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Xiaofei Zeng, Maya A Collins, Abhijeet P Borole, Spyros G Pavlostathis
Phenolic compounds in hydrolysate/pyrolysate and wastewater streams produced during the pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel production present a significant challenge in downstream processes. Bioelectrochemical systems are increasingly recognized as an alternative technology to handle biomass-derived streams and to promote water reuse in biofuel production. Thus, a thorough understanding of the fate of phenolic compounds in bioanodes is urgently needed. The present study investigated the biotransformation of three structurally similar phenolic compounds (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA), and their individual contribution to exoelectrogenesis in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) bioanode...
November 27, 2016: Water Research
Sijie Guo, Siqi Zhao, Jin Gao, Cheng Zhu, Xiuqin Wu, Yijun Fu, Hui Huang, Yang Liu, Zhenhui Kang
Electrochemical reduction of CO2 is a key component of many prospective artificial technologies for renewable carbon-containing fuels, but it still suffers from the high overpotentials required to drive the process, low selectivity for diversiform products and the high cost of the catalyst. Here, we report that Cu-CDots nanocorals is a highly efficient, low-cost and stable electrocatalyst for CO2 reduction in aqueous solution. The major product of CO2 reduction on the Cu-CDots nanocorals is HCOOH with an inconceivable low overpotential of 0...
December 2, 2016: Nanoscale
Wei Sun, Ji-Yuan Liu, Xue-Qing Gong, Waqas-Qamar Zaman, Li-Mei Cao, Ji Yang
The anodic reaction of oxygen evolution reaction (OER), an important point for electrolysis, however, remains the obstacle due to its complicated reaction at electrochemical interfaces. Iridium oxide (IrO2) is the only currently known 5d transition metal oxide possessing admirable OER activity. Tremendous efforts have been carried out to enhance the activity of iridium oxides. Unfortunately there lies a gap in understanding what factors responsible for the activity in doped IrO2 or the novel crystal structure...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
Ram B Ambre, Quentin Daniel, Ting Fan, Hong Chen, Biaobiao Zhang, Lei Wang, Mårten S G Ahlquist, Lele Duan, Licheng Sun
Iron porphyrins Fe-pE, Fe-mE, and Fe-oE were synthesized and their electrochemical behavior for CO2 reduction to CO has been investigated. The controlled potential electrolysis of Fe-mE gave exclusive 65% Faradaic efficiency (FE) whereas Fe-oE achieved quasi-quantitative 98% FE (2% H2) for CO production.
December 1, 2016: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Yun Pei Zhu, Tian Yi Ma, Mietek Jaroniec, Shi Zhang Qiao
In spite of recent advances in the synthesis of hollow micro/nanostructures, the fabrication of three-dimensional electrodes on the basis of these structures remains a major challenge. Herein, we develop an electrochemical sacrificial-template strategy to fabricate hollow Co3 O4 microtube arrays with hierarchical porosity. The resultant unique structures and integrated electrode configurations impart enhanced mass transfer and electron mobility, ensuring high activity and stability in catalyzing oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Gabriele Mattiussi, Carlos Moreno
BACKGROUND: Proximal Hamstring Tendinopathy-related Sciatic Nerve Entrapment (PHTrSNE) is a neuropathy caused by fibrosis interposed between the semimembranosus tendon and the sciatic nerve, at the level of the ischial tuberosity. METHODS: Ultrasound-guided Intratissue Percutaneous Electrolysis (US-guided EPI) involves galvanic current transfer within the treatment target tissue (fibrosis) via a needle 0.30 to 0.33 mm in diameter. The galvanic current in a saline solution instantly develops the chemical process of electrolysis, which in turn induces electrochemical ablation of fibrosis...
April 2016: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Ines Boujelben, Youssef Samet, Mouna Messaoud, Mohamed Ben Makhlouf, Sami Maalej
This study was undertaken to evaluate the performance of four wastewater treatment plants/processes over a 4 year period. The wastewater flow evolution, energy consumption, and quality indicator parameters (BOD5, COD and TSS) at the inlet and outlet sites of the plants were determined. In comparing three domestic WWTPs with different wastewater treatment processes, the multivariate analyses (RDA and ANOVA) showed that although the Agareb plant received the highest pollution load, it displayed a high level of removal efficiency especially for COD, BOD, TSS, TKN and NH4(+)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Yongwon Jeon, Sunghyun Kim
A microbial electrolysis cell, though considered as a promising, environmentally friendly technology for hydrogen production, suffers from concomitant production of methane. The high hydrogen/methane ratio at the initial operation stage decreases with time. Here we report for the first time the photoassisted microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) for persistent hydrogen production using polyaniline nanofibers as a cathode. Under 0.8 V external bias and laboratory fluorescent light illumination in a single-chamber MEC, continuous hydrogen production from acetate at a rate of 1...
November 24, 2016: ChemSusChem
Xiumin Li, Xuli Ma, Xiao Du, Junlan Zheng, Xiaogang Hao, Abuliti Abudula, Guoqing Guan
A hybrid catalyst composed of silver (Ag) doped wire-like molybdenum carbide (MoxCy) with pure β-phase and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was coated well on a carbon rod electrode for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The effects of Ag loading amount and carbonization temperature on the crystal form of MoxCy were investigated in detail. It is found that the MoxCy crystal form can be tuned by adjusting the preparation conditions, and nanostructured wire-like Mo2C with pure β-phase was obtained at a temperature over 750 °C...
November 23, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Linglin Wu, Mark Mascal, Thomas Farmer, Sacha Pérocheau Arnaud, Maria Angelica Wong Chang
Electrolysis of biomass-derived carbonyl compounds is an alternative to condensation chemistry for supplying products with chain length >C6 for biofuel and renewable material production. Kolbe coupling of biomass-derived levulinic acid gives 2,7-octanedione, a new platform molecule only two low process-intensity steps removed from raw biomass. Hydrogenation to 2,7-octanediol provides a chiral secondary diol largely unknown to polymer chemistry, while intramolecular aldol condensation followed by hydrogenation yields branched cycloalkanes suitable for use as high-octane, cellulosic gasoline...
November 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Courtney A Downes, Smaranda C Marinescu
Immobilization of metal complexes to electrode surfaces has emerged as an attractive strategy to combine homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis. We recently reported the immobilization of cobalt dithiolene catalytic units via incorporation into extended one and two dimensional (1D and 2D) frameworks. We extend here this methodology to the formation of 1D nickel, iron, and zinc dithiolene coordination polymers based on benzene-1,2,4,5-tetrathiolate (BTT) frameworks and investigate their catalytic H2-evolving activities under fully aqueous conditions...
November 22, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Michael Kitching, Robin Butler, Enrico Marsili
Sustainable energy supplies are needed to supplement and eventually replace fossil fuels. Molecular hydrogen H2 is a clean burning, high-energy fuel that is also used as reducing gas in industrial processes. H2 is mainly synthesized by steam reforming of natural gas, a non-renewable fuel. There are biosynthetic strategies for H2 production; however, they are associated with poor yield and have high cost. The application of an electrochemical driving force in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) improves the yield of biological reactions...
January 2017: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Dingyi Guo, Jing Qi, Wei Zhang, Rui Cao
The slow kinetics of water oxidation greatly jeopardizes the efficiency of water electrolysis for H2 production. Developing highly active water oxidation electrodes with affordable fabrication costs is thus of great importance. Herein, a Ni(II) Fe(III) surface species on Ni metal substrate was generated by electrochemical modification of Ni in a ferrous solution by a fast, simple, and cost-effective procedure. In the prepared Ni(II) Fe(III) catalyst film, Fe(III) was incorporated uniformly through controlled oxidation of Fe(II) cations on the electrode surface...
November 21, 2016: ChemSusChem
Y Gao, Y W Xie, Q Zhang, A L Wang, Y X Yu, L Y Yang
A novel electrolysis-integrated horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland system (E-HFCWs) was developed for intensified removal of nitrogen and phosphorus contaminated water. The dynamics of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and that of main water qualities of inflow and outflow were also evaluated. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) greatly enhanced nitrate removal when the electrolysis current intensity was stabilized at 0.07 mA/cm(2). When the HRT ranged from 2 h to 12 h, the removal rate of nitrate increased from 20% to 84%...
October 14, 2016: Water Research
Anjula M Kosswattaarachchi, Alan E Friedman, Timothy R Cook
An all-organic redox flow battery (RFB) employing a fluorescent boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) dye (PM567) was investigated. In a RFB, the stability of the electrolyte in all charged states is critically linked to coulombic efficiency. To evaluate stability, bulk electrolysis and cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments were performed. Oxidized and reduced, PM567 does not remain intact; however, the products of bulk electrolysis evolve over time to show stable redox behavior, making the dye a precursor for the active species of an RFB...
November 16, 2016: ChemSusChem
F Abat, J L Sánchez-Sánchez, A M Martín-Nogueras, J I Calvo-Arenillas, J Yajeya, R Méndez-Sánchez, J C Monllau, P E Gelber
BACKGROUND: Patellar tendinopathy has a high prevalence rate among athletes. Different therapeutic options can be found in the current literature, but none of them has been clearly established as the gold standard. The purpose of this study is to compare, in a randomized controlled trial, the clinical efficacy of eccentric exercise combined with either an ultrasound-guided galvanic electrolysis technique (USGET) or conventional electrophysiotherapy to treat patellar tendinopathy. METHODS: Sixty patients diagnosed with patellar tendinopathy were randomized into two groups...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Orthopaedics
Douglas A C Coledam, Marília M S Pupo, Bianca F Silva, Adilson J Silva, Katlin I B Eguiluz, Giancarlo R Salazar-Banda, José M Aquino
The contamination of surface and ground water by antibiotics is of significant importance due to their potential chronic toxic effects to the aquatic and human lives. Thus, in this work, the electrochemical oxidation of cephalexin (CEX) was carried out in a one compartment filter-press flow cell using a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode as anode. During the electrolysis, the investigated variables were: supporting electrolyte (Na2SO4, NaCl, NaNO3, and Na2CO3) at constant ionic strength (0.1 M), pH (3, 7, 10, and without control), and current density (5, 10 and 20 mA cm(-2))...
November 12, 2016: Chemosphere
Philippe Negrel, Patrick Ollivier, Christine Flehoc, Daniel Hube
The identification of the sources of contaminants present in groundwater at industrial sites is primordial to address environmental and industrial issues. However, available tools are often inadequate or expensive. Here, we present the data of stable isotopes (δ(18)O and δ(2)H) of the water molecule at an industrial site where electrochemistry plant occurs impacting the groundwater quality. High ClO3 and ClO4 contents and (2)H enrichment have been measured in groundwater. Recharge of aquifer relates to infiltration of rainwater and by subsurface inflow...
November 8, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Eirik Hjertenæs, Anh Quynh Nguyen, Henrik Koch
Sodium intercalation and adsorption on graphitic carbon plays an important role in cathode wear during aluminium electrolysis and is relevant for sodium ion battery (NIB) applications. We present a parameter set for the ReaxFF formalism trained to describe sodium interactions with graphitic carbon. The force field developed reproduce the training data with reasonable accuracy and displays qualitatively adequate predictive power. The force field is applied in hybrid grand canonical Monte Carlo-molecular dynamics (GC-MC/MD) simulations of model systems representative of sodium intrusion in graphitic carbon cathodes used in aluminium electrolysis...
November 9, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Wendy Huang, Younggy Kim
The utilization of propionic, n-butyric, and isobutyric acids in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) was examined by monitoring individual short-chain fatty acid concentration and using electrochemical techniques, such as linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). When n-butyric or isobutyric acid was provided as a single substrate, acetic acid was consistently observed in experiments, indicating that acetic acid was produced as a byproduct and utilized by exoelectrogenic bacteria as an additional substrate in MECs...
November 9, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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