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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169033/mapping-complex-mind-states-eeg-neural-substrates-of-meditative-unified-compassionate-awareness
#1
Poppy L A Schoenberg, Andrea Ruf, John Churchill, Daniel P Brown, Judson A Brewer
Specific mental training cultivates diminished self-reference, encompassing non-duality, emptiness, awakened-awareness, and compassionate experiences. We aimed to elucidate the neural substrates of four distinct, interdependent Essence-of-Mind states: (1) timelessness, (2) non-preference, non-duality, non-conceptualization, (3) the view of luminosity and limitlessness, (4) unified compassionate experience of oneness (stable awakened-awareness). EEG data were collected from 30 advanced meditators concomitant to eyes-open/eyes-closed resting baseline, followed by 60-min of instructed practice...
November 20, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167403/alpha-oscillations-reduce-temporal-long-range-dependence-in-spontaneous-human-brain-activity
#2
Robert Becker, Dimitri Van De Ville, Andreas Kleinschmidt
Ongoing neural dynamics comprise both frequency-specific oscillations and broadband-features such as long-range-dependency (LRD). Despite both being behaviorally relevant, little is known about their potential interactions. In humans, 8-12Hz α-oscillations constitute the strongest deviation from 1/f power-law scaling, the signature of LRD. We postulated that α-oscillations - believed to exert active inhibitory gating - down-modulate the temporal width of LRD in slower ongoing brain activity. In two independent "resting-state" data-sets (electroencephalography surface-recordings and magneto-encephalography source-reconstructions), both across space and dynamically over time, power of α-activity co-varied with the power-slope below 5Hz; i...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163132/the-influence-of-negative-emotion-on-cognitive-and-emotional-control-remains-intact-in-aging
#3
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163123/closed-loop-hybrid-gaze-brain-machine-interface-based-robotic-arm-control-with-augmented-reality-feedback
#4
Hong Zeng, Yanxin Wang, Changcheng Wu, Aiguo Song, Jia Liu, Peng Ji, Baoguo Xu, Lifeng Zhu, Huijun Li, Pengcheng Wen
Brain-machine interface (BMI) can be used to control the robotic arm to assist paralysis people for performing activities of daily living. However, it is still a complex task for the BMI users to control the process of objects grasping and lifting with the robotic arm. It is hard to achieve high efficiency and accuracy even after extensive trainings. One important reason is lacking of sufficient feedback information for the user to perform the closed-loop control. In this study, we proposed a method of augmented reality (AR) guiding assistance to provide the enhanced visual feedback to the user for a closed-loop control with a hybrid Gaze-BMI, which combines the electroencephalography (EEG) signals based BMI and the eye tracking for an intuitive and effective control of the robotic arm...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163118/semi-automated-anatomical-labeling-and-inter-subject-warping-of-high-density-intracranial-recording-electrodes-in-electrocorticography
#5
Liberty S Hamilton, David L Chang, Morgan B Lee, Edward F Chang
In this article, we introduce img_pipe, our open source python package for preprocessing of imaging data for use in intracranial electrocorticography (ECoG) and intracranial stereo-EEG analyses. The process of electrode localization, labeling, and warping for use in ECoG currently varies widely across laboratories, and it is usually performed with custom, lab-specific code. This python package aims to provide a standardized interface for these procedures, as well as code to plot and display results on 3D cortical surface meshes...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163110/modeling-uncertainties-in-eeg-microstates-analysis-of-real-and-imagined-motor-movements-using-probabilistic-clustering-driven-training-of-probabilistic-neural-networks
#6
Martin Dinov, Robert Leech
Part of the process of EEG microstate estimation involves clustering EEG channel data at the global field power (GFP) maxima, very commonly using a modified K-means approach. Clustering has also been done deterministically, despite there being uncertainties in multiple stages of the microstate analysis, including the GFP peak definition, the clustering itself and in the post-clustering assignment of microstates back onto the EEG timecourse of interest. We perform a fully probabilistic microstate clustering and labeling, to account for these sources of uncertainty using the closest probabilistic analog to KM called Fuzzy C-means (FCM)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163103/sensory-feedback-interferes-with-mu-rhythm-based-detection-of-motor-commands-from-electroencephalographic-signals
#7
Maximilian Hommelsen, Matthias Schneiders, Christian Schuld, Philipp Keyl, Rüdiger Rupp
Background: Electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCI) represent a promising component of restorative motor therapies in individuals with partial paralysis. However, in those patients, sensory functions such as proprioception are at least partly preserved. The aim of this study was to investigate whether afferent feedback interferes with the BCI-based detection of efferent motor commands during execution of movements. Methods: Brain activity of 13 able-bodied subjects (age: 29.1 ± 4.8 years; 11 males) was compared between a motor task (MT) consisting of an isometric, isotonic grip and a somatosensory electrical stimulation (SS) of the fingertips...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163087/localized-fluctuant-oscillatory-activity-by-working-memory-load-a-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-study
#8
Xiaojie Zhao, Xiaoyun Li, Li Yao
Working memory (WM) is a resource-limited memory system for temporary storage and processing of brain information during the execution of cognitive tasks. Increased WM load will increase the amount and difficulty of memory information. Several studies have used electroencephalography (EEG) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore load-dependent cognition processing according to the time courses of electrophysiological activity or the spatial pattern of blood oxygen metabolic activity. However, the relationships between these two activities and the underlying neural mechanism are still unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163078/natural-translating-locomotion-modulates-cortical-activity-at-action-observation
#9
Thierry Pozzo, Alberto Inuggi, Alejo Keuroghlanian, Stefano Panzeri, Ghislain Saunier, Claudio Campus
The present study verified if the translational component of locomotion modulated cortical activity recorded at action observation. Previous studies focusing on visual processing of biological motion mainly presented point light walker that were fixed on a spot, thus removing the net translation toward a goal that yet remains a critical feature of locomotor behavior. We hypothesized that if biological motion recognition relies on the transformation of seeing in doing and its expected sensory consequences, a significant effect of translation compared to centered displays on sensorimotor cortical activity is expected...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163006/matlab-toolboxes-for-reference-electrode-standardization-technique-rest-of-scalp-eeg
#10
Li Dong, Fali Li, Qiang Liu, Xin Wen, Yongxiu Lai, Peng Xu, Dezhong Yao
Reference electrode standardization technique (REST) has been increasingly acknowledged and applied as a re-reference technique to transform an actual multi-channels recordings to approximately zero reference ones in electroencephalography/event-related potentials (EEG/ERPs) community around the world in recent years. However, a more easy-to-use toolbox for re-referencing scalp EEG data to zero reference is still lacking. Here, we have therefore developed two open-source MATLAB toolboxes for REST of scalp EEG...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162459/eeg-neurofeedback-training-of-beta-band-12-22hz-affects-alpha-and-beta-frequencies-a-controlled-study-of-a-healthy-population
#11
Katarzyna Jurewicz, Katarzyna Paluch, Ewa Kublik, Jacek Rogala, Mirosław Mikicin, Andrzej Wróbel
The frequency-function relation of various EEG bands has inspired EEG-neurofeedback procedures intending to improve cognitive abilities in numerous clinical groups. In this study, we administered EEG-neurofeedback (EEG-NFB) to a healthy population to determine the efficacy of this procedure. We evaluated feedback manipulation in the beta band (12-22Hz), known to be involved in visual attention processing. Two groups of healthy adults were trained to either up- or down-regulate beta band activity mutual control...
November 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159049/pre-treatment-eeg-signal-variability-is-associated-with-treatment-success-in-depression
#12
Natalia Jaworska, Hongye Wang, Dylan M Smith, Pierre Blier, Verner Knott, Andrea B Protzner
Background: Previous work suggests that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with disturbances in global connectivity among brain regions, as well as local connectivity within regions. However, the relative importance of these global versus local changes for successful antidepressant treatment is unknown. We used multiscale entropy (MSE), a measure of brain signal variability, to examine how the propensity for local (fine scale MSE) versus global (coarse scale MSE) neural processing measured prior to antidepressant treatment is related to subsequent treatment response...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159036/eeg-oscillations-during-word-processing-predict-mci-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Ali Mazaheri, Katrien Segaert, John Olichney, Jin-Chen Yang, Yu-Qiong Niu, Kim Shapiro, Howard Bowman
Only a subset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progress to develop a form of dementia. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive decline in language. We investigated if subtle anomalies in EEG activity of MCI patients during a word comprehension task could provide insight into the likelihood of conversion to AD. We studied 25 amnestic MCI patients, a subset of whom developed AD within 3-years, and 11 elderly controls. In the task, auditory category descriptions (e.g., 'a type of wood') were followed by a single visual target word either semantically congruent (i...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158177/granger-causal-connectivity-dissociates-navigation-networks-that-subserve-allocentric-and-egocentric-path-integration
#14
Chin-Teng Lin, Te-Cheng Chiu, Yu-Kai Wang, Chun-Hsiang Chuang, Klaus Gramann
Studies on spatial navigation demonstrate a significant role of the retrosplenial complex (RSC) in the transformation of egocentric and allocentric information into complementary spatial reference frames (SRFs). The tight anatomical connections of the RSC with a wide range of other cortical regions processing spatial information support its vital role within the human navigation network. To better understand how different areas of the navigational network interact, we investigated the dynamic causal interactions of brain regions involved in solving a virtual navigation task...
November 17, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155063/technical-note-robotic-guided-bi-hippocampal-and-bi-parahippocampal-depth-placement-for-responsive-neurostimulation-in-bitemporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Pratik Rohatgi, Ryan J Jafrani, Nicholas J Brandmeir, Frank G Gilliam, Tiffany L Fisher, Michael D Sather
BACKGROUND: Patients with bitemporal lobe epilepsy are generally not considered for surgical resection. Fortunately, responsive neurostimulation proves another avenue for the management of this challenging disease process. In conjunction with our epileptologist, we consider responsive neurostimulation for patients who have clinical features of temporal lobe epilepsy without clear localization on imaging and stereo-EEG. METHODS: Here we describe our technique for implanting a responsive neurostimulator (NeuroPace, NeuroPace Inc...
November 14, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154954/the-impact-of-social-exclusion-on-anticipatory-attentional-processing
#16
John E Kiat, Jacob E Cheadle, Bridget J Goosby
The importance of understanding how we anticipate and prepare for social rejection is underscored by the mental and physical toll of continual social vigilance. In this study, we investigate the impact of social rejection on anticipatory attentional processes using the well-known Cyberball task, a paradigm in which participants engage in a game of catch with virtual avatars who after an initial period of fair-play (inclusion condition) then exclude the participant from the game (exclusion condition). The degree of anticipatory attention allocated by subjects towards the avatars was assessed by measuring P3b responses towards the avatars' preparatory actions (i...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154291/neurophysiological-markers-of-high-anxiety-level-in-man-during-the-process-of-preparing-for-a-visual-recognition
#17
Evgeniy A Cheremushkin, Nadezda E Petrenko, Irina A Yakovenko, Sergei A Gordeev, Nikolay N Alipov, Olga V Sergeeva
By means of EEG analysis the functional state of subjects with high and low levels of anxiety was studied in different periods preceding a cognitive task - a visual expression recognition. Several conditions were investigated: background/eyes closed; background/eyes opened; listening the instruction for the cognitive task; operative rest (time lapse between listening the instruction and the beginning of the task), as well as short intervals immediately preceding the exposition of target stimuli (stage of preparation) - pairs of faces pictures with identical or different emotional expressions...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152415/character-drawing-style-in-cartoons-on-empathy-induction-an-eye-tracking-and-eeg-study
#18
Yong-Il Lee, Yeojeong Choi, Jaeseung Jeong
In its most basic form, empathy refers to the ability to understand another person's feelings and emotions, representing an essential component of human social interaction. Owing to an increase in the use of mass media, which is used to distribute high levels of empathy-inducing content, media plays a key role in individual and social empathy induction. We investigated empathy induction in cartoons using eye movement, EEG and behavioral measures to explore whether empathy factors correlate with character drawing styles...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150679/dynamics-of-high-frequency-brain-activity
#19
Steven X Moffett, Sean M O'Malley, Shushuang Man, Dawei Hong, Joseph V Martin
Evidence suggests that electroencephalographic (EEG) activity extends far beyond the traditional frequency range. Much of the prior study of >120 Hz EEG is in epileptic brains. In the current work, we measured EEG activity in the range of 200 to 2000 Hz, in the brains of healthy, spontaneously behaving rats. Both arrhythmic (1/f-type) and rhythmic (band) activities were identified and their properties shown to depend on EEG-defined stage of sleep/wakefulness. The inverse power law exponent of 1/f-type noise is shown to decrease from 3...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147678/a-haplotype-associated-with-enhanced-mineralocorticoid-receptor-expression-facilitates-the-stress-induced-shift-from-cognitive-to-habit-learning
#20
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Jan Wacker, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress induces a shift from hippocampus-dependent "cognitive" toward dorsal striatum-dependent "habit" memory. However, not all individuals are susceptible to this shift under stress. Based on pharmacological studies indicating a critical role of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the stress-induced bias toward dorsal striatal learning, we hypothesized that MR gene variants contribute to these individual differences. In two experiments, healthy participants were genotyped, exposed to a stressor or control manipulation and performed a learning task that can be solved using hippocampal or dorsal striatal systems, while electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment I) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI; Experiment II) measurements were taken...
November 2017: ENeuro
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