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Jeffrey A Therrien, Michael O Wolf
The effect of modifying the pyridyl para position of lutidine-linked bis(N-heterocyclic carbene) Pd pincer complexes is studied both experimentally (R = OMe, H, Br, and COOR) and computationally, showing a strong effect on the first reduction potential of the complex and allowing the reduction potential to be tuned over a wide range in relation to the Hammett σp constant of the para substituent. The effect of the pyridyl para substituent on electron density of the metal center, frontier orbital energies, and dissociation energy of the trans ligand are also investigated in the context of reactivity with CO2 through electrochemical characterization of the complexes under N2 and CO2 and controlled potential electrolysis experiments where CO2 is reduced to CO...
January 10, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Hongmei Bai, Ping He, Jingchao Chen, Kaili Liu, Hong Lei, Xiaojuan Zhang, Faqin Dong, Hong Li
Thermal decomposition method was employed to prepare a Ti/SnO2-RuO2 electrode, on which electrocatalytic degradation of bromocresol green (BCG) was investigated in detail. Scanning electron microscopy, an X-ray diffraction analyzer and an X-ray fluorescence spectrometer were adopted to characterize the morphology, crystal structure and element analysis of the as-prepared Ti/SnO2-RuO2 electrode. It was indicated that the Ti/SnO2-RuO2 electrode had a 'cracked-mud' structure and exhibited a superior specific surface area...
January 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zesheng Xu, Han Liu, Junfeng Niu, Yijing Zhou, Chong Wang, Yue Wang
We prepared a hydroxyl multi-wall carbon nanotube-modified nanocrystalline PbO2 anode (MWCNTs-OH-PbO2) featuring high oxygen evolution potential, large effective area, and excellent electrocatalytic performance. The oxygen evolution potential and effective area of the MWCNTs-OH-PbO2 electrode were 1.5 and 3.7-fold higher than the traditional PbO2 electrode. Electrochemical degradation of pyridine in aqueous solution was investigated by using the MWCNTs-OH-PbO2 anode. Based on pyridine decay rate (93.8%), total organic carbon reduction (84...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Tolutola Oyetunde, Priyangshu M Sarma, Farrukh Ahmad, Jorge Rodríguez
A mathematical model for the theoretical evaluation of microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) is presented that incorporates a detailed physico-chemical framework, includes multiple reactions (both at the electrodes and in the bulk phase) and involves a variety of microbial functional groups. The model is applied to two theoretical case studies: (i) A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for continuous anodic volatile fatty acids (VFA) oxidation and cathodic VFA reduction to alcohols, for which the theoretical system response to changes in applied voltage and VFA feed ratio (anode-to-cathode) as well as membrane type are investigated...
January 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Dehua Xiong, Wei Li, Lifeng Liu
Vertically-aligned Ni(OH)2 nanosheets have been grown on carbon paper (CP) current collectors through a simple and cost-effective hydrothermal approach. The as-grown nanosheets are porous and highly crystallized. When used as a monolithic electrode for electrochemical water oxidation in alkaline solution, the carbon paper supported Ni(OH)2 nanosheets (CP@Ni(OH)2) exhibit high electrocatalytic activity and excellent long-term stability. The electrode can attain an anodic current density of 20 mA cm-2 at a low overpotential of 338 mV, comparable to that of the state-of-the-art RuO2 nanocatalysts supported on CP (CP/RuO2) with the same catalyst loading...
January 3, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Xiangdan Jin, Xiaohu Li, Nannan Zhao, Irini Angelidaki, Yifeng Zhang
This study presents an innovative biosensor that was developed on the basis of a microbial electrolysis cell for fast and reliable measurement of volatile fatty acids (VFA) during anaerobic digestion (AD) process. The bio-electrolytic sensor was first tested with synthetic wastewater containing varying concentrations of VFA. A linear correlation (R(2) = 0.99) between current densities (0.03 ± 0.01 to 2.43 ± 0.12 A/m(2)) and VFA concentrations (5-100 mM) was found. The sensor performance was then investigated under different affecting parameters such as the external voltage, VFA composition ratio, and ionic strength...
December 29, 2016: Water Research
Liangcheng Cao, Gan Fang, Yuechuan Wang
Majority of the reported electrografting of aryldiazonium salts results in the formation of covalently attached films with a limited surface coverage below 5 Herein, we reported the preparation of higher thickness redox active viologen grafted electrodes from electroreduction of viologen phenyl diazonium salts, by either cyclic voltammetric (CV) sweeps or electrolysis using a fixed potential. Both of the methodologies, were successfully applied for various conductive surfaces, including glassy carbon, gold disc, ITO glass, mesoporous TiO2 electrodes and 3D compacted carbon fibers...
January 3, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yajun Zhou, Lingxia Zhang, Weimin Huang, Lisong Chen, Min Wang, Xiangzhi Cui, Xiaohua Zhang, Jianlin Shi
Here we report a redox-anchoring strategy for synthesizing non-noble metal carbide (MoCx) nanocomposite electrocatalyst for water electrolysis in acidic media, respectively using glucose and ammonium heptamolybdate as carbon and Mo precursors without the need of gaseous carbon sources such as CH4. Specifically, the aldehyde groups of glucose are capable of reducing Mo6+ to Mo4+ (MoO2), thus molybdenum species can be well anchored by the redox reaction onto carbon matrix to prevent the aggregation of MoCx nanoparticles from each other during the following carbonization process...
December 31, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Dongfang Zhou, Yongyou Hu, Qian Guo, Weiguang Yuan, Jiefan Deng, Yapan Dang
Internal micro-electrolysis (IE) coupled with Fenton oxidation (IEF) was a very effective technology for copper (Cu)-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) wastewater treatment. However, the mechanisms of Cu(2+) removal and EDTA degradation were scarce and lack persuasion in the IEF process. In this paper, the decomplexation and removal efficiency of Cu-EDTA and the corresponding mechanisms during the IEF process were investigated by batch test. An empirical equation and the oxidation reduction potential (ORP) index were proposed to flexibly control IE and the Fenton process, respectively...
December 29, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jiaxiu Zou, Xiaolan Peng, Miao Li, Ying Xiong, Bing Wang, Faqin Dong, Bin Wang
In the present study, the electrochemical oxidation of real wastewaters discharged by textile industry was carried out using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The effect of operational variables, such as applied current density (20-100 mA·cm(-2)), NaCl concentration added to the real wastewaters (0-3 g·L(-1)), and pH value (2.0-10.0), on the kinetics of COD oxidation and on the energy consumption was carefully investigated. The obtained experimental results could be well matched with a proposed kinetic model, in which the indirect oxidation mediated by electrogenerated strong oxidants would be described through a pseudo-first-order kinetic constant k...
December 19, 2016: Chemosphere
Xiaoming Du, Zhefeng Zhang, Chunyong Zhang, Degang Fu
Here, a novel three-level definitive screening design (DSD) was initially employed to investigate the electrochemical degradation of Chromotrope 2R (C2R) with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. Experiments were performed using a synthetic C2R solution containing five supporting electrolytes (Na2SO4, NaCl, Na3PO4, NaNO3 and Na2CO3). The effects of nine quantitative parameters on C2R removal rate: initial C2R concentration (50-100 mg L(-1)), applied current density (1.29-3.87 mA cm(-2)), Na2SO4 concentration (0-10 mM), NaCl concentration (0-10 mM), Na3PO4 concentration (0-10 mM), NaNO3 concentration (0-10 mM), Na2CO3 concentration (0-10 mM), flow rate (300-500 mL min(-1)) and temperature (10-50 °C), were investigated...
December 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Khalid S Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola, David Phipps
The goal of this project was to remove iron from drinking water using a new electrocoagulation (EC) cell. In this research, a flow column has been employed in the designing of a new electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) to achieve the planned target. Where, the water being treated flows through the perforated disc electrodes, thereby effectively mixing and aerating the water being treated. As a result, the stirring and aerating devices that until now have been widely used in the electrocoagulation reactors are unnecessary...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Aifeng Qiu, Qiang Cai, Yuan Zhao, Yingqing Guo, Liqian Zhao
Landfill leachate is composed of a complex composition with strong biological toxicity. The combined treatment process of coagulation and sedimentation, anaerobics, electrolysis, and aerobics was set up to treat landfill leachate. This paper explores the effect of different operational parameters of coagulation and sedimentation tanks and electrolytic cells, while investigating the combined process for the removal efficiency of physicochemical indices after processing the landfill leachate. Meanwhile, a battery of toxicity tests with Vibrio fischeri, zebrafish larvae, and embryos were conducted to evaluate acute toxicity and calculated the toxicity reduction efficiency after each treatment process...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tribidasari A Ivandini, Yasuaki Einaga
Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes are recognized as being superior to other electrode materials due to their outstanding chemical and dimensional stability, their exceptionally low background current, the extremely wide potential window for water electrolysis that they have, and their excellent biocompatibility. However, whereas these properties have been utilized in the rapid development of electroanalytical applications, very few studies have been done in relation to their applications in electrocatalysis or electrosynthesis...
December 23, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Míriam Cerrillo, Marc Viñas, August Bonmatí
Thermophilic anaerobic digestion (AD) of pig slurry coupled to a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with a recirculation loop was studied at lab-scale as a strategy to increase AD stability when submitted to organic and nitrogen overloads. The system performance was studied, with the recirculation loop both connected and disconnected, in terms of AD methane production, chemical oxygen demand removal (COD) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations. Furthermore, the microbial population was quantitatively and qualitatively assessed through DNA and RNA-based qPCR and high throughput sequencing (MiSeq), respectively to identify the RNA-based active microbial populations from the total DNA-based microbial community composition both in the AD and MEC reactors under different operational conditions...
December 14, 2016: Water Research
Xianshu Liu, Jie Ding, Nanqi Ren, Qingyue Tong, Luyan Zhang
In this study, the high-production-volume chemical benzothiazole (BTH) from synthetic water was fully degraded into less toxic intermediates of simple organic acids using an up-flow internal circulation microbial electrolysis reactor (UICMER) under the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 24 h. The bioelectrochemical system was operated at 25 ± 2 °C and continuous-flow mode. The BTH loading rate varied during experiments from 20 g·m(-3)·day(-1) to 110 g·m(-3)·day(-1). BTH and soluble COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal efficiency reached 80% to 90% under all BTH loading rates...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Peng Fei Liu, Shuang Yang, Bo Zhang, Hua Gui Yang
Efficient and durable electrocatalysts from earth-abundant elements play a vital role in the key renewable energy technologies including overall water splitting and hydrogen fuel cells. Here, generally used CoFe based layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were first delaminated and exfoliated in the DMF-ethanol solvent (CoFe LDH-F), with enhancement both in oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The exfoliation process creates more coordinatively unsaturated metals and improves the intrinsic electronic conductivity, which is important in water electrolyzer reactions...
December 21, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Kate M Waldie, Kristen R Flajslik, Elizabeth McLoughlin, Christopher E D Chidsey, Robert M Waymouth
Octahedral ruthenium complexes [RuX(CNN)(dppb)] (1, X = Cl; 2, X = H; CNN = 2-aminomethyl-6-tolylpyridine, dppb = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane) are highly active for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones with isopropanol under ambient conditions. Turnover frequencies of 0.88 and 0.89 s-1 are achieved at 25°C using 0.1 mol% of 1 or 2, respectively, in the presence of 20 equivalents of potassium t-butoxide relative to catalyst. Electrochemical studies reveal that the Ru-hydride 2 is oxidized at low potential (-0...
December 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Abdul Wahab, Jiří Kaleta, Jin Wen, Michal Valášek, Miroslav Polášek, Josef Michl, Jiří Ludvík
Cyclic voltammograms of 12-iodinated icosahedral carborane anions [1-X-12-I-CB11Me10(-)] (X = H, CH3, C2H5, C3H7, C4H9, C6H13, and COOCH3) show two one-electron anodic oxidation peaks at the Pt electrode in liquid SO2. Oddly, the first is irreversible and the second partially reversible. Mass spectrometry of the principal anionic product of preparative anodic oxidation of [1-H-12-I-CB11Me11(-)], identical with the anionic product of its reaction with [Et3Si-H-SiEt3](+) and/or Et3Si(+), allows it to be identified as the iodonium ylide anion [{12-(1-H-CB11Me10(-))}2I(+)]...
December 19, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Tatsuya Shinagawa, Kazuhiro Takanabe
Recent advances in power generation from renewable resources necessitate conversion of electricity to chemicals and fuels in an efficient manner. The electrocatalytic water splitting is one of the most powerful and widespread technologies. The development of highly efficient, inexpensive, flexible and versatile water electrolysis devices is desired. This review discusses the significance and impact of the electrolyte on electrocatalytic performance. Depending on the circumstances where water splitting reaction is conducted, required solution conditions such as the identity and molarity of ions may significantly differ...
December 16, 2016: ChemSusChem
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