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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547133/hsf1-acetylation-decreases-its-transcriptional-activity-and-enhances-glucolipotoxicity-induced-apoptosis-in-rat-and-human-beta-cells
#1
Indri Purwana, Jun J Liu, Bernard Portha, Jean Buteau
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Heat shock factor protein 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of key molecular chaperones, thereby orchestrating the cellular response to stress. This system was recently implicated in the control of insulin sensitivity and is therefore being scrutinised as a novel therapeutic avenue for type 2 diabetes. However, the regulation and biological actions of HSF1 in beta cells remain elusive. Herein, we sought to investigate the regulation of HSF1 in pancreatic beta cells and to study its potential role in cell survival...
May 25, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545761/ultrastructural-analysis-of-human-leukemia-u-937-cells-after-apoptosis-induction-localization-of-proteasomes-and-perichromatin-fibers
#2
Ekaterina S Snigirevskaya, Yan Yu Komissarchik
We studied the ultrastructure of human histiocytic lymphoma U-937cells after apoptosis induction with two external agents, hypertonic shock and etoposide. Appearance of aggregates of particles of nuclear origin within the nuclei and cytoplasm of the induced cells was the first and the most prominent morphological sign of apoptosis. These aggregates were not coated by a membrane, had variable shape, density and size. Two types of particles dominated in the aggregates: perichromatin fibers (PFs) and proteasomes (PRs)...
May 22, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544191/primary-splenic-pregnancy-with-hemorrhagic-shock
#3
Hongyan Gao, Ting Yuan, Yi Ding, Xingguang Lin, Qing Wang, Li Dai, Guohua Jiang, Jiming Chen
Primary splenic pregnancy, a type of abdominal pregnancy, is very rare and potentially life-threatening, particularly without an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Herein we describe the case of a 27-year-old woman who had primary splenic pregnancy with hemorrhagic shock due to spleen rupture, who was successfully treated by laparotomy.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542473/stably-engineered-nanobubbles-and-ultrasound-an-effective-platform-for-enhanced-macromolecular-delivery-to-representative-cells-of-the-retina
#4
Sachin S Thakur, Micheal S Ward, Amirali Popat, Nicole B Flemming, Marie-Odile Parat, Nigel L Barnett, Harendra S Parekh
Herein we showcase the potential of ultrasound-responsive nanobubbles in enhancing macromolecular permeation through layers of the retina, ultimately leading to significant and direct intracellular delivery; this being effectively demonstrated across three relevant and distinct retinal cell lines. Stably engineered nanobubbles of a highly homogenous and echogenic nature were fully characterised using dynamic light scattering, B-scan ultrasound and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The nanobubbles appeared as spherical liposome-like structures under TEM, accompanied by an opaque luminal core and darkened corona around their periphery, with both features indicative of efficient gas entrapment and adsorption, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542269/the-small-molecule-kinase-inhibitor-d11-counteracts-17-aag-mediated-up-regulation-of-hsp70-in-brain-cancer-cells
#5
Susanne Schaefer, Tina H Svenstrup, Barbara Guerra
Many types of cancer express high levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are molecular chaperones regulating protein folding and stability ensuring protection of cells from potentially lethal stress. HSPs in cancer cells promote survival, growth and spreading even in situations of growth factors deprivation by associating with oncogenic proteins responsible for cell transformation. Hence, it is not surprising that the identification of potent inhibitors of HSPs, notably HSP90, has been the primary research focus, in recent years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538623/impact-of-a-novel-pi3-kinase-inhibitor-in-preventing-mitochondrial-dna-damage-and-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-accumulation-results-from-the-biochronicity-project
#6
George E Black, Kyle K Sokol, Donald M Moe, Jon Simmons, David Muscat, Victor Pastukh, Gina Capley, Olena Gorodnya, Mykhalo Ruchko, Mark B Roth, Mark Gillespie, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in the management of severely injured patients, development of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) remains a morbid complication of traumatic shock. One of the key attributes of MODS is a profound bioenergetics crisis, for which the mediators and mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesized that metabolic uncoupling using an experimental PI3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 (LY), may prevent mitochondrial abnormalities that lead to the generation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and the release of mtDNA damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) METHODS: 16 swine were studied using LY294002 (LY), a non-selective PI3-KI: Animals were assigned to Trauma only (TO, N=3); LY drug only (LYO, N=3); and Experimental (N=10), trauma + drug (LY+T) groups...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538158/glnk-facilitates-the-dynamic-regulation-of-bacterial-nitrogen-assimilation
#7
Adam Gosztolai, Jörg Schumacher, Volker Behrends, Jacob G Bundy, Franziska Heydenreich, Mark H Bennett, Martin Buck, Mauricio Barahona
Ammonium assimilation in Escherichia coli is regulated by two paralogous proteins (GlnB and GlnK), which orchestrate interactions with regulators of gene expression, transport proteins, and metabolic pathways. Yet how they conjointly modulate the activity of glutamine synthetase, the key enzyme for nitrogen assimilation, is poorly understood. We combine experiments and theory to study the dynamic roles of GlnB and GlnK during nitrogen starvation and upshift. We measure time-resolved in vivo concentrations of metabolites, total and posttranslationally modified proteins, and develop a concise biochemical model of GlnB and GlnK that incorporates competition for active and allosteric sites, as well as functional sequestration of GlnK...
May 23, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533774/the-role-of-ifn-%C3%AE-during-the-course-of-sepsis-progression-and-its-therapeutic-potential
#8
REVIEW
Gorjana Rackov, Rahman Shokri, Melchor Álvarez De Mon, Carlos Martínez-A, Dimitrios Balomenos
Sepsis is a complex biphasic syndrome characterized by both pro- and anti-inflammatory immune states. Whereas early sepsis mortality is caused by an acute, deleterious pro-inflammatory response, the second sepsis phase is governed by acute immunosuppression, which predisposes patients to long-term risk for life-threatening secondary infections. Despite extensive basic research and clinical trials, there is to date no specific therapy for sepsis, and mortality rates are on the rise. Although IFN-β is one of the most-studied cytokines, its diverse effects are not fully understood...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531190/real-time-cell-toxicity-profiling-of-tox21-10k-compounds-reveals-cytotoxicity-dependent-toxicity-pathway-linkage
#9
Jui-Hua Hsieh, Ruili Huang, Ja-An Lin, Alexander Sedykh, Jinghua Zhao, Raymond R Tice, Richard S Paules, Menghang Xia, Scott S Auerbach
Cytotoxicity is a commonly used in vitro endpoint for evaluating chemical toxicity. In support of the U.S. Tox21 screening program, the cytotoxicity of ~10K chemicals was interrogated at 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, & 40 hours of exposure in a concentration dependent fashion in two cell lines (HEK293, HepG2) using two multiplexed, real-time assay technologies. One technology measures the metabolic activity of cells (i.e., cell viability, glo) while the other evaluates cell membrane integrity (i.e., cell death, flor). Using glo technology, more actives and greater temporal variations were seen in HEK293 cells, while results for the flor technology were more similar across the two cell types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527593/a-structural-and-functional-study-of-gln147-deamidation-in-%C3%AE-a-crystallin-a-major-site-of-modification-in-human-cataract
#10
Nicholas J Ray, Damien Hall, John A Carver
Deamidation of Glu147 in human αA-crystallin is common in aged cataractous lenses (Hains and Truscott, Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2010, 51, 3107). Accordingly, this modification may have a causative effect in cataract. αA-crystallin is a small heat-shock molecular chaperone protein that prevents aggregation of proteins and is the principal defence against crystallin protein unfolding and aggregation in the ageing lens. Deamidated Q147E αA-crystallin was structurally characterised using a variety of spectroscopic and biophysical methods, including NMR, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering...
May 17, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526614/human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-3a1-aldh3a1-exhibits-chaperone-like-function
#11
Georgia-Persephoni Voulgaridou, Ilias Tsochantaridis, Theodora Mantso, Rodrigo Franco, Mihalis I Panayiotidis, Aglaia Pappa
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is a metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of various aldehydes. Certain types of epithelial tissues in mammals, especially those continually exposed to environmental stress (e.g., corneal epithelium), express ALDH3A1 at high levels and its abundance in such tissues is perceived to help to maintain cellular homeostasis under conditions of oxidative stress. Metabolic as well as non-metabolic roles for ALDH3A1 have been associated with its mediated resistance to cellular oxidative stress...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522834/limited-evidence-on-the-effectiveness-of-interventions-to-reduce-livestock-predation-by-large-carnivores
#12
Ann Eklund, José Vicente López-Bao, Mahdieh Tourani, Guillaume Chapron, Jens Frank
Successful coexistence between large carnivores and humans is conditional upon effective mitigation of the impact of these species on humans, such as through livestock depredation. It is therefore essential for conservation practitioners, carnivore managing authorities, or livestock owners to know the effectiveness of interventions intended to reduce livestock predation by large carnivores. We reviewed the scientific literature (1990-2016), searching for evidence of the effectiveness of interventions. We found experimental and quasi-experimental studies were rare within the field, and only 21 studies applied a case-control study design (3...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515746/veno-arterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-as-cardiogenic-shock-therapy-support-in-adult-patients-after-heart-surgery
#13
Robert Musiał, Krystyna Ochońska, Andrzej Proc, Jarosław Stoliński, Dariusz Plicner, Bogusław Kapelak, Rafał Drwiła
INTRODUCTION: The authors present their personal experience in qualifying and treating adult patients using veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze the results of VA ECMO in patients with postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock. An analysis of the risk factors of postoperative mortality was also performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analyzed the perioperative results of survivors and non-survivors of treatment using VA ECMO...
March 2017: Kardiochirurgia i Torakochirurgia Polska, Polish Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515311/control-of-hsp90-chaperone-and-its-clients-by-n-terminal-acetylation-and-the-n-end-rule-pathway
#14
Jang-Hyun Oh, Ju-Yeon Hyun, Alexander Varshavsky
We found that the heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone system of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is greatly impaired in naa10Δ cells, which lack the NatA N(α)-terminal acetylase (Nt-acetylase) and therefore cannot N-terminally acetylate a majority of normally N-terminally acetylated proteins, including Hsp90 and most of its cochaperones. Chk1, a mitotic checkpoint kinase and a client of Hsp90, was degraded relatively slowly in wild-type cells but was rapidly destroyed in naa10Δ cells by the Arg/N-end rule pathway, which recognized a C terminus-proximal degron of Chk1...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511806/st-segment-elevation-myocardial-infarction-could-be-the-primary-presentation-of-acute-aortic-dissection
#15
Qing-Yi Zhu, Shi Tai, Liang Tang, Wen Peng, Sheng-Hua Zhou, Zhen-Guo Liu, Xin-Qun Hu
BACKGROUND: Stanford type A aortic dissection (TAAD) may lead to coronary artery occlusion and malfunction. However, TAAD manifesting as acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) has not been studied. In the present study, we reported 8 TAAD cases with STEMI as the primary presentation, and analyzed their clinical characteristics and outcome. METHODS: The records were reviewed for patients admitted to the large comprehensive university hospital for PCI due to STEMI from January 1, 2002 to January 1, 2017...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509778/multiple-anesthetic-drug-sensitization-in-a-hairdresser-with-previous-immediate-type-hypersensitivity-to-penicillin-a-case-report
#16
Cristina Petrişor, Nadia Gherman, Manuela Sfichi, Marius Mureşan, Natalia Hagău
Risk factors for intraoperative immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions may require allergological evaluation. We report the case of a hairdresser with a positive history of penicillin hypersensitivity and anaphylactic shock during previous general anesthesia, whose in vivo and in vitro allergy tests were positive for neuromuscular blocking agents, opioids, and midazolam. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to antibiotics and professional exposure to hairdressing products might induce simultaneous cross-sensitization to multiple drugs that are commonly used during general anesthesia...
May 12, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507067/the-global-transcriptional-response-to-organic-hydroperoxide-and-the-role-of-ohrr-in-the-control-of-virulence-traits-in-chromobacterium-violaceum
#17
Maristela Previato Mello, Diogo de Abreu Meireles, Luis Eduardo Soares Netto, José Freire da Silva Neto
A major pathway for detoxification of organic hydroperoxides, such as cumene hydroperoxide (CHP), involves the MarR family transcriptional regulator OhrR and the peroxidase OhrA. However, the effect of these peroxides on the global transcriptome and the contribution of the OhrA/OhrR system on bacterial virulence remain poorly explored. Here, we analyzed the transcriptome profiles of Chromobacterium violaceum exposed to CHP and after deletion of ohrR, and we showed that OhrR controls virulence of this human opportunistic pathogen...
May 15, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505715/statistical-properties-of-the-one-dimensional-burridge-knopoff-model-of-earthquakes-obeying-the-rate-and-state-dependent-friction-law
#18
Hikaru Kawamura, Yushi Ueda, Shingo Kakui, Shouji Morimoto, Takumi Yamamoto
Statistical properties of the one-dimensional spring-block (Burridge-Knopoff) model of earthquakes obeying the rate- and state-dependent friction law are studied by extensive computer simulations. The quantities computed include the magnitude distribution, the rupture-length distribution, the main shock recurrence-time distribution, the seismic-time correlations before and after the main shock, the mean slip amount, and the mean stress drop at the main shock, etc. Events of the model can be classified into two distinct categories...
April 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505134/a-novel-roseosiphophage-isolated-from-the-oligotrophic-south-china-sea
#19
Yunlan Yang, Lanlan Cai, Ruijie Ma, Yongle Xu, Yigang Tong, Yong Huang, Nianzhi Jiao, Rui Zhang
The Roseobacter clade is abundant and widespread in marine environments and plays an important role in oceanic biogeochemical cycling. In this present study, a lytic siphophage (labeled vB_DshS-R5C) infecting the strain type of Dinoroseobacter shibae named DFL12(T), which is part of the Roseobacter clade, was isolated from the oligotrophic South China Sea. Phage R5C showed a narrow host range, short latent period and low burst size. The genome length of phage R5C was 77, 874 bp with a G+C content of 61.5%. Genomic comparisons detected no genome matches in the GenBank database and phylogenetic analysis based on DNA polymerase I revealed phylogenetic features that were distinct to other phages, suggesting the novelty of R5C...
May 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504157/biomacromolecular-based-ionic-covalent-hydrogels-for-cell-encapsulation-the-atelocollagen-oxidized-polysaccharides-couples
#20
Andreea Luca, Vasilica Maier, Stelian S Maier, Maria Butnaru, Maricel Danu, Constanta Ibanescu, Mariana Pinteala, Marcel Popa
Mixed crosslinked networks of ionic-covalent entanglement type were prepared starting from ternary mixtures of atelocollagen (aK; as fibrillary matrix generator), sodium hyaluronate (NaHyal; a microfibrillation assistant), and oxidized polysaccharides (OxPolys; as both cross-linkers and matrix fillers), and were tested as hydrogels for eukaryotic cell encapsulation. Either oxidized gellan (GellOx) or pullulan (PullOx) were used. An original procedure and optimal hydrogel recipes were developed to encapsulate fibroblasts and adipose-derived stem cells, while preserving their viability and proliferative ability during ex vivo temporarily storage...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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