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Guillermo Pozo, Yang Lu, Sebastien Pongy, Jürg Keller, Pablo Ledezma, Stefano Freguia
Selective microbial retention is of paramount importance for the long-term performance of cathodic sulfate reduction in microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) due to the slow growth rate of autotrophic sulfate-reducing bacteria. In this work, we investigate the biofilm retention and current-to-sulfide conversion efficiency using carbon granules (CG) or multi-wall carbon nanotubes deposited on reticulated vitreous carbon (MWCNT-RVC) as electrode materials. For ~2months, the MECs were operated at sulfate loading rates of 21 to 309gSO4 -S/m(2)/d...
July 12, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Carlo Santoro, Catia Arbizzani, Benjamin Erable, Ioannis Ieropoulos
In the past 10-15 years, the microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology has captured the attention of the scientific community for the possibility of transforming organic waste directly into electricity through microbially catalyzed anodic, and microbial/enzymatic/abiotic cathodic electrochemical reactions. In this review, several aspects of the technology are considered. Firstly, a brief history of abiotic to biological fuel cells and subsequently, microbial fuel cells is presented. Secondly, the development of the concept of microbial fuel cell into a wider range of derivative technologies, called bioelectrochemical systems, is described introducing briefly microbial electrolysis cells, microbial desalination cells and microbial electrosynthesis cells...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Power Sources
Emiliana Fabbri, Maarten Nachtegaal, Tobias Binninger, Xi Cheng, Bae-Jung Kim, Julien Durst, Francesco Bozza, Thomas Graule, Robin Schäublin, Luke Wiles, Morgan Pertoso, Nemanja Danilovic, Katherine E Ayers, Thomas J Schmidt
The growing need to store increasing amounts of renewable energy has recently triggered substantial R&D efforts towards efficient and stable water electrolysis technologies. The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) occurring at the electrolyser anode is central to the development of a clean, reliable and emission-free hydrogen economy. The development of robust and highly active anode materials for OER is therefore a great challenge and has been the main focus of research. Among potential candidates, perovskites have emerged as promising OER electrocatalysts...
July 17, 2017: Nature Materials
Pengyan Wang, Zonghua Pu, Yanhui Li, Lin Wu, Zhengkai Tu, Min Jiang, Zongkui Kou, Ibrahim Saana Amiinu, Shichun Mu
Exploring efficient and earth-abundant electrocatalysts for water splitting is crucial for various renewable energy technologies. In this work, iron (Fe)-doped nickel phosphide (Ni2P) nanosheet arrays supported on nickel foam (Ni1.85Fe0.15P NSAs/NF) are fabricated through a facile hydrothermal method followed by phosphorization. The electrochemical analysis demonstrates that the Ni1.85Fe0.15P NSAs/NF electrode possesses high electrocatalytic activity for water splitting. In 1.0 M KOH, the Ni1.85Fe0.15P NSAs/NF electrode only needs overpotentials of 106 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and 270 mV at 20 mA cm-2 to drive hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), respectively...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Coray L McBean, Haiqing Liu, Megan E Scofield, Luyao Li, Lei Wang, Ashley Bernstein, Stanislaus S Wong
The oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a key reaction for water electrolysis cells and air-powered battery applications. However, conventional metal oxide catalysts, used for high-performing OER, tend to incorporate comparatively expensive and less abundant precious metals such as Ru and Ir, and, moreover, suffer from poor stability. To attempt to mitigate for all of these issues, we have prepared one-dimensional (1D) OER-active perovskite nanorods using a unique, simple, generalizable, and robust method. Significantly, our work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel electroless, seedless, surfactant-free, wet solution-based protocol for fabricating "high aspect ratio" LaNiO3 and LaMnO3 nanostructures...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sangkuk Kim, Taewan Kim, Seunghyup Lee, Seunghyeon Baek, Taiho Park, Kijung Yong
As a promising means of solar energy conversion, photovoltaic (PV) cell-based electrolysis has recently drawn considerable attention for its effective solar fuel generation; especially the generation of hydrogen by solar water splitting. Inspired by remarkable accomplishments in enhancing the solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency, various efforts have aimed at fostering convenient and practical uses of PV electrolysis to make this technology ubiquitous, manageable, and efficient. Here, the design and function of a monolithic photoelectrolysis system-a so-called artificial leaf-for use in various environments are highlighted...
July 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Chenang Lyu, Jianping Wang, Boris Rubinsky
Micro and nano technologies are of increasing importance in microfluidics devices used for electroporation (electroporation - the permeabilization of the cell membrane with brief high electric field pulses). Electrochemical reactions of electrolysis occur whenever an electric current flows between an electrode and an ionic solution. It can have substantial detrimental effects, both on the cells and solutions during the electroporation. As electrolysis is a surface phenomenon, between electrodes and solution, the extent of electrolysis is increased in micro and nano electroporation over macro-electroporation, because the surface area of the electrodes in micro and nano electroporation is much larger...
September 2017: Biomedical Microdevices
Rengasamy Karthikeyan, Ka Yu Cheng, Ammaiyappan Selvam, Arpita Bose, Jonathan W C Wong
Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) are a promising technology for biological hydrogen production. Compared to abiotic water electrolysis, a much lower electrical voltage (~0.2V) is required for hydrogen production in MECs. It is also an attractive waste treatment technology as a variety of biodegradable substances can be used as the process feedstock. Underpinning this technology is a recently discovered bioelectrochemical pathway known as "bioelectrohydrogenesis". However, little is known about the mechanism of this pathway, and numerous hurdles are yet to be addressed to maximize hydrogen yield and purity...
July 11, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
Selvendiran Periyasamy, Muthukumar Muthuchamy
In this study, the electrochemical degradation of caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) in aqueous solution by a graphite electrode was investigated. Electrochemical degradation was tested by cyclic voltametry technique performed in the potential range of -1.0 to +1.0 V versus Ag/AgCl, which confirmed the electro-activity of the selected caffeine. The effects of the treatment process variables, such as initial pH, current density, electrolyte concentration and electrolysis time on the degradation of caffeine were explored...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
Way Cern Khor, Stephen Andersen, Han Vervaeren, Korneel Rabaey
BACKGROUND: Medium chain carboxylic acids, such as caproic acid, are conventionally produced from food materials. Caproic acid can be produced through fermentation by the reverse β-oxidation of lactic acid, generated from low value lignocellulosic biomass. In situ extraction of caproic acid can be achieved by membrane electrolysis coupled to the fermentation process, allowing recovery by phase separation. RESULTS: Grass was fermented to lactic acid in a leach-bed-type reactor, which was then further converted to caproic acid in a secondary fermenter...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Tobias K F Dier, Daniel Rauber, Dan Durneata, Rolf Hempelmann, Dietrich A Volmer
Lignin's aromatic building blocks provide a chemical resource that is, in theory, ideal for substitution of aromatic petrochemicals. Moreover, degradation and valorization of lignin has the potential to generate many high-value chemicals for technical applications. In this study, electrochemical degradation of alkali and Organosolv lignin was performed using the ionic liquids 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate and triethylammonium methanesulfonate. The extensive degradation of the investigated lignins with simultaneous almost full recovery of the electrolyte materials provided a sustainable alternative to more common lignin degradation processes...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
Alex J Lewis, Maria F Campa, Terry C Hazen, Abhijeet P Borole
Leveraging nature's biocomplexity for solving human problems requires better understanding of the syntrophic relationships in engineered microbiomes developed in bioreactor systems. Understanding the interactions between microbial players within the community will be key to enhancing conversion and production rates from biomass streams. Here we investigate a bioelectrochemical system employing an enriched microbial consortium for conversion of a switchgrass-derived bio-oil aqueous phase (BOAP) into hydrogen via microbial electrolysis (MEC)...
July 11, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
Jeremy T Feaster, Anna L Jongerius, Xinyan Liu, Makoto Urushihara, Stephanie A Nitopi, Christopher Hahn, Karen Chan, Jens K Nørskov, Thomas F Jaramillo
We have studied the influence of low concentrations (0.1 M) of the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([EMIM]Cl) on suppressing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) using polycrystalline Ag, Cu, and Fe electrodes in aqueous acidic and basic media. HER suppression is generally desired when aiming to catalyze other reactions of interests, e.g., CO2 electro-reduction. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements were performed at potentials between -0.2 and -0.8 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE) to investigate HER activity in a simulated CO2 electrolysis environment without the CO2...
July 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Gao Chen, Wei Zhou, Daqin Guan, Jaka Sunarso, Yanping Zhu, Xuefeng Hu, Wei Zhang, Zongping Shao
Perovskite oxides exhibit potential for use as electrocatalysts in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). However, their low specific surface area is the main obstacle to realizing a high mass-specific activity that is required to be competitive against the state-of-the-art precious metal-based catalysts. We report the enhanced performance of Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ (BSCF) for the OER with intrinsic activity that is significantly higher than that of the benchmark IrO2, and this result was achieved via fabrication of an amorphous BSCF nanofilm on a surface-oxidized nickel substrate by magnetron sputtering...
June 2017: Science Advances
Yifei Wang, S R Narayanan, Wei Wu
Owing to the low conductivity of pure water, using an electrolyte is common for achieving efficient water electrolysis. In this paper, we have fundamentally broken through this common sense by using deep-sub-Debye-length nanogap electrochemical cells to achieve efficient electrolysis of pure water (without any added electrolyte) at room temperature. A field-assisted effect resulted from overlapped electrical double layers can greatly enhance water molecules ionization and mass transport, leading to electron-transfer limited reactions...
July 11, 2017: ACS Nano
Lingting Ye, Changchang Pan, Minyi Zhang, Chunsen Li, Fanglin Chen, Lizhen Gan, Kui Xie
Solid oxide CO2 electrolyser has the potential to provide storage solutions for intermittent renewable energy sources as well as reducing greenhouse gas emissions. One of the key challenges remains poor adsorption and activity towards CO2 reduction on the electrolyser cathode at typical operating conditions. Here we show a novel approach in tailoring a perovskite titanate (La,Sr)TiO3+δ cathode surface, by in situ growing SrO nano-islands from the host material through control of perovskite non-stoichiometry...
July 7, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sumreen Asim, Yunqing Zhu, Aisha Batool, Reshalaiti Hailili, Jianmin Luo, Yuanhao Wang, Chuanyi Wang
2, 4-dichlorophenol (2, 4-DCP) is considered to be a highly toxic, mutagenic, and possibly carcinogenic pollutant. This study is focused on the electrochemical oxidation of 2, 4-DCP on nanostructured 3D-porous Ti/Sb-SnO2-Gr anodes, with the aim of presenting a comprehensive elucidation of mineralization process through the investigation of influential kinetics, the reactivity of hydroxyl radical's and analysis of intermediates. High efficiency was achieved at pH of 3 using Na2SO4 electrolytes at a current density of 30 mA cm(-2)...
June 30, 2017: Chemosphere
Muhammad-Sadeeq Balogun, Weitao Qiu, Yongchao Huang, Hao Yang, Ruimei Xu, Wenxia Zhao, Gao-Ren Li, Hongbing Ji, Yexiang Tong
Water splitting into hydrogen and oxygen in order to store light or electric energy requires efficient electrocatalysts for practical application. Cost-effectiveness, abundance, and efficiency are the major challenges of the electrocatalysts. Herein, this paper reports the use of low-cost 304-type stainless steel mesh as suitable electrocatalysts for splitting of water. The commercial and self-support stainless steel mesh is subjected to exfoliation and heteroatom doping processes. The modified stainless steel electrocatalyst displays higher oxygen evolution reaction property than the commercial IrO2 , and comparable hydrogen evolution reaction property with that of Pt...
July 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
Licheng Sun, Biaobiao Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Mario Valvo, Lizhou Fan, Quentin Daniel, Peili Zhang, Linqin Wang
Development of manganese based water oxidation electrocatalysts is desirable for the production of solar fuels, since manganese is earth-abundant, inexpensive, non-toxic and employed by the Photosystem II in nature for billion years. Herein, we have directly constructed a 3D nanoarchitectured turbostratic δ-MnOx on carbon nanotube-modified Ni foam (MnOx/CNT/NF) by electrodeposition and a subsequent annealing process. The MnOx/CNT/NF electrode gives a benchmark catalytic current density (10 mA/cm2) at an η of 270 mV under alkaline conditions...
July 4, 2017: ChemSusChem
Yushan Yan, Yun Zhao, Ke Gong, Jie Zheng, Junhua Wang, Shuang Gu
Gaseous HCl by-product is often produced from chlorination processes using Cl2 gas. Onsite Cl2 regeneration from HCl is highly desirable as it eliminates the need to buy new Cl2 and dispose HCl waste. Herein a gaseous HCl electrolysis with Fe3+/Fe2+ redox-mediated cathode is demonstrated for Cl2 regeneration. HCl is oxidized to generate Cl2 and proton in anode while Fe3+ is reduced to Fe2+ in cathode. Simultaneously Fe3+ is regenerated chemical oxidation of Fe2+ by oxygen (air) that also produces water. Low operational voltage and high coulombic efficiency are achieved by using a novel composite porous membrane and hydrophobic anode...
July 4, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
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