the possibility to identify functional abnormalities that precede clinical onset. Since schizophrenia is associated with a reduced cortical gamma response to auditory stimulation at 40 Hz, we hypothesized that the 40 Hz auditory steady-state response (ASSR) may be attenuated in nonpsychotic individuals with a 22q11.2 deletion...
May 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515289/learning-temporal-context-shapes-the-prestimulus-alpha-oscillations-and-improves-the-visual-discrimination-performance
#6
Tahereh Toosi, Ehsan K Tousi, Hossein Esteky
Time is an inseparable component of every physical event that we perceive, yet it is not clear how the brain processes time or how the neuronal representation of time affects our perception of events. Here, we asked subjects to perform a visual discrimination task, while we changed the temporal context in which the stimuli were presented. We collected electroencephalography (EEG) signals in two temporal contexts. Predictable blocks: stimuli were presented after a constant delay relative to a visual cue, and unpredictable blocks: stimuli were presented after variable delays relative to the visual cue...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512633/an-ambulatory-electroencephalography-system-for-freely-moving-horses-an-innovating-approach
#7
Hugo Cousillas, Martial Oger, Céline Rochais, Claire Pettoello, Mathilde Ménoret, Séverine Henry, Martine Hausberger
Electroencephalography (EEG) that has been extensively studied in humans presents also a large interest for studies on animal brain processes. However, since the quality of the recordings is altered by muscular activity, most EEG recordings on animals are obtained using invasive methods with deeply implanted electrodes. This requires anesthesia and can thus only be used in laboratory or clinical settings. As EEG is a very useful tool both for detecting brain alterations due to diseases or accidents and to evaluate the arousal and attentional state of the animal, it seemed crucial to develop a tool that would make such recordings possible in the horse's home environment, with a freely moving horse...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512429/reduced-prefrontal-short-latency-afferent-inhibition-in-older-adults-and-its-relation-to-executive-function-a-tms-eeg-study
#8
Yoshihiro Noda, Reza Zomorrodi, Felicity Backhouse, Robin F H Cash, Mera S Barr, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with electroencephalography (EEG) allows for the assessment of various neurophysiological processes in the human cortex. One of these paradigms, short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI), is thought to be a sensitive measure of cholinergic activity. In a previous study, we demonstrated the temporal pattern of this paradigm from both the motor (M1) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) using simultaneous TMS-EEG recording. The SAI paradigm led to marked modulations at N100...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511986/epileptiform-discharge-detection-with-the-4-channel-frontal-electroencephalography-during-post-resuscitation-care
#9
Kyoung Min You, Gil Joon Suh, Woon Yong Kwon, Kyung Su Kim, Sang-Bae Ko, Min Ji Park, Taegyun Kim, Jung-In Ko
INTRODUCTION: We performed this study to investigate whether the SEDline system, a 4-channel-processed electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring device in the frontal area, can detect epileptiform discharges accurately during post-resuscitation care in comatose cardiac arrest survivors. METHODS: Adult comatose cardiac arrest survivors, who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for post-resuscitation care including TTM, were enrolled. Within 72h post-return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), conventional EEG was conducted for 30minutes...
May 13, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507528/cognitive-impairments-in-occupational-burnout-error-processing-and-its-indices-of-reactive-and-proactive-control
#10
Krystyna Golonka, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja, Magda Gawlowska, Katarzyna Popiel
The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80), two components of error-related potential (ERP), error-related negativity (ERN), and error positivity (Pe), were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506619/long-term-reliability-of-the-visual-eeg-poffenberger-paradigm
#11
Patrick Friedrich, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Lisa Mochalski, Caroline Schlüter, Onur Güntürkün, Erhan Genc
The Poffenberger paradigm is a simple perception task that is used to estimate the speed of information transfer between the two hemispheres, the so-called interhemispheric transfer time (IHTT). Although the original paradigm is a behavioral task, it can be combined with electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the underlying neurophysiological processes during task execution. While older studies have supported the validity of both paradigms for investigating interhemispheric interactions, their long-term reliability has not been assessed systematically before...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505526/peripheral-hearing-loss-reduces-the-ability-of-children-to-direct-selective-attention-during-multi-talker-listening
#12
Emma Holmes, Padraig T Kitterick, A Quentin Summerfield
Restoring normal hearing requires knowledge of how peripheral and central auditory processes are affected by hearing loss. Previous research has focussed primarily on peripheral changes following sensorineural hearing loss, whereas consequences for central auditory processing have received less attention. We examined the ability of hearing-impaired children to direct auditory attention to a voice of interest (based on the talker's spatial location or gender) in the presence of a common form of background noise: the voices of competing talkers (i...
May 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504643/exploiting-neurovascular-coupling-a-bayesian-sequential-monte-carlo-approach-applied-to-simulated-eeg-fnirs-data
#13
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Arcangelo Merla, Antonio Chiarelli
OBJECTIVE: Electrical and hemodynamic brain activity are linked through the neurovascular coupling process and they can be simultaneously measured through integration of Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thanks to the lack of electro-optical interference, the two procedures can be easily combined and, whereas EEG provides electrophysiological information, fNIRS can provide measurements of two hemodynamic variables, such as oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502842/attentional-capture-in-visual-search-capture-and-post-capture-dynamics-revealed-by-eeg
#14
Heinrich René Liesefeld, Anna Marie Liesefeld, Thomas Töllner, Hermann J Müller
Sometimes, salient-but-irrelevant objects (distractors) presented concurrently with a search target cannot be ignored and attention is involuntarily allocated towards the distractor first. Several studies have provided electrophysiological evidence for involuntary misallocations of attention towards a distractor, but much less is known about the mechanisms that are needed to overcome a misallocation and re-allocate attention towards the concurrently presented target. In our study, electrophysiological markers of attentional mechanisms indicate that (i) the distractor captures attention before the target is attended, (ii) a misallocation of attention is terminated actively (instead of attention fading passively), and (iii) the misallocation of attention towards a distractor delays the attention allocation towards the target (rather than just delaying some post-attentive process involved in response selection)...
May 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500064/cry-presence-and-amplitude-do-not-reflect-cortical-processing-of-painful-stimuli-in-newborns-with-distinct-responses-to-touch-or-cold
#15
Nathalie L Maitre, Ann R Stark, Carrie C McCoy Menser, Olena D Chorna, Daniel J France, Alexandra F Key, Ken Wilkens, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Don M Wilkes, Stephen Bruehl
OBJECTIVE: Newborns requiring hospitalisation frequently undergo painful procedures. Prevention of pain in infants is of prime concern because of adverse associations with physiological and neurological development. However, pain mitigation is currently guided by behavioural observation assessments that have not been validated against direct evidence of pain processing in the brain. The aim of this study was to determine whether cry presence or amplitude is a valid indicator of pain processing in newborns...
May 12, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499987/evoked-potentials-in-final-epoch-of-self-initiated-hand-movement-a-study-in-patients-with-depth-electrodes
#16
Miloslav Kukleta, Alena Damborská, Baris Turak, Jacques Louvel
Comparison between the intended and performed motor action can be expected to occur in the final epoch of a voluntary movement. In search for electrophysiological correlates of this mental process the purpose of the current study was to identify intracerebral sites activated in final epoch of self-paced voluntary movement. Intracerebral EEG was recorded from 235 brain regions of 42 epileptic patients who performed self-paced voluntary movement task. Evoked potentials starting at 0 to 243ms after the peak of averaged, rectified electromyogram were identified in 21 regions of 13 subjects...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499139/a-novel-form-of-perceptual-attunement-context-dependent-perception-of-a-native-contrast-in-14-month-old-infants
#17
Mathilde Fort, Perrine Brusini, M Julia Carbajal, Yue Sun, Sharon Peperkamp
By the end of their first year of life, infants have become experts in discriminating the sounds of their native language, while they have lost the ability to discriminate non-native contrasts. This type of phonetic learning is referred to as perceptual attunement. In the present study, we investigated the emergence of a context-dependent form of perceptual attunement in infancy. Indeed, some native contrasts are not discriminated in certain phonological contexts by adults, due to the presence of a language-specific process that neutralizes the contrasts in those contexts...
April 26, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497568/neuropsychological-phenotypes-of-76-individuals-with-joubert-syndrome-evaluated-at-a-single-center
#18
Angela C Summers, Joseph Snow, Edythe Wiggs, Alexander G Liu, Camilo Toro, Andrea Poretti, Wadih M Zein, Brian P Brooks, Melissa A Parisi, Sara Inati, Dan Doherty, Meghana Vemulapalli, Jim C Mullikin, Thierry Vilboux, William A Gahl, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Joubert syndrome (JS) is a genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy characterized by hypo-dysplasia of the cerebellar vermis, a distinct hindbrain/midbrain malformation (molar tooth sign), and intellectual disability. We evaluated the neuropsychological profiles of 76 participants with JS in the context of molecular genetics and clinical covariates. Evaluations included neuropsychological testing, structured parental interviews, DNA sequencing, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), electroencephalography (EEG), ophthalmologic examination, and assessment for renal and hepatic disease...
May 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497246/neural-correlates-of-explicit-versus-implicit-facial-emotion-processing-in-asd
#19
Christina Luckhardt, Anne Kröger, Hannah Cholemkery, Stephan Bender, Christine M Freitag
The underlying neural mechanisms of implicit and explicit facial emotion recognition (FER) were studied in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) compared to matched typically developing controls (TDC). EEG was obtained from N = 21 ASD and N = 16 TDC. Task performance, visual (P100, N170) and cognitive (late positive potential) event-related-potentials, as well as coherence were compared across groups. TDC showed a task-dependent increase and a stronger lateralization of P100 amplitude during the explicit task and task-dependent modulation of intra-hemispheric coherence in the beta band...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497235/spatiotemporal-dynamics-of-the-cortical-responses-induced-by-a-prolonged-tactile-stimulation-of-the-human-fingertips
#20
Clara Genna, Calogero M Oddo, Chiara Fanciullacci, Carmelo Chisari, Henrik Jörntell, Fiorenzo Artoni, Silvestro Micera
The sense of touch is fundamental for daily behavior. The aim of this work is to understand the neural network responsible for touch processing during a prolonged tactile stimulation, delivered by means of a mechatronic platform by passively sliding a ridged surface under the subject's fingertip while recording the electroencephalogram (EEG). We then analyzed: (i) the temporal features of the Somatosensory Evoked Potentials and their topographical distribution bilaterally across the cortex; (ii) the associated temporal modulation of the EEG frequency bands...
May 11, 2017: Brain Topography
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