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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908698/potential-role-of-endurance-training-in-altering-renal-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-ckd
#1
REVIEW
Erin J Howden, Justin S Lawley, Murray Esler, Benjamin D Levine
Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and increase in cardiovascular risk. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology of increased sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients and raise the possibility of endurance exercise being an effective countermeasure to address this problem. We specifically focus on the potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity as increased renal sympathetic nerve activity negatively impacts kidney function as well indirectly effects multiple other systems and organs...
November 25, 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875513/post-traumatic-trigeminal-neuropathy-caused-by-an-orbital-stab-wound
#2
Shinpei Matsuda, Hitoshi Yoshimura, Tadanori Hamano, Kazuo Sano
Sensory and motor neuropathy of the trigeminal nerve due to trauma is quite rare. Furthermore, there have been no detailed reports on occlusal abnormalities and trismus associated with post-traumatic trigeminal motor neuropathy. Here, the authors report a case of trigeminal motor neuropathy and trigeminal sensory neuropathy in all 3 divisions caused by an orbital stab wound. During kendo practice, a 61-year-old man was injured in his right medial canthus with the splinter of a broken bamboo sword. Imaging examinations did not show a brain injury or orbital bone fracture...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861184/catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-a-model-for-genotype-specific-therapy
#3
Thomas M Roston, Filip Van Petegem, Shubhayan Sanatani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a life-threatening syndrome defined by exercise-induced or emotion-induced ventricular arrhythmias, typically caused by gain-of-function mutations in RYR2-encoded ryanodine receptor-2 (RyR2). This review will discuss recent advances and ongoing challenges in devising genotype-specific CPVT therapies. RECENT FINDINGS: CPVT patients were once universally thought to be at high risk of sudden death; however, as more cases emerge, CPVT is being re-defined as a complex syndrome of variable expressivity...
January 2017: Current Opinion in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826330/management-of-patients-with-long-qt-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
Yongkeun Cho
Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare cardiac channelopathy associated with syncope and sudden death due to torsades de pointes and ventricular fibrillation. Syncope and sudden death are frequently associated with physical and emotional stress. Management of patients with LQTS consists of life-style modification, β-blockers, left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Prohibition of competitive exercise and avoidance of QT-prolonging drugs are important issues in life-style modification...
November 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772769/cardiovascular-dysfunction-in-untreated-parkinson-s-disease-a-multi-modality-assessment
#5
Stefano Strano, Alessandra Fanciulli, Massimiliano Rizzo, Paolo Marinelli, Paolo Palange, Dorina Tiple, Giuseppe De Vincentis, Giovanni Calcagnini, Federica Censi, Giuseppe Meco, Carlo Colosimo
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation of Parkinson's disease (PD) includes a wide spectrum of non-motor features, including cardiovascular autonomic failure. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular autonomic status and cardiac functional capacity in drug-naïve PD patients. METHODS: 18 newly-diagnosed PD patients underwent laboratory cardiovascular autonomic function tests using power spectral analysis of the R-R interval, blood pressure (BP) short-term variability and non-invasive baroreflex sensitivity (BRS)...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761157/current-topics-in-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia
#6
Naokata Sumitomo
Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is induced by emotions or exercise in patients without organic heart disease and may be polymorphic or bidirectional in nature. The prognosis of CPVT is not good, and therefore prevention of sudden death is of utmost importance. Genetic variants of CPVT include RyR2, CASQ2, CALM2, TRD, and possibly KCNJ2 and ANK2 gene mutations. Hypotheses that suggest the causes of CPVT include weakened binding of FKBP12.6 and RyR2, a store overload-induced Ca(2+) release (SOICR), unzipping of intramolecular domain interactions in RyR2, and molecular and functional abnormalities caused by mutations in the CASQ2 gene...
October 2016: Journal of Arrhythmia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754015/br-04-1management-of-treatment-resistant-hypertension
#7
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681426/rescue-of-metabolic-alterations-in-ar113q-skeletal-muscle-by-peripheral-androgen-receptor-gene-silencing
#8
Elisa Giorgetti, Zhigang Yu, Jason P Chua, Ryosuke Shimamura, Lili Zhao, Fan Zhu, Sriram Venneti, Maria Pennuto, Yuanfang Guan, Gene Hung, Andrew P Lieberman
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), a progressive degenerative disorder, is caused by a CAG/glutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (polyQ AR). Recent studies demonstrate that skeletal muscle is an important site of toxicity that contributes to the SBMA phenotype. Here, we sought to identify critical pathways altered in muscle that underlie disease manifestations in AR113Q mice. This led to the unanticipated identification of gene expression changes affecting regulators of carbohydrate metabolism, similar to those triggered by denervation...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676738/the-winged-scapula-a-muscle-rupture-or-a-nerve-paralysis-a-case-series
#9
Sana Salah, Houda Migaou, Zied Belaaj, Soumaya Boudokhane, Anis Jellad, Abderrazak Abid, Zohra Ben Salah Frih
OBJECTIVE: Winging of the scapula has a variety of causes and a variable prognosis. It contributes to a disruption of the scapulohumeral rhythm with a decreased flexion and abduction of the upper extremity and a source of a considerable pain. This condition can affect the ability to perform activities of daily living. The most common cause of scapula winging is serratus anterior paralysis resulting from a lesion of the long thoracic nerve. The rupture of the muscle itself remains uncommon...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648746/does-anterior-cruciate-ligament-innervation-matter-for-joint-function-and-development-of-osteoarthritis
#10
Christopher V Nagelli, James L Cook, Kei Kuroki, Chantelle Bozynski, Richard Ma, Timothy E Hewett
Complications following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction that include chronic dysfunction, second ACL injury, and posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA) may be interrelated and stem from the inability to fully restore native ACL integrity and function. The loss of ACL sensory input following injury may significantly contribute to joint dysfunction. We developed a novel preclinical animal model to assess the contributions of ACL sensory afferents to knee joint function and health. We hypothesized that ACL sensory denervation would manifest in knee joint dysfunction and development of early OA...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642926/br-04-1management-of-treatment-resistant-hypertension
#11
David John Webb
Treatment-resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined as the failure to achieve an office BP target of <140/90 mmHg (<130/80 mmHg in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or diabetes) in patients with hypertension (HT), despite adherence to at least 3 antihypertensive medications at optimal tolerated doses, ideally including a diuretic (Calhoun et al., Circulation 2008). TRH identifies patients with hard-to-treat HT, who might benefit from specialist investigation and treatment. Although some studies put the prevalence of TRH as >10%, these levels may be inflated by white-coat hypertension and poor adherence...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592133/recovery-from-muscle-weakness-by-exercise-and-fes-lessons-from-masters-active-or-sedentary-seniors-and-sci-patients
#12
Ugo Carraro, Helmut Kern, Paolo Gava, Christian Hofer, Stefan Loefler, Paolo Gargiulo, Kyle Edmunds, Íris Dröfn Árnadóttir, Sandra Zampieri, Barbara Ravara, Francesco Gava, Alessandra Nori, Valerio Gobbo, Stefano Masiero, Andrea Marcante, Alfonc Baba, Francesco Piccione, Sheila Schils, Amber Pond, Simone Mosole
Many factors contribute to the decline of skeletal muscle that occurs as we age. This is a reality that we may combat, but not prevent because it is written into our genome. The series of records from World Master Athletes reveals that skeletal muscle power begins to decline at the age of 30 years and continues, almost linearly, to zero at the age of 110 years. Here we discuss evidence that denervation contributes to the atrophy and slowness of aged muscle. We compared muscle from lifelong active seniors to that of sedentary elderly people and found that the sportsmen have more muscle bulk and slow fiber type groupings, providing evidence that physical activity maintains slow motoneurons which reinnervate muscle fibers...
September 3, 2016: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27584345/cardiac-denervation-affects-exercise-training-induced-improvements-in-cardiorespiratory-fitness-of-heart-transpant-patients-1766-board-1-june-2-1-00-pm-3-00-pm
#13
Emmanuel G Ciolac, Rafael E Castro, José M Rodrigues da Silva, Edimar A Bocchi, Guilherme V Guimarães
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27573800/effects-of-tongue-force-training-on-bulbar-motor-function-in-the-female-sod1-g93a-rat-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Delin Ma, Jeffrey M Shuler, Aishwarya Kumar, Quincy R Stanford, Sudheer Tungtur, Hiroshi Nishimune, John A Stanford
Background The use of exercise in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is controversial. Although moderate exercise appears to be beneficial for limb muscles in ALS, the effects of exercise on bulbar muscles such as the tongue have not been studied. Objective To determine the effects of tongue force training on bulbar motor function in the SOD1-G93A rat model of ALS. Methods We compared the effects of tongue force training on bulbar motor function and neuromuscular junction innervation in female SOD1-G93A rats and age-matched female wild-type controls...
August 28, 2016: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358318/adaptive-muscle-plasticity-of-a-remaining-agonist-following-denervation-of-its-close-synergists-in-a-model-of-complete-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Charline Dambreville, Jérémie Charest, Yann Thibaudier, Marie-France Hurteau, Victoria Kuczynski, Guillaume Grenier, Alain Frigon
Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) alters the contractile properties of skeletal muscle, and although exercise can induce positive changes, it is unclear whether the remaining motor system can produce adaptive muscle plasticity in response to a subsequent peripheral nerve injury. To address this, the nerve supplying the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and soleus muscles was sectioned unilaterally in four cats that had recovered hindlimb locomotion after spinal transection. In these spinal cats, kinematics and electromyography (EMG) were collected before and for 8 wk after denervation...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256466/clinical-and-genetic-profile-of-catecholaminergic-polymorphic-ventricular-tachycardia-in-hong-kong-chinese-children
#16
T C Yu, A Py Liu, K S Lun, B Hy Chung, T C Yung
OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in the management of catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in Hong Kong Chinese children. METHODS: This case series study was conducted in a tertiary paediatric cardiology centre in Hong Kong. All paediatric patients diagnosed at our centre with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia from January 2008 to October 2014 were included. RESULTS: Ten patients (five females and five males) were identified...
August 2016: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27239416/expression-of-protocadherin-gamma-in-skeletal-muscle-tissue-is-associated-with-age-and-muscle-weakness
#17
Roland W J Hangelbroek, Parastoo Fazelzadeh, Michael Tieland, Mark V Boekschoten, Guido J E J Hooiveld, John P M van Duynhoven, James A Timmons, Lex B Verdijk, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Luc J C van Loon, Michael Müller
BACKGROUND: The skeletal muscle system plays an important role in the independence of older adults. In this study we examine differences in the skeletal muscle transcriptome between healthy young and older subjects and (pre-)frail older adults. Additionally, we examine the effect of resistance-type exercise training on the muscle transcriptome in healthy older subjects and (pre-)frail older adults. METHODS: Baseline transcriptome profiles were measured in muscle biopsies collected from 53 young, 73 healthy older subjects, and 61 frail older subjects...
December 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147224/decreased-hypercapnic-ventilatory-response-in-long-term-lung-transplant-recipients-is-associated-with-exercise-impairment
#18
Manuela J Scherer, Gerhard Weinreich, Bjoern E Kleibrink, Thomas Rabis, Markus Kamler, Helmut Teschler, Urte Sommerwerck
PURPOSE: Bilateral lung transplantation results in complete denervation of the lung and might impair hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR). However, experimental and clinical findings are scarce and conflicting. Therefore, this study investigated the relationship between HCVR and exercise capacity after long-term bilateral lung transplantation. METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis enrolled 46 bilateral lung transplant recipients between October 2011 and July 2012 who underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing to evaluate maximum workload, and carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing...
August 2016: Lung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137175/effects-of-aerobic-exercise-intensity-on-ambulatory-blood-pressure-and-vascular-responses-in-resistant-hypertension-a-crossover-trial
#19
Lucas P Santos, Ruy S Moraes, Paulo J C Vieira, Garrett I Ash, Gustavo Waclawovsky, Linda S Pescatello, Daniel Umpierre
BACKGROUND: Resistant hypertension often exposes patients to poor blood pressure (BP) control, resulting in clinical vulnerability, possible need for device-based procedures (denervation) and increased therapy costs. Regular exercise markedly benefits patients with hypertension, including resistant patients. However, little is known about short-term exercise effects in resistant hypertension. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acute hemodynamic effects of exercise in resistant hypertension...
July 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27034552/cardiovascular-autonomic-neuropathy
#20
Niamh McCarty, Barry Silverman
Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy often goes unrecognized. We present a case of a 22-year-old man with multiple manifestations of this disease, including weakness, dizziness, fatigue, tachycardia, abnormal QTc, and orthostasis, which occurred 2 years after his type 1 diabetes diagnosis. He exhibited parasympathetic denervation with resting tachycardia and exercise intolerance but also had evidence of orthostatic hypotension, which suggests sympathetic denervation. He did not have complete cardiovascular autonomic reflex testing, which would have been helpful, but improved with aggressive diabetes treatment and the increase of beta-blockade...
April 2016: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
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