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Huaifa Zhang, Jake E Barralet
In addition to immunological and wound healing cell and platelet delivery, ion stasis and nutrient supply, blood delivers oxygen to cells and tissues and removes metabolic wastes. For decades researchers have been trying to develop approaches that mimic these two immediately vital functions of blood. Oxygen is crucial for the long-term survival of tissues and cells in vertebrates. Hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and even at times anoxia (absence of oxygen) can occur during organ preservation, organ and cell transplantation, wound healing, in tumors and engineering of tissues...
February 15, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Cynthia Hanson, Elizabeth Vargis
Dielectrophoresis (DEP) uses non-uniform electric fields to cause motion in particles due to the particles' intrinsic properties. As such, DEP is a well-suited label-free means for cell sorting. Of the various methods of implementing DEP, contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) is advantageous as it avoids common problems associated with DEP, such as electrode fouling and electrolysis. Unfortunately, cDEP devices can be difficult to fabricate, replicate, and reuse. In addition, the operating parameters are limited by the dielectric breakdown of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...
February 9, 2017: Sensors
Harry L Tuller
To meet increasing energy needs, while limiting greenhouse gas emissions over the coming decades, power capacity on a large scale will need to be provided from renewable sources, with solar expected to play a central role. While the focus to date has been on electricity generation via photovoltaic (PV) cells, electricity production currently accounts for only about one-third of total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, solar-to-fuel conversion will need to play an increasingly important role and, thereby, satisfy the need to replace high energy density fossil fuels with cleaner alternatives that remain easy to transport and store...
2017: Materials for Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Jian Wang, Francesco Ciucci
The addition of transition metals, even in a trace amount, into heteroatom-doped carbon (M-N/C) is intensively investigated to further enhance oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. However, the influence of metal decoration on the electrolysis of the reverse reaction of ORR, that is, oxygen evolution reaction (OER), is seldom reported. Moreover, further improving the bifunctional activity and corrosion tolerance for carbon-based materials remains a big challenge, especially in OER potential regions. Here, bimetal-decorated, pyridinic N-dominated large-size carbon tubes (MM'-N/C) are proposed for the first time as highly efficient and durable ORR and OER catalysts...
February 15, 2017: Small
Yusuf Bicer, Ibrahim Dincer, Greg Vezina, Frank Raso
In the current study, conventional resources-based ammonia generation routes are comparatively studied through a comprehensive life cycle assessment. The selected ammonia generation options range from mostly used steam methane reforming to partial oxidation of heavy oil. The chosen ammonia synthesis process is the most common commercially available Haber-Bosch process. The essential energy input for the methods are used from various conventional resources such as coal, nuclear, natural gas and heavy oil. Using the life cycle assessment methodology, the environmental impacts of selected methods are identified and quantified from cradle to gate...
February 14, 2017: Environmental Management
Xu Zhang, Yanqing Wu
A novel iron-carbon micro-electrolysis system, bamboo-derived biochar coupled with zero-valent iron (ZVI), was investigated for chlorobenzene (CB)-contaminated groundwater removal. Influences of initial pH value, mass ratio of the ZVI/Biochar, initial CB concentration and ionic strength of the ZVI/Biochar micro-electrolysis were studied. The results indicated that the increase of initial pH led to the decrease of the CB removal efficiency. While the optimum mass ratio of ZVI to biochar was 2:1, the improved initial concentration and reaction time were 33...
February 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Ning Li, Chengzhi Hu, Xiaoning Fu, Xiufang Xu, Rui Liu, Huijuan Liu, Jiuhui Qu
Al13 is the most active polymeric Al species responsible for coagulation at the solid-liquid interface, whereas the detection techniques for Al13 at the interface are currently limited. In this study, for the first time, the identification of Al13 on the silicon dioxide-based colloid surface was realized by using surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which is an ideal surface method sensitive for single-molecule detection. The high purity Al13 salts were prepared by electrolysis procedure followed by precipitation or metathesis...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Takeki Hamasaki, Gakuro Harada, Noboru Nakamichi, Shigeru Kabayama, Kiichiro Teruya, Bunshi Fugetsu, Wei Gong, Ichiro Sakata, Sanetaka Shirahata
Electrochemically reduced water (ERW) is produced near a cathode during electrolysis and exhibits an alkaline pH, contains richly dissolved hydrogen, and contains a small amount of platinum nanoparticles. ERW has reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity and recent studies demonstrated that hydrogen-dissolved water exhibits ROS-scavenging activity. Thus, the antioxidative capacity of ERW is postulated to be dependent on the presence of hydrogen levels; however, there is no report verifying the role of dissolved hydrogen in ERW...
2017: PloS One
Muthuraman Govindan, Alan M Bond, Il-Shik Moon
Electro-scrubbing is being developed as a futuristic technology for the removal of air-pollutants. To date, only one homogeneous mediator for the removal of air pollutants has been generated in each experiment using a divided electrolytic flow cell in an acidic medium. This paper reports the concurrent generation of two homogenous mediators, one at the anodic half-cell containing an acidic solution and the other at the cathodic half-cell containing a basic solution. The concept was inspired by the change in pH that occurs during water electrolysis in a divided cell...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
Pan Wang, Shan Tang, Pengfei Huang, Aiwen Lei
An environmentally friendly electrocatalytic protocol has been developed for dehydrogenative C-H/S-H cross-coupling. This method enabled C-S bond formation under catalyst- and oxidant-free conditions. Under undivided electrolysis conditions, various aryl/heteroaryl thiols and electron-rich arenes afforded the C-S bond-formation products in 24-99 % yield. A preliminary mechanistic study indicated that the generation of aryl radical cation intermediates is key to the success of this transformation.
February 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Isaac Rivera, Péter Bakonyi, Manuel Alejandro Cuautle-Marín, Germán Buitrón
In this study single-chamber microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were applied to treat cheese whey (CW), an industrial by-product, and recover H2 gas. Firstly, this substrate was fed directly to the MEC to get the initial feedback about its H2 generation potential. The results indicated that the direct application of CW requires an adequate pH control to realize bioelectrohydrogenesis and avoid operational failure due to the loss of bioanode activity. In the second part of the study, the effluents of anaerobic (methanogenic) digester and hydrogenogenic (dark fermentative H2-producing) reactor utilizing the CW were tested in the MEC process (representing the concept of a two-stage technology)...
January 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Udesh Dhawan, Hsu-An Pan, Meng-Je Shie, Ying Hao Chu, Guewha S Huang, Po-Chun Chen, Wen Liang Chen
The successful application of a nanostructured biomaterial as an implant is strongly determined by the nanotopography size triggering the ideal cell response. Here, nanoporous topography on 304L stainless steel substrates was engineered to identify the nanotopography size causing a transition in the cellular characteristics, and accordingly, the design of nanostructured stainless steel surface as orthopedic implants is proposed. A variety of nanopore diameters ranging from 100 to 220 nm were fabricated by one-step electrolysis process and collectively referred to as artificial microenvironments...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Zhan Gao, Hongqian Wang, Elizabeth Miller, Qinyuan Liu, Daniel Senn, Scott Barnett
Low-temperature solid oxide cells (LT-SOCs), operating at 400 to 650 °C, have great potential for commercialization since they can provide lower cost and improved long-term durability. Low operating temperature can also enable high round-trip efficiency of SOCs as reversible energy storage devices. This paper describes Sr0.8La0.2TiO3-α (SLT) anode supported LT-SOC with thin La0.8Sr0.2Ga0.8Mg0.2O3-δ (LSGM) electrolyte made by tape casting, with screen printed La0.6Sr0.4Fe0.8Co0.2O3-δ (LSCF) cathode and impregnated Ni anode...
February 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yun Zheng, Jianchen Wang, Bo Yu, Wenqiang Zhang, Jing Chen, Jinli Qiao, Jiujun Zhang
High-temperature solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) are advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices with high conversion/energy efficiencies. They offer attractive high-temperature co-electrolysis routes that reduce extra CO2 emissions, enable large-scale energy storage/conversion and facilitate the integration of renewable energies into the electric grid. Exciting new research has focused on CO2 electrochemical activation/conversion through a co-electrolysis process based on the assumption that difficult C[double bond, length as m-dash]O double bonds can be activated effectively through this electrochemical method...
February 6, 2017: Chemical Society Reviews
Shima Momeni, Davood Nematollahi
Electrochemical behavior of acid orange 7 has been exhaustively studied in aqueous solutions with different pH values, using cyclic voltammetry and constant current coulometry. This study has provided new insights into the mechanistic details, pH dependence and intermediate structure of both electrochemical oxidation and reduction of acid orange 7. Surprisingly, the results indicate that a same redox couple (1-iminonaphthalen-2(1H)-one/1-aminonaphthalen-2-ol) is formed from both oxidation and reduction of acid orange 7...
February 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Michael T Y Paul, Brenden B Yee, David R Bruce, Byron D Gates
Fuel cell systems are of interest for a wide range of applications, in part for their utility in power generation from non-fossil fuel sources. However, the generation of these alternative fuels, through electrochemical means, is a relatively inefficient process due to gas passivation of the electrode surfaces. Uniform micro-structured nickel surfaces were prepared by photolithographic techniques as a systematic approach to correlate surface morphologies to their performance in the electrochemically driven oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline media...
February 6, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Cyriac Massue, Verena Pfeifer, Xing Huang, Johannes Noack, Andrey Tarasov, Sebastien Cap, Robert Schlögl
The synthesis of a highly active and yet stable electrocatalyst for the anodic oxygen evolution reaction (OER) remains a major challenge for acidic water splitting on an industrial scale. Addressing this challenge, we obtained an outstanding high-performance OER-electrocatalyst by loading Ir on conductive antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO)-nanoparticles via a microwave (MW)-supported hydrothermal route. The obtained Ir-phase was identified as an XRD-amorphous, highly hydrated Ir(III/IV)-oxohydroxide. In order to identify chemical and structural features responsible for the high activity and exceptional stability under acidic OER-conditions at loadings as low as 20 μg(Ir) cm-2, we used stepwise thermal treatment to gradually alter the XRD-amorphous Ir-phase via dehydroxylation and crystallization of IrO2...
February 5, 2017: ChemSusChem
Albert Albert, Alejandro O Barnett, Magnus S Thomassen, Thomas J Schmidt, Lorenz Gubler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Can Wu, Yijun Yang, Duo Dong, Yuhang Zhang, Jinghong Li
Hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) from water electrolysis is an attractive technique developed in recent years for cost-effective clean energy. Although considerable efforts have been paid to create efficient catalysts for HER, the development of an affordable HER catalyst with superior performance under mild conditions is still highly desired. In this work, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)-templated strategy is proposed for in situ coupling of cobalt phosphide (CoP) polyhedrons nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs)...
February 1, 2017: Small
Kazi Sadman, Qifeng Wang, Shawn H Chen, David Efim Delgado, Kenneth R Shull
Polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) films made from oppositely charged polymer chains have applications as drug delivery vehicles, separation membranes, and biocompatible coatings. Conventional layer-by-layer (LbL) techniques for polyelectrolyte coatings are low-throughput and multistep processes that are quite slow for building films on the order of micrometers. In this work, PEC films are electrochemically deposited using a rapid one-pot method yielding thick (1 μm) films within short experimental time scales (5 min)...
February 1, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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