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Wojciech Baran, Ewa Adamek, Marcin Jajko, Andrzej Sobczak
The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of veterinary antibiotic removal from wastewater using an electrocoagulation method. The removal efficiency of ampicillin, doxycycline, sulfathiazole and tylosin; the antibiotic degradation degree after electrolysis; and the toxicity and qualitative composition of antibiotic solutions after electrocoagulation were determined in the experiments. HPLC-QTOF was used for quantitative and qualitative determination. The eco-toxicity was assessed using the MARA® assay...
November 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Olga Kasian, Jan-Philipp Grote, Simon Geiger, Serhiy Cherevko, Karl J J Mayrhofer
Understanding the pathways of catalyst degradation during the oxygen evolution reaction is a cornerstone in development of efficient and stable electrolyzers, since even for most promising Ir based anodes the destined harsh conditions are detrimental. The dissolution mechanism has a complex nature and the correlation to the oxygen evolution reaction itself is still poorly understood. Here, hyphening a scanning flow cell with inductively coupled plasma and online electrochemical mass spectrometers, we in-situ monitor the oxygen evolution and degradation products of Ir and Ir-oxides...
December 8, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Patrick K Giesbrecht, Dion B Nemez, David E Herbert
The electrochemistry of pyridines in acidic solution is dominated by a 'weak acid' reduction on the cyclic voltammetry timescale. Here we show that electrochemical hydrogenation of a benzannulated pyridine, phenanthridine (1), to the biomimetic hydride donor 1,2-dihydrophenanthridine (1-H2) can occur selectively at glassy carbon electrodes over longer timescales of potentiostatic electrolysis.
December 8, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Aysenur Ogedey, Mehtap Tanyol
Leachate is the most difficult wastewater to be treated due to its complex content and high pollution release. For this reason, since it is not possible to be treated with a single process, a pre-treatment is needed. In the present study, a batch electrocoagulation reactor containing aluminum and iron electrodes was used to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) from landfill leachate (Tunceli, Turkey). Optimization of COD elimination was carried out with response surface methodology to describe the interaction effect of four main process independent parameters (current density, inter-electrode distance, pH and time of electrolysis)...
December 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Zhaokun Xiong, Bo Lai, Ping Yang
Electrolysis was applied to enhance the efficiency of micron-size zero valent iron (mFe0) and thereby promote p-nitrophenol (PNP) removal. The rate of PNP removal by mFe0 with electrolysis was determined in cylindrical electrolysis reactor that employed annular aluminum plate cathode as a function of experimental factors, including initial pH, mFe0 dosage and current density. The rate constants of PNP removal by Ele-mFe0 were 1.72-144.50-fold greater than those by pristine mFe0 under various tested conditions...
November 29, 2017: Chemosphere
Vladimir Tripkovic, Heine Anton Hansen, Tejs Vegge
Minimizing energy and materials costs for driving the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is paramount for the commercialization of water electrolysis cells and rechargeable metal-air batteries. Using density functional theory calculations, we analyze the structural stability, catalytic activity and electronic conductivity of pure and doped αMnO2 for the OER. As a model surface, we investigate the (110) and (100) facets, on which we identify three possible active sites: a coordination unsaturated, bridge and bulk site...
November 30, 2017: ChemSusChem
Hao Wu, Zhimin Chen, Jialin Zhang, Feng Wu, Fei Xiao, Shichao Du, Chunying He, Yiqun Wu, Zhiyu Ren
The development of effective approaches for preparing large-area, self-standing, ultrathin metal-based nanosheets, which have proved to be favorable for catalytic applications such as water electrolysis, is highly desirable but remains a great challenge. Reported herein is a simple and versatile strategy to synthesize ultrathin Co3 O4 and CoP NSs consisting of close-packed nanoparticles by pyrolyzing cobalt(II) phthalocyanine/graphene oxide (CoPc/GO) assemblies in air and subsequent topotactic phosphidation while preserving the graphene-like morphology...
December 1, 2017: Small
Davide Balestri, Yoann Roux, Monica Mattarozzi, Claudio Mucchino, Laurent Heux, Deborah Brazzolotto, Vincent Artero, Carole Duboc, Paolo Pelagatti, Luciano Marchiò, Marcello Gennari
In the quest for new, efficient, and noble-metal-free H2-evolution catalysts, hydrogenase enzymes are a source of inspiration. Here, we describe the development of a new hybrid material based on a structural and functional [NiFe]-hydrogenase model complex (NiFe) incorporated into the Zr-based MOF PCN-777. The bulk NiFe@PCN-777 material was synthesized by simple encapsulation. Characterization by solid-state NMR and IR spectroscopy, SEM-EDX, ICP-OES, and gas adsorption confirmed the inclusion of the guest. FTO-supported thin films of the NiFe@PCN-777 composite were obtained by electrophoretic deposition of the bulk material and characterized by SEM-EDX, ICP-OES, and cyclic voltammetry...
December 1, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Kadi L Saar, Yingbo Zhang, Thomas Müller, Challa P Kumar, Sean Devenish, Andrew Lynn, Urszula Łapińska, Xiaoting Yang, Sara Linse, Tuomas P J Knowles
The ability to apply highly controlled electric fields within microfluidic devices is valuable as a basis for preparative and analytical processes. A challenge encountered in the context of such approaches in conductive media, including aqueous buffers, is the generation of electrolysis products at the electrode/liquid interface which can lead to contamination, perturb fluid flows and generally interfere with the measurement process. Here, we address this challenge by designing a single layer microfluidic device architecture where the electric potential is applied outside and downstream of the microfluidic device while the field is propagated back to the chip via the use of a co-flowing highly conductive electrolyte solution that forms a stable interface at the separation region of the device...
December 1, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Vicky Yin-Ming Ng, Chun-Wai Tse, Xiangguo Guan, Xiaoyong Chang, Chen Yang, Kam-Hung Low, Hung Kay Lee, Jie-Sheng Huang, Chi-Ming Che
A series of cis-dioxorhenium(V) complexes containing chiral tetradentate N4 ligands, including cis-[ReV(O)2(pyxn)]+ (1; pyxn = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine), cis-[ReV(O)2(6-Me2pyxn)]+ (cis-2), cis-[ReV(O)2(R,R-pdp)]+ (3; R,R-pdp = 1,1'-bis((R,R)-2-pyridinylmethyl)-2,2'-bipyrrolidine), cis-[ReV(O)2(R,R-6-Me2pdp)]+ (4), and cis-[ReV(O)2(bqcn)]+ (5; bqcn = N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di(quinolin-8-yl)cyclohexane-1,2-diamine), were synthesized. Their structures were established by X-ray crystallography, showing Re-O distances in the range of 1...
November 30, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Craig Galligan, Christopher Nguyen, John Nelson, Patrick Spooner, Todd Miller, Brian M Davis, Ralf Lenigk, Christopher M Puleo
We present methods to fabricate high-capacity redox electrodes using thick membrane or fiber casting of conjugated polymer solutions. Unlike common solution casting or printing methods used in current organic electronics, the presented techniques enable production of PEDOT:PSS electrodes with high charge capacity and the capability to operate under applied voltages greater than 100 V without electrochemical overoxidation. The electrodes are shown integrated into several electrokinetic components commonly used in automated bioprocess or bioassay workflows, including electrophoretic DNA separation and extraction, cellular electroporation/lysis, and electroosmotic pumping...
November 1, 2017: SLAS Technology
Sheng Zhang, Fei Lian, Mengyu Xue, Tengteng Qin, Lijun Li, Xu Zhang, Kun Xu
A scalable and efficient electrocatalytic dehydrogenative esterification is reported. With an indirect electrolysis strategy, both intra- and intermolecular-type reactions were amenable to this practical method. With n-Bu4NI as the catalyst, undesired decarboxylation and Baeyer-Villiger oxidation were suppressed. More importantly, this novel method provided reliable and direct access to the natural product cytosporanone A on a gram scale.
November 29, 2017: Organic Letters
Teru Yamamoto, Kazuo Higashino, Tamae Abe, Takumi Takasuga, Hiroaki Takemori, Roland Weber, Yuko Sasaki
Studies on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) during the electrolysis of sodium chloride solution (brine) using graphite or titanium electrodes were carried out at a laboratory scale. High concentrations of PCDFs but no PCDDs were formed in tests using graphite electrodes. With titanium electrodes, PCDFs were only formed when tar pitch was added and mainly originated from the dibenzofuran present in the tar. For the first time, a detailed assessment of the formation of mono- to octachlorinated PCDD/PCDF from tar pitch was investigated...
November 25, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jun Li, Yi Ren, Leiduo Lai, Bo Lai
Annular iron sheet (AIS), playing a dual role of anode electrode and source of activator, was combined with electrolysis technology for the activation of persulfate to improve the degradation of 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP) in aqueous solution. In this study, effects of current density (0-10.0mA/cm(2)), persulfate (PS) dosage (0-8.0mM), initial pH (3.0-11.0), reaction temperature (25-60°C) and reaction time (0-30min) on COD removal of DNP in aqueous solution were investigated, respectively. COD removal reached its maximal value (63...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ravneet Kaur, Jai Prakash Kushwaha, Neetu Singh
Present study investigates the potential of Ti/RuO2 electrode for degradation and mineralization of Ofloxacin (OFLX) antibiotic from synthetic wastewater by electro-oxidation (EO) method, not reported earlier. Effects of various EO parameters such as applied current (I), initial pH, initial OFLX concentration (C0) and supporting electrolyte concentration on %OFLX removal efficiency and %TOC removal efficiency were systematically studied and reported. Decay kinetics of OFLX by varying C0 and applied I were also studied...
November 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Bryan Owens-Baird, Yury Kolen'ko, Kirill Kovnir
In the field of renewable energy, the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen fuel gases through water electrolysis has been a prominent topic. Traditionally, these catalytic processes have been performed by platinum group metal catalysts, which are effective at promoting water electrolysis but expensive and rare. The search for an inexpensive and earth abundant catalyst has led to the development of 3d-transition metal phosphides for the hydrogen evolution reaction. These catalysts have shown excellent activity and stability...
November 24, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Longlong Zhang, Qinyan Yue, Kunlun Yang, Pin Zhao, Baoyu Gao
Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and ciprofloxacin-degrading microbial community in the combined Fe-C micro-electrolysis and up-flow biological aerated filter (UBAF) process for the treatment of high-level ciprofloxacin (CIP) were analyzed. The research demonstrated a great potential of Fe-C micro-electrolysis-UBAF for the elimination of high-level CIP. Above 90% of CIP removal was achieved through the combined process at 100 mg L(-1) of CIP loading. In UBAF, the pollutants were mainly removed at 0-70 cm heights...
November 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Xian-Qing Yin, Bo Jing, Wen-Juan Chen, Jian Zhang, Qian Liu, Wu Chen
The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal mechanism and reaction kinetics were mainly studied in the treatment of oilfield oily sewage containing polymer by three-dimensional electrode reactor. The results proved that the residual active oxides O3, H2O2, •OH and active chlorine in the system of electrochemical reaction could be effectively detected, and the COD removal mechanism was co-oxidation of active oxides; Under these experimental conditions: the electrolysis current of 6 A, surface/volume ratio of 6/25(cm(2)·L(-1)), the reaction time of 50 min, the CODcr of treated sewage was no more than 50 mg·L(-1); the removal reaction of COD conformed to apparent second-order reaction kinetic model, the correlation coefficient R(2) was 0...
November 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Leonard I Wassenaar, Liang-Feng Han, Thomas Schiefer, Gustav Kainz, Luis Araguas-Araguas, Pradeep K Aggarwal
Tritium ((3)H) is an essential tracer of the Earth's water cycle; yet widespread adoption of tritium in hydrologic studies remains a challenge because of analytical barriers to quantification and detection of (3)H by electrolytic pre-concentration. Here, we propose a simple tritium electrolytic enrichment system based on the use of solid polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) that can be used to enrich (3)H in 250-3000 mL environmental water samples to a 10-mL final volume. The IAEA PEM-(3)H system reported here can produce high enrichment factors (>70-fold) and, importantly, removes some of the deterrents to conventional (3)H enrichments methods, including the use of toxic electrolysis and neutralization chemicals, spike standards, a complex electrolysis apparatus that requires extensive cooling and temperature controls, and improves precision by eliminating the need for tracking recovery gravimetrics...
November 22, 2017: Isotopes in Environmental and Health Studies
Benjamin Schille, Niels Ole Giltzau, Robert Francke
Although organic electrosynthesis is generally considered to be a green method, the necessity for excess amounts of supporting electrolyte constitutes a severe drawback. Furthermore, the employment of redox mediators represents an additional separation problem. In this context, we have explored the applicability of soluble polyelectrolytes and polymediators using the TEMPO-mediated transformation of alcohols to carbonyl compounds as test reaction. Catalyst benchmarking based on CV studies indicates that the redox-active polymer can compete with molecularly defined TEMPO species...
November 21, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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