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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938208/effects-of-process-operating-conditions-on-the-autotrophic-denitrification-of-nitrate-contaminated-groundwater-using-bioelectrochemical-systems
#1
D Cecconet, M Devecseri, A Callegari, A G Capodaglio
Nitrates have been detected in groundwater worldwide, and their presence can lead to serious groundwater use limitations, especially because of potential health problems. Amongst different options for their removal, bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have achieved promising results; in particular, attention has raised on BES-driven autotrophic denitrification processes. In this work, the performance of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for groundwater autotrophic denitrification, is assessed in different conditions of nitrate load, hydraulic retention time (HRT) and process configuration...
September 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937749/heterooctamolybdate-based-clusters-h3-cp-rh-4pmo8o32-and-h5-na2-cp-ir-4pmo8o34-and-derived-hybrid-nanomaterials-with-efficient-electrocatalytic-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-activity
#2
Vikram Singh, Pengtao Ma, Michael G B Drew, Jingyang Niu, Jingping Wang, Guo-Xin Jin
Polyoxometalates (POMs), emerging as a new class of porous molecular materials, play a promising role in homo- and heterogeneous catalysis. Among them, noble-metal-decorated POMs have a profound impact as catalytic materials. Thus, it is imperative to design and structurally explore new catalysts including noble metals. Herein, two new clusters, H3[(Cp*Rh)4PMo8O32]·14H2O (1) and H5[Na2(Cp*Ir)4PMo8O34]·13H2O (2) (Cp* = pentamethylcyclopentadienyl), based on a heterooctamolybdate anionic core were successfully obtained via a one-pot reaction using [Cp*MCl2]2 [M = Rh (1) and Ir (2)] and Na2MoO4 in acidic conditions...
September 22, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936599/influences-of-operational-parameters-on-phosphorus-removal-in-batch-and-continuous-electrocoagulation-process-performance
#3
Dinh Duc Nguyen, Yong Soo Yoon, Xuan Thanh Bui, Sung Su Kim, Soon Woong Chang, Wenshan Guo, Huu Hao Ngo
Performance of an electrocoagulation (EC) process in batch and continuous operating modes was thoroughly investigated and evaluated for enhancing wastewater phosphorus removal under various operating conditions, individually or combined with initial phosphorus concentration, wastewater conductivity, current density, and electrolysis times. The results revealed excellent phosphorus removal (72.7-100%) for both processes within 3-6 min of electrolysis, with relatively low energy requirements, i.e., less than 0...
September 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936507/a-pyrene-modified-cobalt-salophen-complex-immobilized-on-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-acting-as-a-precursor-for-efficient-electrocatalytic-water-oxidation
#4
Ting-Ting Li, Jinjie Qian, Qianqian Zhou, Jian-Li Lin, Yue-Qing Zheng
Immobilization of earth-abundant water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) on carbon supports to produce functional electrodes for electrochemical water splitting is a crucial approach for future clean energy production. Herein we report the non-covalent immobilization of a pyrene-bearing cobalt(ii) Schiff base complex (2) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) to form a hybrid anode for electrocatalytic water oxidation. The 2/MWCNT anode displayed excellent catalytic activity and durability in neutral aqueous solution, and a catalytic current density of 1...
September 22, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933863/chemical-vapor-deposition-of-thin-conductive-and-fouling-resistant-polymeric-films
#5
Minghui Wang, Peter Kovacik, Karen K Gleason
Fouling has been a persistent issue within applications ranging from membrane separation to biomedical implantation. Research to date focuses on fouling resistant coatings, where electrical conductivity is unnecessary. In this study, we report the synthesis of multifunctional thin films with both fouling-resistance and electrical conductivity for their potential applications in electrolysis based self-cleaning of separation membranes and in the field of bioelectronics. This unique combination of properties results in multifunctional coatings that are a zwitterionic derivative of the intrinsically conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) synthesized via oxidative chemical vapor deposition (oCVD)...
September 21, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933830/immobilized-cobalt-bis-benzenedithiolate-complexes-exceptionally-active-heterogeneous-electrocatalysts-for-dihydrogen-production-from-mildly-acidic-aqueous-solutions
#6
Shawn C Eady, Molly M MacInnes, Nicolai Lehnert
A series of cobalt bis(benzenedithiolate) complexes with varying benzenedithiolate (general abbreviation: bdt(2-)) ring substitutions (S2C6X4(2-)) were prepared and adsorbed on inexpensive electrodes composed of (a) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) electrodeposited on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and (b) highly ordered pyrolytic graphite (HOPG). The catalyst-adsorbed electrodes are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Catalyst loading across the ligand series improved notably with increasing halide substitution [from 2...
September 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933825/the-surface-chemistry-of-perovskite-type-electrodes-during-high-temperature-co2-electrolysis-investigated-by-operando-photoelectron-spectroscopy
#7
Alexander Karl Opitz, Andreas Nenning, Christoph Rameshan, Markus Kubicek, Thomas Götsch, Raoul Blume, Michael Hävecker, Axel Knop-Gericke, Gunther Rupprechter, Bernhard Klötzer, Juergen Fleig
Any substantial move of energy sources from fossil fuels to renewable resources requires large scale storage of excess energy, for example via power to fuel processes. In this respect electrochemical reduction of CO2 may become very important, since it offers a method of sustainable CO production, which is a crucial prerequisite for synthesis of sustainable fuels. Carbon dioxide reduction in solid oxide electrolysis cells (SOECs) is particularly promising owing to the high operating temperature, which leads to both improved thermodynamics and fast kinetics...
September 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929548/an-fe-iii-aza-macrocyclic-complex-as-ph-tunable-catholyte-and-anolyte-for-redox-flow-battery-applications
#8
Pavel B Tsitovich, Anjula M Kosswattaarachchi, Matthew R Crawley, Timothy Y Tittiris, Timoth R Cook, Janet Ruth Morrow
A reversible Fe3+/Fe2+ redox couple of an aza-macrocyclic complex is evaluated as an electrolyte with a pH-tunable potential range for aqueous redox-flow batteries (RFBs). The Fe(III) complex is formed by 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) appended with three 2-methyl-imidazole donors, denoted as Fe(Tim). This complex exhibits pH-sensitive redox couples that span E1/2(Fe3+/Fe2+)=317 to -270 mV vs. NHE at pH 3.3 and pH 12.8, respectively. The 590 mV shift in potential and kinetic inertness are driven by ionization of the imidazoles at various pH values...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929155/a-vitamin-b12-derivative-catalyzed-electrochemical-trifluoromethylation-and-perfluoroalkylation-of-arenes-and-heteroarenes-in-organic-media
#9
Md Jakir Hossain, Toshikazu Ono, Kosuke Wakiya, Yoshio Hisaeda
The electrochemical trifluoromethylation and perfluoroalkylation of aromatic compounds mediated by a vitamin B12 derivative as a cobalt-based catalyst has been developed. The Co(i) species of a vitamin B12 derivative, prepared by controlled-potential electrolysis at -0.8 V vs. Ag/AgCl in methanol, reacted with RfI (Rf = CF3, n-C3F7, n-C4F9, n-C8F17, and n-C10F21) to form a Co-Rf complex. This complex released an Rf radical under visible light irradiation, which then reacted directly with non-activated (hetero)arenes to form the desired fluoroalkylated molecules through direct C-H functionalization...
September 20, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926915/bioelectrochemical-methane-ch4-production-in-anaerobic-digestion-at-different-supplemental-voltages
#10
Kwang-Soon Choi, Sanath Kondaveeti, Booki Min
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) at various cell voltages (0.5, 0.7 1.0 and 1.5V) were operated in anaerobic fermentation. During the start-up period, the cathode potential decreased from -0.63 to -1.01V, and CH4 generation increased from 168 to 199ml. At an applied voltage of 1.0V, the highest methane yields of 408.3ml CH4/g COD glucose was obtained, which was 30.3% higher than in the control tests (313.4ml CH4/g COD glucose). The average current of 5.1mA was generated at 1.0V at which the maximum methane yield was obtained...
September 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926790/migration-and-distribution-of-sodium-ions-and-organic-matters-during-electro-dewatering-of-waste-activated-sludge-at-different-dosages-of-sodium-sulfate
#11
Jun Xiao, Xu Wu, Wenbo Yu, Sha Liang, Jiangwei Yu, Yueyuan Gu, Huali Deng, Jiukun Hu, Keke Xiao, Jiakuan Yang
In this study, the influence of Na2SO4 on electro-dewatering (EDW) of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The highest water removal efficiency of 42.5% was achieved at the optimum Na2SO4 dosage of 12.5 g kg(-1) DS during EDW process at a constant voltage of 20 V. The migration and distribution of water, organic matters and Na(+) at different Na2SO4 dosages were investigated through layered experiments. The results indicated the entire EDW process followed the S curve model, and it can be divided into three stages: (1) initial desalination stage: at the initial few min of EDW process, the rate of electroosmosis was extremely slow while electromigration of ions like Na(+) was intense, and the electromigration was more obvious with increased Na2SO4 dosage; (2) dewatering stage: the dewatering efficiency increased dramatically via electroosmosis; (3) the dewaterability limit stage: the maximum value of dewatering efficiency has been achieved, while the water removal efficiency and dry solids content remained constant...
September 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926695/architecting-mesoporous-n-doped-graphitic-carbon-framework-encapsulating-cote2-as-efficient-oxygen-evolution-electrocatalyst
#12
Ming Liu, Xiaoqing Lu, Chen Guo, Zhaojie Wang, Yanpeng Li, Yan Lin, Yan Zhou, Shutao Wang, Jun Zhang
To improve the efficiency of cobalt-based catalysts for water electrolysis, tremendous efforts have been dedicated to tuning the composition, morphology, size and structure of the materials. We report here the facile preparation of orthorhombic CoTe2 nanocrystals embedded in N-doped graphitic carbon matrix to form a 3D architecture with a size of ~500 nm and abundant mesopores of ~4 nm for the oxygen evolution reaction. The hybrid electrocatalyst delivers a small overpotential of 300 mV at 10 mA cm-2, which is much lower than that for pristine CoTe2 powder...
September 19, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926148/biodiversity-and-species-competition-regulate-the-resilience-of-microbial-biofilm-community
#13
Kai Feng, Zhaojing Zhang, Weiwei Cai, Wenzong Liu, Meiying Xu, Huaqun Yin, Aijie Wang, Zhili He, Ye Deng
The relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem stability is poorly understood in microbial communities. Biofilm communities in small bioreactors called microbial electrolysis cells (MEC) contain moderate species numbers and easy tractable functional traits, thus providing an ideal platform for verifying ecological theories in microbial ecosystems. Here, we investigated the resilience of biofilm communities with a gradient of diversity, and explored the relationship between biodiversity and stability in response to a pH shock...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925104/the-nature-of-hydrated-protons-on-platinum-surface
#14
YounJoon Jung, Heon Kang, Youngsoon Kim, Chanwoo Noh
The nature of hydrated protons formed at water/metal interfaces is one of the most intriguing research questions in the field of interfacial chemistry. We prepared coadsorption layers of hydrogen and water on a Pt(111) surface in ultrahigh vacuum and studied the ionization of adsorbed hydrogen atoms to H+ ions by employing a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Spectroscopic evidence obtained by mass spectrometry and reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy as well as corresponding density functional theory calculations consistently show that adsorbed hydrogen atoms ionize into multiply hydrated proton species (H5O2+, H7O3+, and H9O4+) on the surface, rather than H3O+...
September 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923930/copper-nanoparticle-ensembles-for-selective-electroreduction-of-co2-to-c2-c3-products
#15
Dohyung Kim, Christopher S Kley, Yifan Li, Peidong Yang
Direct conversion of carbon dioxide to multicarbon products remains as a grand challenge in electrochemical CO2 reduction. Various forms of oxidized copper have been demonstrated as electrocatalysts that still require large overpotentials. Here, we show that an ensemble of Cu nanoparticles (NPs) enables selective formation of C2-C3 products at low overpotentials. Densely packed Cu NP ensembles underwent structural transformation during electrolysis into electrocatalytically active cube-like particles intermixed with smaller nanoparticles...
September 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921969/flow-electrolysis-cells-for-the-synthetic-organic-chemistry-laboratory
#16
Derek Pletcher, Robert A Green, Richard C D Brown
Electrosynthesis has much to offer to the synthetic organic chemist. But in order to be widely accepted as a routine procedure in an organic synthesis laboratory, electrosynthesis needs to be presented in a much more user-friendly way. The literature is largely based on electrolysis in a glass beaker or H-cells that often give poor performance for synthesis with a very slow rate of conversion and, often, low selectivity and reproducibility. Flow cells can lead to much improved performance. Electrolysis is participating in the trend toward continuous flow synthesis, and this has led to a number of innovations in flow cell design that make possible selective syntheses with high conversion of reactant to product with a single passage of the reactant solution through the cell...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921692/mechanistic-studies-on-the-role-of-cuii-co3-n-2-2n-as-a-water-oxidation-catalyst-carbonate-as-a-non-innocent-ligand
#17
Amir Mizrahi, Dan Meyerstein, Israel Zilbermann, Haya Kornweitz, Eric Maimon, Haim Cohen
Recently it was reported that copper bicarbonate/ carbonate complexes are good electro-catalysts for water oxidation. However, the results did not enable a decision whether the active oxidant is a CuIII or a CuIV complex. Kinetic analysis of pulse radiolysis measurements coupled with DFT calculations point out that CuIII(CO3)n3-2n complexes are the active intermediates in the electrolysis of CuII(CO3)n2-2n solution. The results enable the evaluation of E°((CuIII/II(CO3)n)aq) ~ 1.42 V vs. NHE at pH 8.4. This redox potential is in accord with the electrochemical report...
September 16, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918265/amorphous-liquid-metal-electrodes-enabled-conformable-electrochemical-therapy-of-tumors
#18
Xuyang Sun, Bo Yuan, Wei Rao, Jing Liu
Electrochemical treatment of tumors (EChT) has recently been identified as a very effective way for local tumor therapy. However, hindered by the limited effective area of a single rigid electrode, multiple electrodes are often recruited when tackling large tumors, where too many electrodes not only complicate the clinical procedures but also aggravate patients' pain. Here we present a new conceptual electric stimulation tumor therapy through introducing the injectable liquid metal electrodes, which can adapt to complex tumor shapes so as to achieve desired therapeutic performance...
September 5, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918078/assessment-of-environmental-impacts-and-operational-costs-of-the-implementation-of-an-innovative-source-separated-urine-treatment
#19
Elorri Igos, Mathilde Besson, Tomás Navarrete Gutiérrez, Ana Barbara Bisinella de Faria, Enrico Benetto, Ligia Barna, Aras Ahmadi, Mathieu Spérandio
Innovative treatment technologies and management methods are necessary to valorise the constituents of wastewater, in particular nutrients from urine (highly concentrated and can have significant impacts related to artificial fertilizer production). The FP7 project, ValuefromUrine, proposed a new two-step process (called VFU) based on struvite precipitation and microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to recover ammonia, which is further transformed into ammonium sulphate. The environmental and economic impacts of its prospective implementation in the Netherlands were evaluated based on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and operational costs...
September 8, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917802/on-chip-microfluidic-generation-of-monodisperse-bubbles-for-liquid-interfacial-tension-measurement
#20
Chen Wang, Jing Cao, Yue Zhou, Xing-Hua Xia
A novel microfluidic method for measuring liquid interfacial tension using monodisperse microbubbles generated in situ has been proposed. Instead of bulky gas supply used in traditional microfluidic devices, microbubbles are efficiently generated via water electrolysis in the devices. Since the bubble formation frequency is related to the interfacial tension of liquids used, thus, precisely measuring the interfacial tension of liquids in microfluidics can be achieved. In addition, it is found that during the microbubble formation, the electrochemical potential fluctuates regularly at controlled electrolysis current, and the fluctuating period depends on the microbubble generation rate...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
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