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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334663/microbial-communities-change-in-an-anaerobic-digestion-after-application-of-microbial-electrolysis-cells
#1
Beom Lee, Jun-Gyu Park, Won-Beom Shin, Dong-Jie Tian, Hang-Bae Jun
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are being studied to improve the efficiency of anaerobic digesters and biogas production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of electrochemical reactions in AD-MEC (anaerobic digester combined with MECs) on changes in the microbial communities of bulk sludge through 454-pyrosequencing analysis, as well as the effect of these changes on anaerobic digestion. Methanobacterium beijingense and Methanobacterium petrolearium were the dominant archaeal species in AD, while Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanobacterium formicicum were dominant in AD-MEC at steady-state...
February 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334646/defluoridation-of-drinking-water-using-a-new-flow-column-electrocoagulation-reactor-fcer-experimental-statistical-and-economic-approach
#2
Khalid S Hashim, Andy Shaw, Rafid Al Khaddar, Montserrat Ortoneda Pedrola, David Phipps
A new batch, flow column electrocoagulation reactor (FCER) that utilises a perforated plate flow column as a mixer has been used to remove fluoride from drinking water. A comprehensive study has been carried out to assess its performance. The efficiency of fluoride removal (R%) as a function of key operational parameters such as initial pH, detention time (t), current density (CD), inter-electrode distance (ID) and initial concentration (C0) has been examined and an empirical model has been developed. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of the influence of the EC process on morphology of the surface of the aluminium electrodes, showed the erosion caused by aluminium loss...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331546/increasing-phosphorus-recovery-from-dewatering-centrate-in-microbial-electrolysis-cells
#3
Pengyi Yuan, Younggy Kim
BACKGROUND: Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) use bioelectrochemical reactions to remove organic contaminants at the bioanode and produce hydrogen gas at the cathode. High local pH conditions near the cathode can also be utilized to produce struvite from nutrient-rich wastewater. This beneficial aspect was investigated using lab-scale MECs fed with dewatering centrate collected at a local wastewater treatment plant. The main objective was to improve phosphorus recovery by examining various cathode configurations and electric current conditions...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330352/thermal-conductivity-of-the-sideledge-in-aluminium-electrolysis-cells-experiments-and-numerical-modelling
#4
Aïmen E Gheribi, Sándor Poncsák, Sébastien Guérard, Jean-François Bilodeau, László Kiss, Patrice Chartrand
During aluminium electrolysis, a ledge of frozen electrolytes is generally formed, attached to the sides of the cells. This ledge acts as a protective layer, preventing erosion and chemical attacks of both the electrolyte melt and the liquid aluminium on the side wall materials. The control of the sideledge thickness is thus essential in ensuring a reasonable lifetime for the cells. The key property for modelling and predicting the sideledge thickness as a function of temperature and electrolyte composition is the thermal conductivity...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319373/morphology-controllable-synthesis-of-zn-co-mixed-sulfide-nanostructures-on-carbon-fiber-paper-towards-efficient-rechargeable-zinc-air-batteries-and-water-electrolysis
#5
Xiaoyu Wu, Xiaopeng Han, Xiaoya Ma, Wei Zhang, Yida Deng, Cheng Zhong, Wenbin Hu
It remains an ongoing challenge to develop cheap, highly active and stable electrocatalysts to promote the sluggish electrocatalytic oxygen evolution, oxygen reduction, and hydrogen evolution reactions for rechargeable metal-air batteries and water-splitting systems. In this work, we report the morphology-controllable synthesis of zinc cobalt mixed sulfide (Zn-Co-S) nanoarchitectures, including nanosheets, nanoplates, and nanoneedles, grown on conductive carbon fiber paper (CFP) and the micro-nanostructure dependent electrochemical efficacy for catalyzing hydrogen and oxygen in zinc-air batteries and water electrolysis...
March 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318297/impacts-of-vegetation-and-temperature-on-the-treatment-of-domestic-sewage-in-constructed-wetlands-incorporated-with-ferric-carbon-micro-electrolysis-material
#6
Qingwei Zhou, Hui Zhu, Gary Bañuelos, Baixing Yan, Yinxiu Liang, Jing Yu, Huai Li
Ferric-Carbon Micro-Electrolysis (Fe/C-M/E) material had been widely used for the pretreatment of wastewater. Therefore, we hypothesized that Fe/C-M/E material could enhance the treatment of domestic sewage when integrated into CWs. In this study, constructed wetlands (CWs) integrated with Fe/C-M/E material were developed. During the experiment of vegetation influence, percentages of NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, TN, and COD removed in polyculture (W1) were up to 91.8%, 97.0%, 92.3%, and 85.4%, respectively, which were much higher than those in Lythrum salicaria monoculture (W2) and Canna indica monoculture (W3)...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314667/performance-of-a-continuous-flow-microbial-reverse-electrodialysis-electrolysis-cell-using-a-non-buffered-substrate-and-catholyte-effluent-addition
#7
Syarif Hidayat, Young-Hyun Song, Joo-Yang Park
A continuous flow microbial reverse-electrodialysis electrolysis cell (MREC) was operated under non-buffered substrate with various flow rates of catholyte effluent into anode chamber to investigate the effects on the hydrogen gas production. Adding the catholyte effluent to the anolyte influent resulted in increased salt concentration in the anolyte influent. The increasing anolyte influent salt concentration to 0.23M resulted in improved hydrogen gas production, Coulombic recovery, yield, and hydrogen production rate to 25±1...
March 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300066/enhancing-co2-electrolysis-through-synergistic-control-of-non-stoichiometry-and-doping-to-tune-cathode-surface-structures
#8
Lingting Ye, Minyi Zhang, Ping Huang, Guocong Guo, Maochun Hong, Chunsen Li, John T S Irvine, Kui Xie
Sustainable future energy scenarios require significant efficiency improvements in both electricity generation and storage. High-temperature solid oxide cells, and in particular carbon dioxide electrolysers, afford chemical storage of available electricity that can both stabilize and extend the utilization of renewables. Here we present a double doping strategy to facilitate CO2 reduction at perovskite titanate cathode surfaces, promoting adsorption/activation by making use of redox active dopants such as Mn linked to oxygen vacancies and dopants such as Ni that afford metal nanoparticle exsolution...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295965/synthesis-of-c3-fluorinated-oxindoles-through-reagent-free-cross-dehydrogenative-coupling
#9
Zheng-Jian Wu, Hai-Chao Xu
Reported herein is an unprecedented synthesis of C3-fluorinated oxindoles through cross-dehydrogenative coupling of C(sp(3) )-H and C(sp(2) )-H bonds from malonate amides. Under the unique and mild electrochemical conditions, the requisite oxidant and base are generated in a continuous fashion, allowing the formation of the base- and heat-sensitive 3-fluorooxindoles in high efficiency with broad substrate scope. The synthetic usefulness of the electrochemical method is further highlighted by its easy scalability and the diverse transformations of the electrolysis product...
March 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294264/iron-cobalt-bimetal-oxide-nanorods-as-efficient-and-robust-water-oxidation-catalysts
#10
Xichen Zhou, Jingwei Huang, Fuming Zhang, Yukun Zhao, Yan Zhang, Yong Ding
Cobalt-based oxides are considered as potential water oxidation catalysts for future artificial photosynthetic systems because of their high abundance, strong stability and efficient performance. Herein, a series of cobalt-based oxides, MnCo3-nO4 (M = Mn, Fe, Co) samples, were synthesized through changing the metal sources by a low-temperature coprecipitation method. These catalysts were investigated under photochemical and electrochemical water oxidation conditions. And they all exhibited efficient activity for water oxidation under alkaline, acidic and neutral conditions under visible light irradiation...
March 15, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294119/low-cost-and-durable-bipolar-plates-for-proton-exchange-membrane-electrolyzers
#11
P Lettenmeier, R Wang, R Abouatallah, B Saruhan, O Freitag, P Gazdzicki, T Morawietz, R Hiesgen, A S Gago, K A Friedrich
Cost reduction and high efficiency are the mayor challenges for sustainable H2 production via proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. Titanium-based components such as bipolar plates (BPP) have the largest contribution to the capital cost. This work proposes the use of stainless steel BPPs coated with Nb and Ti by magnetron sputtering physical vapor deposition (PVD) and vacuum plasma spraying (VPS), respectively. The physical properties of the coatings are thoroughly characterized by scanning electron, atomic force microscopies (SEM, AFM); and X-ray diffraction, photoelectron spectroscopies (XRD, XPS)...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282572/performance-of-nitrogen-doped-graphene-aerogel-particle-electrodes-for-electro-catalytic-oxidation-of-simulated-bisphenol-a-wastewaters
#12
Zhuang Chen, Yimei Zhang, Lincheng Zhou, Hao Zhu, Fei Wan, Yue Wang, Dandan Zhang
The treatment of effluent containing Bisphenol A (BPA) was investigated experimentally using nitrogen-doped graphene aerogel (NGAs) as particle electrodes in a three-dimensional electrode reactor for the electrochemical treatment was studied. The effects of the cell voltage, pH, the ratio of NGAs mass to solution volume and repeated times on the removal efficiency were investigated. Compared with commercial carbon particle electrodes, the NGAs exhibited stronger activity to remove BPA simulated wastewater. For 15mgL(-1) of BPA solution, the degradation rate of BPA exceeded 90% after treatment for only 30min under the optimum conditions...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281672/soft-plasma-electrolysis-with-complex-ions-for-optimizing-electrochemical-performance
#13
Muhammad Prisla Kamil, Mosab Kaseem, Young Gun Ko
Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was a promising surface treatment for light metals to tailor an oxide layer with excellent properties. However, porous coating structure was generally exhibited due to excessive plasma discharges, restraining its performance. The present work utilized ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and Cu-EDTA complexing agents as electrolyte additives that alter the plasma discharges to improve the electrochemical properties of Al-1.1Mg alloy coated by PEO. To achieve this purpose, PEO coatings were fabricated under an alternating current in silicate electrolytes containing EDTA and Cu-EDTA...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279028/one-step-electrochemical-preparation-of-multilayer-graphene-functionalized-with-nitrogen
#14
Olena Ustavytska, Yaroslav Kurys, Vyacheslav Koshechko, Vitaly Pokhodenko
A new environmentally friendly one-step method for producing multilayer (preferably 7-9 layers) nitrogen-doped graphene (N-MLG) with a slight amount of oxygen-containing defects was developed. The approach is based on the electrochemical exfoliation of graphite electrode in the presence of azide ions under the conditions of electrolysis with pulse changing of the electrode polarization potential. It was found that usage of azide anions lead not only to the exfoliation of graphite but also to the simultaneous functionalization of graphene sheets by nitrogen atoms (as a result of electrochemical decomposition of azide anions with ammonia evolution)...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276659/a-nickel-dithiolate-water-reduction-catalyst-providing-ligand-based-proton-coupled-electron-transfer-pathways
#15
Keita Koshiba, Kosei Yamauchi, Ken Sakai
A nickel pyrazinedithiolate ([Ni(dcpdt)2 ](2-) ; dcpdt=5,6-dicyanopyrazine-2,3-dithiolate), bearing a NiS4 core similar to the active center of [NiFe] hydrogenase, is shown to serve as an efficient molecular catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). This catalyst shows effectively low overpotentials for HER (330-400 mV at pH 4-6). Moreover, the turnover number of catalysis reaches 20 000 over the 24 h electrolysis with a high Faradaic efficiency, 92-100 %. The electrochemical and DFT studies reveal that diprotonated one-electron-reduced species (i...
March 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272052/optimization-of-copper-removal-from-aqueous-solutions-in-a-continuous-electrochemical-cell-divided-by-cellulosic-separator
#16
Ali Asghar Najafpoor, Mojtaba Davoudi, Elham Rahmanpour Salmani
Copper, as an inseparable part of many industrial discharges, threatens both public and environmental health. In this work, an electrochemical cell utilizing a cellulosic separator was used to evaluate Cu removal using graphite anodes and stainless steel cathodes in a continuous-flow mode reactor. In the experimental matrix, Cu concentration (1-5 mg L(-1)), electrolysis time (20-90 min), and current intensity (0.1-0.4 A) were employed. Results showed that the maximum removal efficiency of copper was obtained as 99%...
March 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271014/cmos-based-image-cytometry-for-detection-of-phytoplankton-in-ballast-water
#17
J M Pérez, M Jofre, P Martínez, M A Yáñez, V Catalan, A Parker, M Veldhuis, V Pruneri
We introduce an image cytometer (I-CYT) for the analysis of phytoplankton in fresh and marine water environments. A linear quantification of cell numbers was observed covering several orders of magnitude using cultures of Tetraselmis and Nannochloropsis measured by autofluorescence in a laboratory environment. We assessed the functionality of the system outside the laboratory by phytoplankton quantification of samples taken from a marine water environment (Dutch Wadden Sea, The Netherlands) and a fresh water environment (Lake Ijssel, The Netherlands)...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268952/swallowable-sensing-device-for-long-term-gastrointestinal-tract-monitoring
#18
Ryota Nakamura, Shintaro Izumi, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Hidetoshi Ohta, Masahiko Yoshimoto
This paper presents a swallowable sensor device that can be ingested orally, later arriving to the stomach, where the device can indwell for a long term and can be egested at any time after it is triggered using wireless communication. This device can inflate a silicone balloon in the gastrointestinal tract using a chemical reaction. The balloon can be deflated later using electrolysis of water at the time of egestion. A motorless chemical-reaction-based egestion method is proposed to minimize the sensor device size...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260663/synergy-of-flocculation-and-flotation-for-microalgae-harvesting-using-aluminium-electrolysis
#19
Wenqing Shi, Lin Zhu, Qiuwen Chen, Ji Lu, Gang Pan, Liuming Hu, Qitao Yi
Microalgae are often used as feedstock for renewable biofuel production and as pollutant up-takers for wastewater treatment; however, biomass harvesting still remains a challenge in field applications. In this study, electro-flocculation using aluminium electrolysis was tested as a method to collect Chlorella vulgaris. The electrolysis products were positively charged over a wide pH range below 9.5, which gave them a flocculation potential for negatively charged microalgae. As flocculants were in-situ generated and gradually released, microalgae flocs formed in a snowballing mode, resulting in the compaction of large flocs...
February 20, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259812/electrolysis-assisted-mitigation-of-reverse-solute-flux-in-a-three-chamber-forward-osmosis-system
#20
Shiqiang Zou, Zhen He
Forward osmosis (FO) has been widely studied for desalination or water recovery from wastewater, and one of its key challenges for practical applications is reverse solute flux (RSF). RSF can cause loss of draw solutes, salinity build-up and undesired contamination at the feed side. In this study, in-situ electrolysis was employed to mitigate RSF in a three-chamber FO system ("e-FO") with Na2SO4 as a draw solute and deionized (DI) water as a feed. Operation parameters including applied voltage, membrane orientation and initial draw concentrations were systematically investigated to optimize the e-FO performance and reduce RSF...
February 28, 2017: Water Research
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