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Ellen M Briggs, Sergio Sandoval, Ahmet Erten, Yuichiro Takeshita, Andrew C Kummel, Todd R Martz
A novel design is demonstrated for a solid state, reagent-less sensor capable of rapid and simultaneous measurement of pH and Total Alkalinity (AT) using ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) technology to provide a simplified means of characterization of the aqueous carbon dioxide system through measurement of two "master variables": pH and AT. ISFET-based pH sensors that achieve 0.001 precision are widely used in various oceanographic applications. A modified ISFET is demonstrated to perform a nL-scale acid-base titration of AT in under 40 s...
August 14, 2017: ACS Sensors
Johannes Völker, Christine Völker, Philipp Schendzielorz, Sebastian P Schraven, Andreas Radeloff, Robert Mlynski, Rudolf Hagen, Kristen Rak
BACKGROUND: The increased use of button batteries with high energy densities in devices of daily life presents a high risk of injury, especially for toddlers and young children. If an accidental ingestion of a button battery occurs, this foreign body can become caught in the constrictions of the esophagus and cause serious damage to the adjacent tissue layers. The consequences can be ulcerations, perforations with fistula formation and damage to the surrounding anatomical structures. In order to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiology after ingestion, we carried out systematic studies on fresh preparations of porcine esophagi...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Keishiro Tahara, Ling Pan, Ryoko Yamaguchi, Hisashi Shimakoshi, Masaaki Abe, Yoshio Hisaeda
Among the coenzyme B12-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (MMCM) catalyzes the carbon-skeleton rearrangement reaction between R-methylmalonyl-CoA and succinyl-CoA. Diethyl 2-bromomethyl-2-phenylmalonate, an alkyl bromide substrate having two different migrating groups (phenyl and carboxylic ester groups) on the β-carbon, was applied to the electrolysis mediated by a hydrophobic vitamin B12 model complex, heptamethyl cobyrinate perchlorate in this study. The electrolysis of the substrate at -1.0V vs...
July 23, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
I Mishima, M Hama, Y Tabata, J Nakajima
Small-scale wastewater treatment plants (SWTPs) are widely used as decentralized wastewater treatment systems in sparsely populated areas of Japan. Iron electrolysis, an electrocoagulation technology, is installed in these SWTPs for phosphorus removal. Phosphorus can be removed via the formation of an insoluble compound containing phosphate and iron, such as FePO4; however, it was necessary to determine the conditions under which phosphorus can be effectively and stably removed in actual SWTPs. According to previous studies using iron compounds, improved phosphorus removal was obtained by Ca addition...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Behzad Sardari, Meriç Özcan
Here we show the capability of copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles formed on copper (Cu) electrodes by the electrolysis as a real time active substrate for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We have experimentally found that using just the ultra pure water as the electrolyte and the Cu electrodes, ions are extracted from the copper anode form copper oxide nanoparticles on the anode surface in matter of minutes. Average particle size on the anode reaches to 100 nm in ninety seconds and grows to about 300 nm in five minutes...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
James D Cope, Nalaka P Liyanage, Paul J Kelley, Jason A Denny, Edward J Valente, Charles Edwin Webster, Jared H Delcamp, T Keith Hollis
A CCC-NHC pincer Ni(ii)Cl complex was prepared according to the metallation/transmetallation methodology. It was fully characterized by electrochemical, NMR spectroscopic, theoretical, and X-ray crystallographic methods. The complex and its cation were evaluated for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 under a variety of conditions and found to provide some of the fastest catalytic rates and highest substrate selectivities (CO2vs. H(+)) reported. Rates improved in the presence of water and, significantly, catalysis occurred at the first reduction potential, presumably at the Ni(i) state...
August 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Franco Lugnani, Enric Gunther, Pedro Torrecillas, Carlos Galacho, Adolfo Jiménez Garrido, Paul Mikus, Nina Klein, Michael K Stehling, Matteo Macchioro, Liel Rubinsky, Narayan Raju, Boris Rubinsky
We report results from an acute, single case study in the pig liver on the effects of a tissue ablation protocol (we named cryoelectrolysis) in which 10 min of cryosurgery, with a commercial cryosurgical probe, are delivered after 10 min of electrolysis generated by a current of about 60 mA. The histological appearance of tissue treated with cryoelectrolysis is compared with the appearance of tissue treated with 10 min of cryosurgery alone and with 10 min of electrolysis alone. Histology done after 3 h survival shows that the mixed rim of live and dead cells found around the ablated lesion in both cryosurgery and electrolytic ablation is replaced by a sharp margin between life and dead cells in cryoelectrolysis...
August 3, 2017: Cryobiology
Mihails Kusnezoff, Nikolai Trofimenko, Martin Müller, Alexander Michaelis
The solid oxide cell is a basis for highly efficient and reversible electrochemical energy conversion. A single cell based on a planar electrolyte substrate as support (ESC) is often utilized for SOFC/SOEC stack manufacturing and fulfills necessary requirements for application in small, medium and large scale fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Thickness of the electrolyte substrate, and its ionic conductivity limits the power density of the ESC. To improve the performance of this cell type in SOFC/SOEC mode, alternative fuel electrodes, on the basis of Ni/CGO as well as electrolytes with reduced thickness, have been applied...
November 8, 2016: Materials
Nicola H Perry, Tatsumi Ishihara
Mixed conducting perovskite oxides and related structures serving as electrodes for electrochemical oxygen incorporation and evolution in solid oxide fuel and electrolysis cells, respectively, play a significant role in determining the cell efficiency and lifetime. Desired improvements in catalytic activity for rapid surface oxygen exchange, fast bulk transport (electronic and ionic), and thermo-chemo-mechanical stability of oxygen electrodes will require increased understanding of the impact of both bulk and surface chemistry on these properties...
October 21, 2016: Materials
Olha Demkiv, Oleh Smutok, Mykhailo Gonchar, Marina Nisnevitch
Fabrication and characterization of a new amperometric chemosensor for accurate formaldehyde analysis based on platinized gold electrodes is described. The platinization process was performed electrochemically on the surface of 4 mm gold planar electrodes by both electrolysis and cyclic voltamperometry. The produced electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectral analysis. Using a low working potential (0.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl) enabled an essential increase in the chemosensor's selectivity for the target analyte...
May 6, 2017: Materials
Wail Al Zoubi, Muhammad Prisla Kamil, Hae Woong Yang, Young Gun Ko
The electrochemical roles of electron-donor and -acceptor agents in surface reforming of magnesium alloy were investigated via plasma electrolysis. The surface modification was performed in an aluminate-based electrolyte, having urea and hydrazine with inherent molecular structures, which might act as electron acceptor and donor during plasma-assisted electrochemical reaction. The presence of hydrazine working as donor would promote the formation of magnesium aluminates in the oxide layer, resulting in superior compactness of the oxide layer to that when urea was used as the working as acceptor since the precipitation of MgCO3 was favored in the electrolyte with urea...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yuanman Ni, Lihua Yao, Yin Wang, Bing Liu, Minhua Cao, Changwen Hu
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a vital half-reaction in water splitting and metal-air batteries. Developing earth-abundant, highly efficient and durable OER catalysts has faced huge challenges until now, because OER is a strict kinetic sluggish process. Herein, we report the construction of hierarchically porous graphitized carbon (HPGC) supported NiFe layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with a core-shell structure (denoted as HPGC@NiFe) by a facile strategy. The HPGC was first obtained by pyrolysing phenolic resin nanospheres with FeCl3 and ZnCl2 as the catalyst and the activator, respectively...
August 3, 2017: Nanoscale
Yin Xu, Heng Lin, Yukun Li, Hui Zhang
Pure three-dimensional manganese oxides (MnO2) were successfully synthesized by a simple one-step hydrothermal process. The obtained particles were characterized via XRD, BET, SEM, XPS and FTIR techniques. To enhance the efficiency of heterogeneous catalytic process, a facile and effective electrochemical method was introduced. The degradation of C. I. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) as the target pollutant in aqueous solution by an oxidation system involving MnO2 activated peroxydisulfate (PDS) coupled with electrochemical method is reported herein...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jing Gao, Junjuan Yan, Youzhi Liu, Jiacheng Zhang, Zhiyuan Guo
In the electro-catalytic degradation process of phenol wastewater, bubbles and mass transfer limitation will result in the decrease in wastewater degradation efficiency, a long electrolysis time and a high energy consumption. Self-made Ti/IrO2-Ta2O5 anodes and a high-gravity electro-catalytic reactor were used to improve them. The Ti/IrO2-Ta2O5 anode was prepared with a thermal decomposition method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under optimum conditions, the removal efficiencies of phenol, total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) respectively reached 94...
July 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Anirudh Balram, Hanfei Zhang, Sunand Santhanagopalan
We demonstrate an electrodeposition method to rapidly grow novel three-dimensional (3-D) nanodendrite forests of amorphous α-phase mixed nickel-cobalt hydroxides on stainless steel foil toward high performance electrocatalysis of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The proposed hydrogen bubble-templated, diffusion-limited deposition process leads to the unprecedented dendritic growth of vertically-aligned amorphous metal hydroxides, induced by the controlled electrolysis of the tuned water content in the primarily alcohol-based deposition solution...
July 31, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Pralay Gayen, Brian P Chaplin
This research investigated the effects of surface fluorination on both rates of organic compound oxidation (phenol, terephthalic acid (TA)) and ClO4(-) formation at boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anodes at 22(o) C. Different fluorination methods (i.e., electrochemical oxidation with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), radio frequency plasma, and silanization) were used to incorporate fluorinated moieties on the BDD surface, which was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The silanization method was found to be the most effective fluorination method using a 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (aliphatic silane) precursor to form a self assembled monolayer (SAM) on the oxygenated BDD surface...
July 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Nicole K Scharko, Erin T Martin, Yaroslav Losovyj, Dennis G Peters, Jonathan D Raff
Humic acid (HA) is thought to promote NO2 conversion to nitrous acid (HONO) on soil surfaces during the day. However, it has proven difficult to identify the reactive sites in natural HA substrates. The mechanism of NO2 reduction on soil surrogates composed of HA and clay minerals was studied by use of a coated-wall flow reactor and cavity-enhanced spectroscopy. Conversion of NO2 to HONO in the dark was found to be significant and correlated to the abundance of C-O moieties in HA determined from the X-ray photoelectron spectra of the C 1s region...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Tung Ngoc Pham, Tiva Sharifi, Robin Sandström, William Siljebo, Andrey Shchukarev, Krisztian Kordas, Thomas Wågberg, Jyri-Pekka Mikkola
Herein we report a 3D heterostructure comprising a hierarchical macroporous carbon foam that incorporates mesoporous carbon nanotubes decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles as an unique and highly efficient electrode material for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in electrocatalytic water splitting. The best performing electrode material showed high stability after 10 h, at constant potential of 1.7 V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode) in a 0.1 M KOH solution and high electrocatalytic activity in OER with low overpotential (0...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Guillermo Pozo, Yang Lu, Sebastien Pongy, Jürg Keller, Pablo Ledezma, Stefano Freguia
Selective microbial retention is of paramount importance for the long-term performance of cathodic sulfate reduction in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the slow growth rate of autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this work, we investigate the biofilm retention and current-to-sulfide conversion efficiency using carbon granules (CG) or multi-wall carbon nanotubes deposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (MWCNT-RVC) as electrode materials. For ~2months, the MECs were operated at sulfate loading rates of 21 to 309gSO4 -S/m(2)/d...
July 12, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Carlo Santoro, Catia Arbizzani, Benjamin Erable, Ioannis Ieropoulos
In the past 10-15 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has captured the attention of the scientific community for the possibility of transforming organic waste directly into electricity through microbially catalyzed anodic, and microbial/enzymatic/abiotic cathodic electrochemical reactions. In this review, several aspects of the technology are considered. Firstly, a brief history of abiotic to biological fuel cells and subsequently, microbial fuel cells is presented. Secondly, the development of the concept of microbial fuel cell into a wider range of derivative technologies, called bioelectrochemical systems, is described introducing briefly microbial electrolysis cells, microbial desalination cells and microbial electrosynthesis cells...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Power Sources
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