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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343987/age-related-reduction-of-hemispheric-lateralization-for-spatial-attention-an-eeg-study
#1
Gemma Learmonth, Christopher S Y Benwell, Gregor Thut, Monika Harvey
A group-level visuospatial attention bias towards the left side of space (pseudoneglect) is consistently observed in young adults, which is likely to be a consequence of right parieto-occipital dominance for spatial attention. Conversely, healthy older adults demonstrate a rightward shift of this behavioural bias, hinting that an age-related reduction of lateralised neural activity may occur within visuospatial attention networks. We compared young (aged 18-25) and older (aged 60-80) adults on a computerised line bisection (landmark) task whilst recording event-related potentials (ERPs)...
March 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339635/the-impact-of-zonisamide-on-the-development-and-course-of-alcohol-dependence-in-rabbits-a-pharmaco-eeg-study
#2
Agata Krupa-Burtnik, Ewa Zwierzynska, Anna Kordala, Boguslawa Pietrzak
Aims: Zonisamide is a new anti-epileptic drug whose mechanism of action is associated with neurotransmission systems also involved in the pathogenesis of addiction. Recently, the role of memory processes and the hippocampus (Hp) is underlined in dependence. In our previous study, we determined that zonisamide decreases changes in hippocampal bioelectric activity induced by a single dose of ethanol. Methods: This study uses a pharmaco-EEG method to examine the impact of zonisamide on the development and course of alcohol dependence in rabbits...
February 17, 2017: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338977/effects-of-augmenting-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-signaling-on-working-memory-and-experience-dependent-plasticity-in-schizophrenia-an-exploratory-study-using-acute-d-cycloserine
#3
Jennifer K Forsyth, Peter Bachman, Daniel H Mathalon, Brian J Roach, Elissa Ye, Robert F Asarnow
Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia have been hypothesized to reflect N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) dysfunction. However, the mechanisms through which the NMDAR contributes to individual cognitive functions differ. To explore how NMDAR signaling relates to specific cognitive deficits in schizophrenia, we tested the effects of enhancing NMDAR signaling on working memory and experience-dependent plasticity using d-cycloserine (DCS). Plasticity was assessed using an EEG paradigm that utilizes high-frequency visual stimulation (HFvS) to induce neural potentiation, and 2 learning tasks, the information integration (IIT) and weather prediction (WPT) tasks...
March 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336341/visuospatial-information-processing-load-and-the-ratio-between-parietal-cue-and-target-p3-amplitudes-in-the-attentional-network-test
#4
Dimitri M Abramov, Monique Pontes, Adailton T Pontes, Carlos A Mourao-Junior, Juliana Vieira, Carla Quero Cunha, Tiago Tamborino, Paulo R Galhanone, Leonardo C deAzevedo, Vladimir V Lazarev
In ERP studies of cognitive processes during attentional tasks, the cue signals containing information about the target can increase the amplitude of the parietal cue P3 in relation to the 'neutral' temporal cue, and reduce the subsequent target P3 when this information is valid, i.e. corresponds to the target's attributes. The present study compared the cue-to-target P3 ratios in neutral and visuospatial cueing, in order to estimate the contribution of valid visuospatial information from the cue to target stages of the task performance, in terms of cognitive load...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334352/the-human-neural-alpha-response-to-speech-is-a-proxy-of-attentional-control
#5
Malte Wöstmann, Sung-Joo Lim, Jonas Obleser
Human alpha (~10 Hz) oscillatory power is a prominent neural marker of cognitive effort. When listeners attempt to process and retain acoustically degraded speech, alpha power enhances. It is unclear whether these alpha modulations reflect the degree of acoustic degradation per se or the degradation-driven demand to a listener's attentional control. Using an irrelevant-speech paradigm and measuring the electroencephalogram (EEG), the current experiment demonstrates that the neural alpha response to speech is a surprisingly clear proxy of top-down control, entirely driven by the listening goals of attending versus ignoring degraded speech...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334175/attenuated-fast-steady-state-visual-evoked-potentials-during-human-sleep
#6
Omer Sharon, Yuval Nir
During sleep, external sensory events rarely elicit a behavioral response or affect perception. However, how sensory processing differs between wakefulness and sleep remains unclear. A major difficulty in this field stems from using brief auditory stimuli that often trigger nonspecific high-amplitude "K-complex" responses and complicate interpretation. To overcome this challenge, here we delivered periodic visual flicker stimulation across sleep and wakefulness while recording high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in humans...
February 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330777/altered-visual-repetition-suppression-in-fragile-x-syndrome-new-evidence-from-erps-and-oscillatory-activity
#7
Simon Rigoulot, Inga S Knoth, Marc-Philippe Lafontaine, Phetsamone Vannasing, Philippe Major, Sébastien Jacquemont, Jacques L Michaud, Karim Jerbi, Sarah Lippe
Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental genetic disorder associated with cognitive and behavioural deficits. In particular, neuronal habituation processes have been shown to be altered in FXS patients. Yet, while such deficits have been primarily explored using auditory stimuli, less is known in the visual modality. Here, we investigated the putative alteration of repetition suppression using faces in FXS patients compared to controls that had the same age distribution. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signals were acquired while participants were presented with 18 different faces, each repeated ten times successively...
March 19, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330464/spectral-temporal-eeg-dynamics-of-speech-discrimination-processing-in-infants-during-sleep
#8
Phillip M Gilley, Kristin Uhler, Kaylee Watson, Christine Yoshinaga-Itano
BACKGROUND: Oddball paradigms are frequently used to study auditory discrimination by comparing event-related potential (ERP) responses from a standard, high probability sound and to a deviant, low probability sound. Previous research has established that such paradigms, such as the mismatch response or mismatch negativity, are useful for examining auditory processes in young children and infants across various sleep and attention states. The extent to which oddball ERP responses may reflect subtle discrimination effects, such as speech discrimination, is largely unknown, especially in infants that have not yet acquired speech and language...
March 22, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327370/the-effects-of-age-on-visual-expertise-for-print
#9
Maxime Curzietti, Anne Bonnefond, Bérengère Staub, Pierre Vidailhet, Nadège Doignon-Camus
Progressive visual processing decline is a known factor in aging. The present study investigates the evolution of visual expertise for printed stimuli with aging. Fifty-five participants of increasing age (20-30, 40-50, 60-70, 75-85years old) were recruited. Behavioral and EEG data were collected during a lexical decision task, in which words and symbol strings were presented. Analyses of EEG data focused mainly on three major points: visual expertise for print, automatization of the expertise and differences in attentional demand between the processing of words and symbols...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327354/the-neural-correlates-of-vertical-disparity-gradient-and-cue-conflict-in-panum-s-limiting-case
#10
Huayun Li, Huibin Jia, Ashley Chung-Fat-Yim, Laipeng Jin, Dongchuan Yu
Although Panum's limiting case has been extensively researched, only recently has it been discovered that in addition to horizontal disparity, the final perception of depth is influenced by (i) the vertical disparity gradient and (ii) the degree of cue conflict between 2D and 3D shapes. The present study examines the neural correlates of the two factors, using EEG while observers viewed several versions of stereoscopic stimuli, which depicted Panum's limiting case. In these patterns the vertical disparity gradient was varied from 0...
March 16, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327351/parkinson-s-patients-can-rely-on-perspective-cues-to-perceive-3d-space
#11
Alexandra Séverac Cauquil, Fabienne Ory-Magne, Vincent Jardiné, Monique Galitzky, Maxime Rosito, Christine Brefel-Courbon, Simona Celebrini
3D perception, which is necessary for an optimal navigation in our environment, relies on 2 complementary kinds of cues; binocular cues allowing precise depth localization near the point of visual interest and monocular ones that are necessary for correct global perception of visual space. Recent studies described deficient binocular 3D vision in PD patients; here we tested 3D vision in PD patients when based on monocular cues (m3D). Sixteen PD patients and 16 controls had to categorize visual stimuli as perceived in 2D (flat) or 3D (with depth)...
March 18, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325878/perceptual-integration-without-conscious-access
#12
Johannes J Fahrenfort, Jonathan van Leeuwen, Christian N L Olivers, Hinze Hogendoorn
The visual system has the remarkable ability to integrate fragmentary visual input into a perceptually organized collection of surfaces and objects, a process we refer to as perceptual integration. Despite a long tradition of perception research, it is not known whether access to consciousness is required to complete perceptual integration. To investigate this question, we manipulated access to consciousness using the attentional blink. We show that, behaviorally, the attentional blink impairs conscious decisions about the presence of integrated surface structure from fragmented input...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325448/diagnosis-of-autism-through-eeg-processed-by-advanced-computational-algorithms-a-pilot-study
#13
Enzo Grossi, Chiara Olivieri, Massimo Buscema
BACKGROUND: Multi-Scale Ranked Organizing Map coupled with Implicit Function as Squashing Time algorithm(MS-ROM/I-FAST) is a new, complex system based on Artificial Neural networks (ANNs) able to extract features of interest in computerized EEG through the analysis of few minutes of their EEG without any preliminary pre-processing. A proof of concept study previously published showed accuracy values ranging from 94%-98% in discerning subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment and/or Alzheimer's Disease from healthy elderly people...
April 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325008/feasibility-of-an-ultra-low-power-digital-signal-processor-platform-as-a-basis-for-a-fully-implantable-brain-computer-interface-system
#14
Po T Wang, Keulanna Gandasetiawan, Colin M McCrimmon, Alireza Karimi-Bidhendi, Charles Y Liu, Payam Heydari, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
A fully implantable brain-computer interface (BCI) can be a practical tool to restore independence to those affected by spinal cord injury. We envision that such a BCI system will invasively acquire brain signals (e.g. electrocorticogram) and translate them into control commands for external prostheses. The feasibility of such a system was tested by implementing its benchtop analogue, centered around a commercial, ultra-low power (ULP) digital signal processor (DSP, TMS320C5517, Texas Instruments). A suite of signal processing and BCI algorithms, including (de)multiplexing, Fast Fourier Transform, power spectral density, principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, Bayes rule, and finite state machine was implemented and tested in the DSP...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324996/analysis-of-the-non-stationarity-of-neural-activity-during-an-auditory-oddball-task-in-schizophrenia
#15
P Nunez, J Poza, J Gomez-Pilar, A Bachiller, C Gomez, A Lubeiro, V Molina, R Hornero
The aim of this study was to characterize brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task. For this purpose, a measure of the non-stationarity of a given time-frequency representation (TFR) was applied to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. EEG activity was acquired from 20 schizophrenic (SCH) patients and 20 healthy controls while they underwent a three-stimulus auditory oddball task. The Degree of Stationarity (DS), a measure of the non-stationarity of the TFR, was computed using the continuous wavelet transform...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324939/visual-transparent-visual-occlusion-an-eeg-and-cop-study
#16
Kwang Leng Goh, Susan Morris, Wee Lih Lee, Alexander Ring, Tele Tan
Electroencephalography (EEG) and centre of pressure (COP) data were recorded in young adults for 60 seconds during standing in visual transparent (VT) and visual occlusion (VO) conditions. In both of these conditions, participants wore VO liquid crystal spectacles which allowed the experimenter to accurately control visual information being presented or occluded to the participant. Alpha band (8-13 Hz) revealed significant differences in channel-averaged power spectrum in these two conditions, but not theta band (4-8 Hz) and beta band (13-30 Hz)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324696/online-neural-monitoring-of-statistical-learning
#17
Laura J Batterink, Ken A Paller
The extraction of patterns in the environment plays a critical role in many types of human learning, from motor skills to language acquisition. This process is known as statistical learning. Here we propose that statistical learning has two dissociable components: (1) perceptual binding of individual stimulus units into integrated composites and (2) storing those integrated representations for later use. Statistical learning is typically assessed using post-learning tasks, such that the two components are conflated...
February 24, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323093/impact-of-major-and-minor-mode-on-eeg-frequency-range-activities-of-music-processing-as-a-function-of-expertise
#18
Raoul Jenni, Mathias S Oechslin, Clara E James
Processing western tonal music may yield distinct brain responses depending on the mode of the musical compositions. Although subjective feelings in response to major and minor mode are well described, the underlying brain mechanisms and their development with increasing expertise have not been thoroughly examined. Using high-density electroencephalography, the present study investigated neuronal activities in the frequency domain in response to polyphone musical compositions in major and minor mode in non-musicians, amateurs and experts...
March 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322906/creativity-as-a-distinct-trainable-mental-state-an-eeg-study-of-musical-improvisation
#19
Joel A Lopata, Elizabeth A Nowicki, Marc F Joanisse
Alpha-band EEG was used to index how creative mental states relate to the creation of artistic works in skilled musicians. We contrasted differences in frontal upper alpha-band activity between tasks with high and low creativity demands by recording EEGs while skilled musicians listened to, played back, and improvised jazz melodies. Neural responses were compared for skilled musicians with training in musical improvisation versus those who had no formal improvisation training. Consistent with our hypotheses, individuals showed increased frontal upper alpha-band activity during more creative tasks (i...
March 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321705/positive-emotion-impedes-emotional-but-not-cognitive-conflict-processing
#20
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Sonja A Kotz
Cognitive control enables successful goal-directed behavior by resolving a conflict between opposing action tendencies, while emotional control arises as a consequence of emotional conflict processing such as in irony. While negative emotion facilitates both cognitive and emotional conflict processing, it is unclear how emotional conflict processing is affected by positive emotion (e.g., humor). In 2 EEG experiments, we investigated the role of positive audiovisual target stimuli in cognitive and emotional conflict processing...
March 20, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
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