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Dong-Jin Son, Woo-Yeol Kim, Chan-Young Yun, Dae-Gun Kim, Duk Chang, Young Sunwoo, Ki-Ho Hong
The electrolysis process using copper electrodes combined with ceramic membrane with pore sizes of 0.1 to 0.2μm as a system for the treatment of sewage from decentralized small communities. The system was operated under an HRT of 0.1 hour, voltage of 24V, and TMP of 0.05MPa. The system showed average removals of organics, nitrogen, phosphorus, and solids of up to 80%, 52%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Removal of organics and nitrogen dramatically increased in proportion to increment of influent loading. Phosphorus and solids were remarkably eliminated by both electro-coagulation and membrane filtration...
June 22, 2017: Environmental Technology
Biswajit Mondal, Abhishek Dey
Obtaining abundant pure hydrogen by reduction of water has an important implication in the development of clean and renewable energy. Hence research focused on the development of non-noble metal based facile and energy efficient catalysts for proton reduction is on the rise. However, for practical utilization, it is necessary that these complexes function unabated in the presence of atmospheric oxygen and other common contaminants in abundant water sources. There has been very little activity towards the development of oxygen-tolerant hydrogen producing catalysts...
June 21, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Daniel Halwidl, Wernfried Mayr-Schmölzer, David Fobes, Jin Peng, Zhiqiang Mao, Michael Schmid, Florian Mittendorfer, Josef Redinger, Ulrike Diebold
As complex ternary perovskite-type oxides are increasingly used in solid oxide fuel cells, electrolysis and catalysis, it is desirable to obtain a better understanding of their surface chemical properties. Here we report a pronounced ordering of hydroxyls on the cleaved (001) surface of the Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite Ca3Ru2O7 upon water adsorption at 105 K and subsequent annealing to room temperature. Density functional theory calculations predict the dissociative adsorption of a single water molecule (E ads = 1...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Xudong Yu, Zengyao Wang, Yajuan Li, Lijun Geng, Jujie Ren, Guoliang Feng
Herein, ditopic ligand DTA comprised of terpyridine and acetylene segments with only one aromatic π-conjugated building block was designed and synthesized. Driven by metal-ligand coordination interactions, we presented that the use of metal salts can direct the self-assembly of DTA in the generation of fluorescent and electrochemical polymers that entrapped water to form ambidextrous hydrogels. These were characterized by several approaches including fluorescent titrations, UV-vis, circular dichroism, and X-ray diffraction spectra as well as scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy experiments...
June 20, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Zachary T Gossage, Noah Benjamin Schorr, Kenneth Hernandez-Burgos, Jingshu Hui, Burton H Simpson, Elena C Montoto, Joaquin Rodriguez-Lopez
Redox active colloids (RACs) are dispersible, cross-linked polymeric materials that incorporate a high concentration of redox-active motifs, making them attractive for next-generation size-exclusion redox flow batteries. In order to tap into their full potential for energy storage, it is essential to understand their internal charge mobility, capacity, and cyclability. Here we focus on using a combined suite of Raman spectroscopy and scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) tools for evaluating three important parameters that govern charge storage in viologen-RACs: their intra-particle redox active concentration, their reduction/oxidation mechanism, and their charge transfer rate...
June 16, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yingxiu Cao, Xiaofei Li, Feng Li, Hao Song
Extracellular electron transfer (EET) in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, which is one of the most well-studied exoelectrogens, underlies many microbial electrocatalysis processes, including microbial fuel cells, microbial electrolysis cells, and microbial electrosynthesis. However, regulating the efficiency of EET remains challenging due to the lack of efficient genome regulation tools that regulate gene expression levels in S. oneidensis. Here, we systematically established a transcriptional regulation technology, i...
June 15, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
Kaouthar Hamrouni, Fructuoso Barba, Mohamed Lamine Benkhoud, Belen Batanero
A series of new (E) and (Z)-benzoyl-homoquinones have been prepared in good yield by the parent quinone-electrogenerated base (EGB) in the presence of α-bromoacetophenones or α-bromopropiophenone. The EGB, obtained when electrolysis of p-benzoquinone, or 1,4-naphthoquinone, is carried out at the reduction potential of their first voltammetric peak, conducted to electrogenerated phenacyl carbenes after halide evolution on the first obtained bromo-enolates. The stereoselectivity of the [2 + 2]cycloaddition of the carbene to the quinoid substrate is highly dependent on the electrode nature...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Yurui Xue, Zicheng Zuo, Yongjun Li, Huibiao Liu, Yuliang Li
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER), hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), and overall water splitting are major energy and chemical conversion efforts. Progress in electrocatalytic reactions have shown that the future is limitless in many fields. However, it is urgent to develop efficient electrocatalysts. Here, the first graphdiyne-supported efficient and bifunctional electrocatalyst is reported using 3D graphdiyne foam as scaffolds, and NiCo2 S4 nanowires as building blocks (NiCo2 S4 NW/GDF). NiCo2 S4 NW/GDF exhibits outstanding catalytic activity and stability toward both OER and HER, as well as overall water splitting in alkaline media...
June 14, 2017: Small
Jiaxin Cui, Xu Wang, Jing Zhang, Xiaoyu Qiu, Dihua Wang, Ying Zhao, Beidou Xi, Akram Alshawabkeh, Xuhui Mao
Sodium disilicate (SD), an inorganic and environmentally friendly ligand, is introduced into the conventional iron electrolysis system to achieve an oxidizing Fenton process to degrade organic pollutants. Electrolytic ferrous ions, which are complexed by the disilicate ions, can chemically reduce dioxygen molecules via consecutive reduction steps, producing H2O2 for the Fenton-oxidation of organics. At the near-neutral pH (from 6 to 8), the disilicate-Fe(II) complexes possess strong reducing capabilities; therefore, a near-neutral pH rather than an acid condition is preferable for the disilicate-assisted iron electrolysis (DAIE) process...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Monika Perlovska Harvanova, Jana Jiravova, Jakub Malohlava, Katerina Barton Tomankova, Dagmar Jirova, Hana Kolarova
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been widely studied for their beneficial antimicrobial effect and have been considered by some to be a safe ingredient, as penetration of metal nanoparticles through the skin in vivo has not been proven. However, AgNPs are becoming a commonly applied nanomaterial for surface modifications of medical products which come into contact with damaged skin. In our experiments, we tested two commercially available AgNPs samples manufactured by electrolysis. AFM was used to characterize tested AgNPs morphology and their mean particle size which was assessed as 30...
June 7, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Patrick Preuster, Alexander Alekseev, Peter Wasserscheid
Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required...
June 7, 2017: Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering
Yunming Gao, Chuanghuang Yang, Canlei Zhang, Qingwei Qin, George Z Chen
Production of metallic iron through molten oxide electrolysis using inert electrodes is an alternative route for fast ironmaking without CO2 emissions. The fact that many inorganic oxides melt at ultrahigh temperatures (>1500 K) challenges conventional electro-analytical techniques used in aqueous, organic and molten salt electrolytes. However, in order to design a feasible and effective electrolytic process, it is necessary to best understand the electrochemical properties of iron ions in molten oxide electrolytes...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Amit Das, Shannon S Stahl
Electrocatalytic methods for organic synthesis could offer sustainable alternatives to traditional redox reactions, but strategies are needed to enhance the performance of molecular catalysts designed for this purpose. The synthesis of a pyrene-tethered TEMPO derivative (TEMPO=2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-N-oxyl) is described, which undergoes facile in situ noncovalent immobilization onto a carbon cloth electrode. Cyclic voltammetry and controlled potential electrolysis studies demonstrate that the immobilized catalyst exhibits much higher activity relative to 4-acetamido-TEMPO, an electronically similar homogeneous catalyst...
June 6, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Etosha R Cave, Joseph H Montoya, Kendra P Kuhl, David N Abram, Toru Hatsukade, Chuan Shi, Christopher Hahn, Jens K Nørskov, Thomas F Jaramillo
In the future, industrial CO2 electroreduction using renewable energy sources could be a sustainable means to convert CO2 and water into commodity chemicals at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. This study focuses on the electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 on polycrystalline Au surfaces, which have high activity and selectivity for CO evolution. We explore the catalytic behavior of polycrystalline Au surfaces by coupling potentiostatic CO2 electrolysis experiments in an aqueous bicarbonate solution with high sensitivity product detection methods...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Nihal Oturan, Charuvila T Aravindakumar, Hugo Olvera-Vargas, Mathew M Sunil Paul, Mehmet A Oturan
Degradation of a widely used antibiotic, the para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), and mineralization of its aqueous solution was investigated by electro-Fenton process using Pt/carbon-felt and boron-doped diamond (BDD)/carbon-felt cells with applied currents in the range of 50-1000 mA. This process produces the highly oxidizing species, the hydroxyl radical ((•)OH), which is mainly responsible for the oxidative degradation of PAS. An absolute rate constant of 4.17 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1) for the oxidation of PAS by (●)OH was determined from the competition kinetics method...
May 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jinlong Li, Desheng Li, Yuwei Cui, Wei Xing, Shihai Deng
Nitrogen bioremediation in organic insufficient wastewater generally requires an extra carbon source. In this study, nitrate-contaminated wastewater was treated effectively through simultaneous autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification based on micro-electrolysis carriers (MECs) and retinervus luffae fructus (RLF), respectively. The average nitrate and total nitrogen removal rates reached 96.3 and 94.0% in the MECs/RLF-based autotrophic and heterotrophic denitrification (MRAHD) system without ammonia and nitrite accumulation...
May 30, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ali Asghar Najafpoor, Mojtaba Davoudi, Elham Rahmanpour Salmani
BACKGROUND: Annually, large quantities of dyes are produced and consumed in different industries. The discharge of highly colored textile effluents to the aquatic environments causes serious health problems in living organisms. This paper investigates the performance of each of the electro-oxidation and electro-reduction pathways in the removal of reactive red 120 (RR120) from synthetic textile effluents using a novel electrochemical reactor. METHODS: In the current study, a two-compartment reactor divided by cellulosic separator was applied in batch mode using graphite anodes and stainless steel cathodes...
2017: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Bradley G Lusk, Alexandra Colin, Prathap Parameswaran, Bruce E Rittmann, Cesar I Torres
An enriched mixed culture of thermophilic (60°C) bacteria was assembled for the purpose of using cellulose to produce current in thermophilic microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Cellulose was fermented into sugars and acids before being consumed by anode-respiring bacteria (ARB) for current production. Current densities (j) were sustained at 6.5 ± 0.2 A m(-2) in duplicate reactors with a coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84 ± 0.3%, a coulombic recovery (CR) of 54 ± 11% and without production of CH4 ...
May 29, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Fan Cai, Dunfeng Gao, Hu Zhou, Guoxiong Wang, Ting He, Huimin Gong, Shu Miao, Fan Yang, Jianguo Wang, Xinhe Bao
Electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC) has been shown to accelerate the rate of many heterogeneous catalytic reactions; however, it has rarely been reported in low-temperature aqueous electrochemical reactions. Herein, we report a significant EPOC effect for the CO2 reduction to generate formate over Pd nanoparticles (NPs) in a 1 M KHCO3 aqueous solution. By applying a negative potential over differently-sized Pd NPs, the rate of formate production is greatly improved as compared to that at an open-circuit voltage, with a rate enhancement ratio ranging from 10 to 143...
April 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Si Yin Tee, Khin Yin Win, Wee Siang Teo, Leng-Duei Koh, Shuhua Liu, Choon Peng Teng, Ming-Yong Han
Hydrogen is readily obtained from renewable and non-renewable resources via water splitting by using thermal, electrical, photonic and biochemical energy. The major hydrogen production is generated from thermal energy through steam reforming/gasification of fossil fuel. As the commonly used non-renewable resources will be depleted in the long run, there is great demand to utilize renewable energy resources for hydrogen production. Most of the renewable resources may be used to produce electricity for driving water splitting while challenges remain to improve cost-effectiveness...
May 2017: Advanced Science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany)
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