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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634438/computational-models-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-at-the-crossroads-between-prediction-and-effort
#1
Eliana Vassena, Clay B Holroyd, William H Alexander
In the last two decades the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has become one of the most investigated areas of the brain. Extensive neuroimaging evidence suggests countless functions for this region, ranging from conflict and error coding, to social cognition, pain and effortful control. In response to this burgeoning amount of data, a proliferation of computational models has tried to characterize the neurocognitive architecture of ACC. Early seminal models provided a computational explanation for a relatively circumscribed set of empirical findings, mainly accounting for EEG and fMRI evidence...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633887/visual-integration-of-fear-and-anger-emotional-cues-by-children-on-the-autism-spectrum-and-neurotypical-peers-an-eeg-study
#2
Evie Malaia, Debbie Cockerham, Katherine Rublein
Communication deficits in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often related to inefficient interpretation of emotional cues, which are conveyed visually through both facial expressions and body language (Apicella et al., 2012). The present study examined ASD behavioral and ERP responses to emotional expressions of anger and fear, as conveyed by the face and body. Behavioral results showed significantly faster response times for the ASD than for the typically developing (TD) group when processing fear, but not anger, in isolated face expressions, isolated body expressions, and in the integration of the two...
June 17, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632774/short-term-eeg-dynamics-and-neural-generators-evoked-by-navigational-images
#3
Axelle Leroy, Carlos Cevallos, Ana-Maria Cebolla, Stéphanie Caharel, Bernard Dan, Guy Cheron
The ecological environment offered by virtual reality is primarily supported by visual information. The different image contents and their rhythmic presentation imply specific bottom-up and top-down processing. Because these processes already occur during passive observation we studied the brain responses evoked by the presentation of specific 3D virtual tunnels with respect to 2D checkerboard. For this, we characterized electroencephalograhy dynamics (EEG), the evoked potentials and related neural generators involved in various visual paradigms...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630252/alpha-band-brain-oscillations-shape-the-processing-of-perceptible-as-well-as-imperceptible-somatosensory-stimuli-during-selective-attention
#4
Norman Forschack, Till Nierhaus, Matthias M Müller, Arno Villringer
Attention filters and weights sensory information according to behavioral demands. Stimulus-related neural responses are increased for the attended stimulus. Does alpha-band activity mediate this effect and is it restricted to conscious sensory events (suprathreshold), or does it also extend to unconscious stimuli (subthreshold)? To address these questions, we recorded EEG in healthy male and female volunteers undergoing subthreshold and suprathreshold somatosensory electrical stimulation to the left or right index finger...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629974/the-effects-of-changes-in-object-location-on-object-identity-detection%C3%AF-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#5
Ping Yang, Chenggui Fan, Min Wang, Noa Fogelson, Ling Li
Object identity and location are bound together to form a unique integration that is maintained and processed in visual working memory (VWM). Changes in task-irrelevant object location have been shown to impair the retrieval of memorial representations and the detection of object identity changes. However, the neural correlates of this cognitive process remain largely unknown. In the present study, we aim to investigate the underlying brain activation during object color change detection and the modulatory effects of changes in object location and VWM load...
June 16, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626393/a-ssvep-stimuli-encoding-method-using-trinary-frequency-shift-keying-encoded-ssvep-tfsk-ssvep
#6
Xing Zhao, Dechun Zhao, Xia Wang, Xiaorong Hou
SSVEP is a kind of BCI technology with advantage of high information transfer rate. However, due to its nature, frequencies could be used as stimuli are scarce. To solve such problem, a stimuli encoding method which encodes SSVEP signal using Frequency Shift-Keying (FSK) method is developed. In this method, each stimulus is controlled by a FSK signal which contains three different frequencies that represent "Bit 0," "Bit 1" and "Bit 2" respectively. Different to common BFSK in digital communication, "Bit 0" and "Bit 1" composited the unique identifier of stimuli in binary bit stream form, while "Bit 2" indicates the ending of a stimuli encoding...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626013/sleep-disrupts-high-level-speech-parsing-despite-significant-basic-auditory-processing
#7
Shiri Makov, Omer Sharon, Nai Ding, Michal Ben-Shachar, Yuval Nir, Elana Zion Golumbic
The extent to which the sleeping brain processes sensory information remains unclear. This is particularly true for continuous and complex stimuli, such as speech, in which information is organized into hierarchically embedded structures. Recently, novel metrics for assessing the neural representation of continuous speech have been developed, using non-invasive brain recordings. Those were so far tested during wakefulness. Here we investigated, for the first time, the sleeping brain's capacity to process continuous speech at different hierarchical levels, using a newly developed Concurrent Hierarchical Tracking (CHT) approach that can online monitor the neural representation and processing-depth of continuous speech...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624571/age-related-changes-of-cortical-excitability-and-connectivityin-healthy-humans-non-invasive-evaluation-of-sensorimotor-network-by-means-of-tms-eeg
#8
Florinda Ferreri, Andrea Guerra, Luca Vollero, David Ponzo, Sara Maatta, Esa Mervaala, Giulio Iannello, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
The sensorimotor cortical system undergoes structural and functional changes across its lifespan. Some of these changes are physiological and parallel the normal aging process, while others might represent pathophysiological mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders. In the last years, the study of possible age-related modifications in brain sensorimotor functional characteristics has been the focus of several research projects. Here we have used the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-EEG navigated co-registration to investigate the influence of physiological aging on the excitability and connectivity of the human sensorimotor cortical system...
June 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622615/domain-general-neural-correlates-of-dependency-formation-using-complex-tones-to-simulate-language
#9
Ingmar Brilmayer, Jona Sassenhagen, Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Matthias Schlesewsky
There is an ongoing debate whether the P600 event-related potential component following syntactic anomalies reflects syntactic processes per se, or if it is an instance of the P300, a domain-general ERP component associated with attention and cognitive reorientation. A direct comparison of both components is challenging because of the huge discrepancy in experimental designs and stimulus choice between language and 'classic' P300 experiments. In the present study, we develop a new approach to mimic the interplay of sequential position as well as categorical and relational information in natural language syntax (word category and agreement) in a non-linguistic target detection paradigm using musical instruments...
May 30, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621460/older-adults-display-diminished-error-processing-and-response-in-a-continuous-tracking-task
#10
Francisco L Colino, Harvey Howse, Angela Norton, Robert Trska, Anthony Pluta, Stephen J C Luehr, Todd C Handy, Olave E Krigolson
Advancing age is often accompanied by a decline in motor control that results in a decreased ability to successfully perform motor tasks. While there are multiple factors that contribute to age-related deficits in motor control, one unexplored possibility is that age-related deficits in our ability to evaluate motor output result in an increase in motor errors. In line with this, previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that motor errors evoked an error-related negativity (ERN)-a component of the human ERP associated with error evaluation originating within the human medial-frontal cortex...
June 16, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620292/dynamic-responses-in-brain-networks-to-social-feedback-a-dual-eeg-acquisition-study-in-adolescent-couples
#11
Ching-Chang Kuo, Thao Ha, Ashley M Ebbert, Don M Tucker, Thomas J Dishion
Adolescence is a sensitive period for the development of romantic relationships. During this period the maturation of frontolimbic networks is particularly important for the capacity to regulate emotional experiences. In previous research, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) measures have suggested that responses in limbic regions are enhanced in adolescents experiencing social rejection. In the present research, we examined social acceptance and rejection from romantic partners as they engaged in a Chatroom Interact Task...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620215/theta-band-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulations-modulates-network-behavior-of-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#12
Keiichi Onoda, Toshikazu Kawagoe, Haixia Zheng, Shuhei Yamaguchi
Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is an important region in the processing of both cognition and affect. Recently, transcranial brain stimulation has been used to modulate cortical activity, but it is unclear whether this stimulation has a specific effect on dACC. Based on EEG evidence that frontal midline theta activity is generated in dACC, we hypothesized that transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) with theta band frequency would modulate neural networks including dACC. In this study, we examined the effects of theta band tACS on functional networks and emotional state...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619653/on-optimal-spatial-filtering-for-the-detection-of-phase-coupling-in-multivariate-neural-recordings
#13
G Waterstraat, G Curio, V V Nikulin
INTRODUCTION: Neuronal oscillations synchronize processing in the brain over large spatiotemporal scales and thereby facilitate integration of individual functional modules. Up to now, the relation between the phases of neuronal oscillations and behavior or perception has mainly been analyzed in sensor space of multivariate EEG/MEG recordings. However, sensor-space analysis distorts the topographies of the underlying neuronal sources and suffers from low signal-to-noise ratio. Instead, we propose an optimized source reconstruction approach (Phase Coupling Optimization, PCO)...
June 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618836/comparing-eeg-nonlinearity-in-deficit-and-nondeficit-schizophrenia-patients-preliminary-data
#14
Alexander Cerquera, Klevest Gjini, Susan M Bowyer, Nash Boutros
Electroencephalogram (EEG) contains valuable information obtained noninvasively that can be used for assessment of brain's processing capacity of patients with psychiatric disorders. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate possible differences in EEG complexity between deficit (DS) and nondeficit (NDS) subtypes of schizophrenia as a reflection of the cognitive processing capacities in these groups. A particular nonlinear metric known as Lempel-Ziv complexity (LZC) was used as a computational tool in order to determine the randomness in EEG alpha band time series from 3 groups (deficit schizophrenia [n = 9], nondeficit schizophrenia [n = 10], and healthy controls [n = 10]) according to time series randomness...
June 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615963/frequency-dependent-changes-in-sensorimotor-and-pain-affective-systems-induced-by-empathy-for-pain
#15
Yoshimasa Motoyama, Katsuya Ogata, Sumio Hoka, Shozo Tobimatsu
BACKGROUND: Empathy for pain helps us to understand the pain of others indirectly. To better comprehend the processing of empathic pain, we report the frequency-dependent modulation of cortical oscillations induced by watching movies depicting pain using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), and motor evoked potentials (MEP). METHODS: Event-related desynchronization of EEG and MEG was assessed while participants viewed videos of painful (needle) or neutral (cotton swab) situations...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615277/alterations-in-the-brain-s-connectome-during-recovery-from-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-prospective-study
#16
Virginia Conde, Sara Hesby Andreasen, Tue Hvass Petersen, Karen Busted Larsen, Karine Madsen, Kasper Winther Andersen, Irina Akopian, Kristoffer Hougaard Madsen, Christian Pilebæk Hansen, Ingrid Poulsen, Lars Peter Kammersgaard, Hartwig Roman Siebner
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is considered one of the most pervasive causes of disability in people under the age of 45. TBI often results in disorders of consciousness, and clinical assessment of the state of consciousness in these patients is challenging due to the lack of behavioural responsiveness. Functional neuroimaging offers a means to assess these patients without the need for behavioural signs, indicating that brain connectivity plays a major role in consciousness emergence and maintenance...
June 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614399/the-effects-of-high-frequency-rtms-over-the-left-dlpfc-on-cognitive-control-in-young-healthy-participants
#17
Yanmin Li, Lin Wang, Meng Jia, Jihong Guo, Huijun Wang, Mingwei Wang
A large body of evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is clinically effective in treating neuropsychiatric disorders and multiple sessions are commonly used. However, it is unknown whether multiple sessions of rTMS improve cognitive control, which is a function of the neural circuitry of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)-cingulate cortex in healthy individuals. In addition, it is still unclear which stages of neural processing are altered by rTMS. In this study, we investigated the effects of high-frequency rTMS on cognitive control and explored the time course changes of cognitive processing after rTMS using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613974/inhibition-of-lateral-prefrontal-cortex-produces-emotionally-biased-first-impressions-a-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-and-electroencephalography-study
#18
Regina C Lapate, Jason Samaha, Bas Rokers, Hamdi Hamzah, Bradley R Postle, Richard J Davidson
Optimal functioning in everyday life requires the ability to override reflexive emotional responses and prevent affective spillover to situations or people unrelated to the source of emotion. In the current study, we investigated whether the lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) causally regulates the influence of emotional information on subsequent judgments. We disrupted left lPFC function using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and recorded electroencephalography (EEG) before and after. Subjects evaluated the likeability of novel neutral faces after a brief exposure to a happy or fearful face...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611575/ica-derived-eeg-correlates-to-mental-fatigue-effort-and-workload-in-a-realistically-simulated-air-traffic-control-task
#19
Deepika Dasari, Guofa Shou, Lei Ding
Electroencephalograph (EEG) has been increasingly studied to identify distinct mental factors when persons perform cognitively demanding tasks. However, most of these studies examined EEG correlates at channel domain, which suffers the limitation that EEG signals are the mixture of multiple underlying neuronal sources due to the volume conduction effect. Moreover, few studies have been conducted in real-world tasks. To precisely probe EEG correlates with specific neural substrates to mental factors in real-world tasks, the present study examined EEG correlates to three mental factors, i...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610902/post-stimulus-fmri-and-eeg-responses-evidence-for-a-neuronal-origin-hypothesised-to-be-inhibitory
#20
K J Mullinger, M T Cherukara, R B Buxton, S T Francis, S D Mayhew
Post-stimulus undershoots, negative responses following cessation of stimulation, are widely observed in functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) data. However, the debate surrounding whether the origin of this response phase is neuronal or vascular, and whether it provides functionally relevant information, that is additional to what is contained in primary response, means that undershoots are widely overlooked. We simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG), BOLD and cerebral blood-flow (CBF) [obtained from arterial spin labelled (ASL) fMRI] fMRI responses to hemifield checkerboard stimulation to test the potential neural origin of the fMRI post-stimulus undershoot...
June 10, 2017: NeuroImage
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