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Feilong Zhang, Qinyan Yue, Yuan Gao, Baoyu Gao, Xing Xu, Zhongfei Ren, Yang Jin
In this study, Fenton iron mud applied as main raw material of cathodic-anodic-electrolysis ceramic granular fillers (ICMF) in a continuous reactor, which were used to pretreat oxytetracycline (OTC) wastewater. The ICMF was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer analysis. The effects of pH value, hydraulic retention time, OTC concentrations and aeration on removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) and OTC were studied. The degradation byproducts of OTC were analyzed by UV-2450, High Performance Liquid Chromatography and Liquid Chromatography-mass Spectrometry...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Zhefeng Zhang, Jiahui Xian, Chunyong Zhang, Degang Fu
This study investigated the degradation performance and mechanism of creatinine (a urine metabolite) with boron-doped diamond (BDD) anodes. Experiments were performed using a synthetic creatinine solution containing two supporting electrolytes (NaCl and Na2SO4). A three-level central composite design was adopted to optimize the degradation process, a mathematical model was thus constructed and used to explore the optimum operating conditions. A maximum mineralization percentage of 80% following with full creatinine removal had been achieved within 120 min of electrolysis, confirming the strong oxidation capability of BDD anodes...
May 13, 2017: Chemosphere
Kazuya Sasaki, Shuichi Sato, Takahiro Shindo, Takeo Sakawa, Hiromu Sasaki, Masahito Sano
A colloidal fluid is found to rotate spontaneously during electrolysis when gravity acts perpendicular to the direction of an applied electric field. An aqueous dispersion containing charged colloidal particles is placed inside an O-ring sandwiched between two parallel ITO electrodes. A clip is used to hold the assembly together to prevent the liquid from leaking out. The assembly is positioned such that the electrodes stand vertically, i.e., the electric field during electrolysis points perpendicular to gravity...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Stefan Barwe, Justus Masa, Corina Andronescu, Bastian Mei, Wolfgang Schuhmann, Edgar Ventosa
Engineering stable electrodes using highly active catalyst nanopowders for electrochemical water splitting remains a notorious challenge. We report an innovative and general approach for attaining highly stable catalyst films with self-healing capability based on in-situ self-assembly of catalyst particles during electrolysis. The catalyst particles are added to the electrolyte forming a suspension that is pumped through the electrolyzer. Particles with negatively charged surfaces stick onto the anode, while particles with positively charged surfaces stick to the cathode...
May 17, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Iryna Yu Yermolenko, Maryna V Ved, Nykolay D Sakhnenko, Yulya I Sachanova
Ternary coatings Fe-Co-W with an iron content of 40-55 at.%, cobalt 39-44 at.%, and tungsten 4-12 at.% and Fe-Co-Mo with an iron content of 40-55 at.%, cobalt 39-44 at.%, and tungsten 4-12 at.% were obtained by galvanostatic and pulse electrolysis on the mild steel substrate from iron(III) citrate-based electrolyte. The influence of electrolysis mode and parameters on composition of deposited alloys was studied. The competing reduction of iron and tungsten in Fe-Co-W coatings as well as the competitive deposition of iron and cobalt in Fe-Co-Mo coatings at various current densities were defined...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Amina Ledjeri, Idris Yahiaoui, Hakima Kadji, Farida Aissani-Benissad, Abdeltif Amrane, Florence Fourcade
In this paper, the major factors affecting the degradation and the mineralization of sulfamethazine by Electro/Fe(3+)/peroxydisulfate (PDS) process (e.g. current density, PDS concentration, Fe(3+) ions concentration and initial sulfamethazine (SMT) concentration) were evaluated. The relevance of this process as a pretreatment prior to activated sludge culture was also examined. Regarding the impact on SMT degradation and mineralization, the obtained results showed that they were significantly enhanced by increasing the current density and the PDS concentrations in the ranges 1-40mAcm(-2) and from 1 to 10mM respectively; while they were negatively impacted by an increase of the initial SMT concentration and the Fe(3+) concentration, from 0...
May 1, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Wasin Somboot, Jaroon Jakmunee, Tinakorn Kanyanee
In this work, a homemade direct current (DC) conductivity detector as an alternative cost-effective detection device has been fabricated and investigated to use in flow analysis system. Under the selected appropriate conditions of flow system, the electrolysis of a carrier stream at the conductivity detector was negligible and provides well-defined signal. The cost-effective DC conductivity detector was demonstrated to couple with gas diffusion flow injection system for determination of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in water...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
Noura A Shehab, Juan F Ortiz-Medina, Krishna P Katuri, Ananda Rao Hari, Gary Amy, Bruce E Logan, Pascal E Saikaly
Applying microbial electrochemical technologies for the treatment of highly saline or thermophilic solutions is challenging due to the lack of proper inocula to enrich for efficient exoelectrogens. Brine pools from three different locations (Valdivia, Atlantis II and Kebrit) in the Red Sea were investigated as potential inocula sources for enriching exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) under thermophilic (70°C) and hypersaline (25% salinity) conditions. Of these, only the Valdivia brine pool produced high and consistent current 6...
May 3, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Gopalan Rajaraman, Azaj Ansari, Asmita Singha, Mursaleem Ansari
Activation of inert C-H bonds such as those of methane are extremely challenging for chemists but in the nature, soluble methane monooxygenase enzyme readily oxidize methane to methanol using a diiron(IV) species. This has prompted chemists to look for similar model systems. Recently a (μ-oxo)bis(μ-carboxamido)diiron(IV) ([Fe(IV)2O(L)2]2+ L= N,N-bis-(3',5'-dimethyl-4'-methoxypyridyl-2'-methyl)-N'-acetyl- 1,2-diaminoethane) complex has been generated via bulk electrolysis and this species activates an inert C-H bond almost 1000 times faster compared to mononuclear Fe(IV)=O species and at the same time selectively activates O-H bonds of alcohols...
May 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jizhang Yang, Zhi Yang, Lu Hua Li, Qiran Cai, Huagui Nie, Mengzhan Ge, Xi'an Chen, Ying Chen, Shaoming Huang
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) has been viewed as a critical step in electrochemical energy conversion and storage devices. However, searching for cheap and efficient OER electrocatalysts still remains an urgent task. Herein, we develop a new strategy involving a one-step electrochemical deposition and dissolution method to fabricate hydrophilic porous CoS2/carbon nanotube (CNT) composites (CNT-CoS2). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy measurements confirm the formation of hydrophilic groups on the surface of the porous CoS2 during electrochemical oxidation...
May 12, 2017: Nanoscale
A Raschitor, J Llanos, P Cañizares, M A Rodrigo
This work presents a novel approach of wastewater treatment technology that consists of a combined electrodialysis/electro-oxidation process, specially designed to allow increasing the efficiency in the oxidation of ionic organic pollutants contained in diluted waste. Respect to conventional electrolysis, the pollutant is simultaneously concentrated and oxidized, enhancing the performance of the cell due to the higher concentration achieved in the nearness of the anode. A proof of concept is tested with the ionic pesticide 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and results show that the efficiency of this new technology overcomes that electrolysis by more than double, regardless the supporting electrolyte used (either NaCl or Na2SO4)...
May 5, 2017: Chemosphere
Sanjin J Gutić, Ana S Dobrota, Mikael Leetmaa, Natalia V Skorodumova, Slavko V Mentus, Igor A Pašti
H2 production via water electrolysis plays an important role in hydrogen economy. Hence, novel cheap electrocatalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are constantly needed. Here, we describe a simple method for the preparation of composite catalysts for H2 evolution, consisting in simultaneous reduction of the graphene oxide film, and electrochemical deposition of Ni on its surface. The obtained composites (Ni@rGO), compared to pure electrodeposited Ni, show an improved electrocatalytic activity towards HER in alkaline media...
May 11, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Claudio N Verani, Kenneth Kpogo, Shivnath Mazumder, Denan Wang, H Bernhard Schlegel, Adam Fiedler
The bimetallic catalyst [CoII2(L1)(bpy)2]ClO4 (1), where L1 is an [NN'2O2] fused ligand, efficiently reduces H+ to H2 in acetonitrile in the presence of 100 equiv. of HOAc with a TON of 18 and Faradaic efficiency of 94 % after 3h of bulk electrolysis at -1.6 VAg/AgCl. This observation allows us to propose that this bimetallic cooperativity is associated with distance, angle, and orbital alignment of the two Co centers, as promoted by the unique Co-Namido-Co environment offered by L1. Experimental results reveal that the parent [CoIICoII] complex undergoes two successive metal-based 1e- reductions to generate the catalytically active species [CoICoI], and DFT calculations suggest that addition of a proton to one CoI triggers a cooperative 1e- transfer by each of these CoI centers...
May 9, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tunc Catal, Tansu Gover, Bugra Yaman, Jessica Droguetti, Kaan Yilancioglu
Microbial electrochemical cells including microbial fuel cells (MFCs) and microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are novel biotechnological tools that can convert organic substances in wastewater or biomass into electricity or hydrogen. Electroactive microbial biofilms used in this technology have ability to transfer electrons from organic compounds to anodes. Evaluation of biofilm formation on anode is crucial for enhancing our understanding of hydrogen generation in terms of substrate utilization by microorganisms...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Dongwon Ki, Sudeep C Popat, Bruce E Rittmann, César Iván Torres
We developed an energy-efficient, flat-plate, dual-chambered microbial peroxide producing cell (MPPC) as an anaerobic energy-conversion technology for converting primary sludge (PS) at the anode and producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at the cathode. We operated the MPPC with a 9-day HRT in the anode. A maximum H2O2 concentration of ~230 mg/L was achieved in 6 hours of batch cathode operation. This is the first demonstration of H2O2 production using PS in an MPPC, and the energy requirement for H2O2 production was low (~0...
May 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Mauro Sérgio Ferreira Santos, Fernando Silva Lopes, Ivano Gebhardt Rolf Gutz
An EC-CE-C(4) D flow system was applied to the investigation of electrocatalytic processes by monitoring carboxylic acids formed during the electro-oxidation at various potentials of primary alcohols (mixture of 1 mmol L(-1) of ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol and n-pentanol) in acidic, neutral and alkaline media. The electro-oxidation was carried out on gold and platinum disk electrodes (3 mm of diameter) in a thin-layer electrochemical flow cell. Products were sampled 50 μm apart from the electrode directly into the capillary...
May 9, 2017: Electrophoresis
Shahram Lotfi, Esmail Tammari, Azizollah Nezhadali
Electrochemical oxidation of trimipramine in the absence and presence of 1,3 dimethyl barbituric acid as a nucleophile in aqueous solution has been studied using cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential coulometry electrolysis. Voltammetric studies of electro-oxidation of trimipramine were realized in a range of pH1.0 to 8.0 in the absence and presence of 1,3 dimethyl barbituric acid. Based on the obtained electrochemical results, dimerization is the main reaction of electro-oxidation of trimipramine in the absence of nucleophile...
July 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
James O Thostenson, Edgard Ngaboyamahina, Katelyn L Sellgren, Brian T Hawkins, Jeffrey R Piascik, Ethan J D Klem, Charles B Parker, Marc A Deshusses, Brian R Stoner, Jeffrey T Glass
This work investigates the surface chemistry of H2O2 generation on a boron-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (BD-UNCD) electrode. It is motivated by the need to efficiently disinfect liquid waste in resource constrained environments with limited electrical power. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to identify functional groups on the BD-UNCD electrode surfaces while the electrochemical potentials of generation for these functional groups were determined via cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, and chronoamperometry...
May 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Iqbal K Erabee, Amimul Ahsan, Bipin Jose, T Arunkumar, R Sathyamurthy, Syazwani Idrus, N N Nik Daud
This study investigated the effects of different parameters on the removal efficiencies of organic and inorganic pollutants in landfill leachate treatment by electrolysis. Different parameters were considered such as the electric potential (e.g., 24, 40 and 60 V), hydraulic retention time (HRT) (e.g., 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min), sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration (e.g., 1, 3, 5 and 7%), pH (e.g., 3, 7 and 9), electrodes materials [e.g., aluminum (Al) and iron (Fe)] and distance between electrodes (e.g...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Antonino S Aricò, Mariarita Girolamo, Stefania Siracusano, David Sebastian, Vincenzo Baglio, Michael Schuster
Water-fed photo-electrolysis cells equipped with perfluorosulfonic acid (Nafion(®) 115) and quaternary ammonium-based (Fumatech(®) FAA3) ion exchange membranes as separator for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions were investigated. Protonic or anionic ionomer dispersions were deposited on the electrodes to extend the interface with the electrolyte. The photo-anode consisted of a large band-gap Ti-oxide semiconductor. The effect of membrane characteristics on the photo-electrochemical conversion of solar energy was investigated for photo-voltage-driven electrolysis cells...
April 29, 2017: Membranes
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