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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236216/long-term-outcomes-of-a%C3%A2-caucasian-cohort-presenting-with-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-or-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-caused-by-coronary-spasm
#2
W Vlastra, M Piek, M A van Lavieren, M E J C Hassell, B E Claessen, G W Wijntjens, T P van de Hoef, K D Sjauw, M A Beijk, R Delewi, J J Piek
BACKGROUND: Coronary artery spasm may be the underlying mechanism in up to 10% of cases of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and sudden cardiac death. Asian individuals exhibit a 3-times greater incidence of spasm than Caucasians; this is likely due to different types of mechanisms. Consequently, solid data is limited about the long-term prognosis in Caucasian patients presenting with ACS and/or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) caused by coronary spasm. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2015, thirty Caucasian patients with coronary artery spasm presenting with ACS (N = 29) and/or OHCA (N = 11) were enrolled in this prospective registry...
December 13, 2017: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236028/beyond-disaster-preparedness-building-a-resilience-oriented-workforce-for-the-future
#3
REVIEW
Jaime Madrigano, Anita Chandra, Tracy Costigan, Joie D Acosta
Enhancing citizens' and communities' resilience is critical to adapt successfully to ongoing challenges faced by communities, as well as acute shocks resulting from disasters. While significant progress has been made in this area, several research and practice gaps remain. A crucial next step to advance resilience is the development of a resilience-oriented workforce. This narrative review examines existing literature to determine key components of a resilience-oriented workforce, with a focus on organizational structures, training and education, and leadership models...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233766/use-of-the-perceval-sutureless-valve-in-active-prosthetic-aortic-valve-endocarditis
#4
Elena Roselló-Díez, Gregorio Cuerpo, Francisco Estévez, C Christian Muñoz-Guijosa, Manel Tauron, José J Cuenca, Ángel Pinto, Josep María Padró
BACKGROUND: Surgical treatment of active prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis presents a challenge for cardiac surgeons because of tissue friability and destruction caused by infection. Sutureless prostheses, such as the Perceval S® (LivaNova, Saluggia, Italy), have emerged as an option among the different surgical approaches for these complicated cases. METHODS: This study presents data from nine patients who underwent aortic valve re-replacement with the Perceval S® due to active prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis, between January 2014 and August 2016...
December 9, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229115/cell-specific-regulation-of-inos-by-amp-activated-protein-kinase-in-primary-rat-hepatocytes
#5
Baochun Zhang, Jaganathan Lakshmanan, Yibo Du, Jason W Smith, Brian G Harbrecht
BACKGROUND: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates several metabolic pathways in hepatocytes that are critical to the hepatic response to sepsis and shock. Induction of nitric oxide synthesis is an important response to sepsis, inflammation and shock and many of the stimuli that upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) also activate AMPK. AMPK inhibits nitric oxide (NO) production in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, but the role of AMPK in regulating iNOS expression in hepatocytes has not been determined...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228677/copper-or-and-arsenic-induce-oxidative-stress-cascaded-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-dependent-inflammation-and-immune-imbalance-trigging-heat-shock-response-in-the-kidney-of-chicken
#6
Yu Wang, Hongjing Zhao, Yizhi Shao, Juanjuan Liu, Jinglun Li, Mingwei Xing
Excessive amount of copper (Cu) and inorganic arsenic (iAs) coexists in drinking water in many regions, this is associated with high risk of nephropathy, defined as chronic structural and functional disorders of the kidney. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, a total of 72 day-old Hy-line chickens were exposed to 300 mg/kg copper sulphate or/and 30 mg/kg arsenic trioxide for 12 weeks. Indicators of oxidative stress, inflammation and heat shock proteins (HSPs) production were analyzed in kidney...
November 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227118/complex-suicide-involving-pyrethroid-ingestion-mosquito-coils-and-fatal-self-wounding-by-sharp-force
#7
Maria -Valeria Karakasi, Pavlos Pavlidis, Epameinondas Vasilikos, Doxakis Anestakis, Nikolaos Raikos
"Complex suicide" is a term referring to the suicidal pattern in which more than one suicidal method is applied in the purpose of inducing death. The present paper aims to review complex suicide literature shortly and investigate an unusual planned complex suicide incident, the rarity of which is attributable to the combination of suicide methods as well as the type and quantity of substances applied to induce poisoning. A 33-year-old man with a history of psychotic depression was found dead in his bedroom lying within a large quantity of blood...
2017: Soudní Lékarství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226160/the-significance-of-changes-in-platelet-concentration-during-the-early-phase-after-severe-burn-injury-in-a-chinese-mass-casualty
#8
Beiming Shou, Junqiang Li, Chenqi Tang, Qian Tan, Dongfeng Zheng, Binwei Sun, Lanjun Nie, Hongwei Zhang, Yanan Jiang, Chunming Wang, Yanwen Wu
Background: Changes in platelet concentration are common in severe burn patients. Platelets play a key role in the course of disease. This study aims to explore the significance of platelet concentration during the course of the disease in victims of a mass burn casualty. Methods: A total of 180 patients were involved in the "8.2" Kunshan explosion accident in China. The examined data included age, gender, total burn area (% TBSA), third-degree burn area (% TBSA), and platelet concentration within the first 5 days after the burn injury...
2017: Burns and trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224568/internal-herniation-through-lesser-omentum-hiatus-and-gastrocolic-ligament%C3%A2-with-malrotation-a-case-report
#9
Ang Li, Renwang Hu, Dong Zhou, Senmao Li, Dan Huang, Xin Wei, Zhixin Cao
BACKGROUND: Internal herniation through lesser omentum hiatus and gastrocolic ligament with malrotation is extremely rare. This type of internal hernia has rarely been described before. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and prone to misdiagnosis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 38-year-old Chinese woman was an emergency admission to our hospital with a sudden onset of acute epigastralgia for the past 14 hours. We made a presumptive diagnosis of gastrointestinal perforation and septic shock...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223709/bone-marrow-edema-syndrome-of-the-medial-femoral-condyle-treated-with-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-a-clinical-and-mri-retrospective-comparative-study
#10
Matteo Vitali, Nadim Naim Rodriguez, Alberto Pedretti, Andreas Drossinos, Pierluigi Pironti, Gaia Di Carlo, Gianfranco Fraschini
OBJECTIVE: To determine the validity of Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of Bone Marrow Edema (BME) of the medial condyle of the knee DESIGN: Retrospective STUDY SETTING: IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Orthopedics Outpatient Clinic PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-six symptomatic patients affected by bone marrow edema of the medial condyle of the knee. Patients were equally divided in a ESWT (Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy) treated group and a control group, which was managed conservatively...
December 6, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221333/successful-treatment-of-a-ruptured-left-internal-mammary-artery-aneurysm-with-a-delayed-diagnosis-of-type-i-neurofibromatosis
#11
Do Wan Kim, In Seok Jeong, Kook Joo Na, Bong Suk Oh, Byung Hee Ahn, Sang Yun Song
Neurofibromatosis type I (NF-1) induced vasculopathy is rare but catastrophic complication after aneurysmal rupture. We present the case of a 55-year-old female who developed hypovolemic shock because of left internal mammary artery (IMA) pseudoaneurysm rupture associated with NF-1. Even she was not detected NF-1 at the time of arrival in emergency room. We decided to perform percutaneous embolization instead of surgical approach. In this case, after intervention, the ruptured left IMA aneurysm was well treated...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220814/butyric-acid-production-from-lignocellulosic-biomass-hydrolysates-by-engineered-clostridium-tyrobutyricum-overexpressing-class-i-heat-shock-protein-groesl
#12
Yukai Suo, Hongxin Fu, Mengmeng Ren, Xitong Yang, Zhengping Liao, Jufang Wang
Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant and renewable substrate for biological fermentation, but the inhibitors present in the lignocellulosic hydrolysates could severely inhibit the cell growth and productivity of industrial strains. This study confirmed that overexpressing of native groESL in Clostridium tyrobutyricum could significantly improve its tolerance to lignocellulosic hydrolysate-derived inhibitors, especially for phenolic compounds. Consequently, ATCC 25755/groESL showed a better performance in butyric acid fermentation with hydrolysates of corn cob, corn straw, rice straw, wheat straw, soybean hull and soybean straw, respectively...
November 21, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218040/adaptation-of-lactobacillus-casei-zhang-to-gentamycin-involves-an-alkaline-shock-protein
#13
Wenyi Zhang, Huiling Guo, Chenxia Cao, Lina Li, Lai-Yu Kwok, Heping Zhang, Zhihong Sun
Lactobacillus (L. casei) Zhang is a koumiss-originated probiotic strain, which was used as a model in a long-term antibiotics-driven evolution experiment to reveal bacterial evolutionary dynamics; and we isolated gentamycin-resistant L. casei Zhang descendents. To decipher the gentamycin resistance mechanism, here we cultivated the parental L. casei Zhang and its descendent cells in an antibiotics-containing environment to compare their global protein expression profiles using the iTRAQ-based proteomic approach...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216679/the-role-of-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenator-therapy-in-the-setting-of-type-a-aortic-dissection
#14
Ibrahim Sultan, Andreas Habertheuer, Tyler Wallen, Mary Siki, Wilson Szeto, Joseph E Bavaria, Matthew Williams, Prashanth Vallabhajosyula
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients presenting with type A aortic dissection (TAAD) present with a wide clinical spectrum ranging from hemodynamic stability to multiorgan malperfusion with cardiovascular collapse. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO) therapy is increasingly being utilized as salvage therapy in patients with acute cardiopulmonary failure and for post-cardiotomy shock. We sought to determine the utility of ECMO implementation post-TAAD repair. METHODS: The Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council (PHC4) database, maintained by an independently functioning state agency, was retrospectively reviewed from 2004 to 2014...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216246/draft-genome-sequence-of-actinotignum-schaalii-dsm-15541t-genetic-insights-into-the-lifestyle-cell-fitness-and-virulence
#15
Atteyet F Yassin, Stefan Langenberg, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Supratim Mukherjee, T B K Reddy, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides
The permanent draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T is presented. The annotated genome includes 2,130,987 bp, with 1777 protein-coding and 58 rRNA-coding genes. Genome sequence analysis revealed absence of genes encoding for: components of the PTS systems, enzymes of the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogensis. Genomic data revealed that A. schaalii is able to oxidize carbohydrates via glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Besides, the genome harbors genes encoding for enzymes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetate and ethanol, which are found to be the end products of carbohydrate fermentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216167/time-reflection-and-refraction-of-graphene-plasmons-at-a-temporal-discontinuity
#16
Galaad Altares Menendez, Bjorn Maes
A dynamical change of material properties induces a special type of reflection and refraction at a temporal discontinuity. Here, we study the interaction of graphene plasmons with single and double temporal discontinuities or shocks, leading to controlled in-plane scattering. We analytically determine the Fresnel-like coefficients for graphene plasmons at these boundaries, and validate our results by rigorous numerical simulations. Temporally controlled doping of two-dimensional materials such as graphene thus leads to a new mechanism for planar and compact plasmonic devices...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212002/going-with-the-flow-water-flux-and-cell-shape-during-cytokinesis
#17
Yizeng Li, Lijuan He, Nicolas A P Gonzalez, Jenna Graham, Charles Wolgemuth, Denis Wirtz, Sean X Sun
Cell shape changes during cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells have been attributed to contractile forces from the actomyosin ring and the actomyosin cortex. Here we propose an additional mechanism where active pumping of ions and water at the cell poles and the division furrow can also achieve the same type of shape change during cytokinesis without myosin contraction. We develop a general mathematical model to examine shape changes in a permeable object subject to boundary fluxes. We find that hydrodynamic flows in the cytoplasm and the relative drag between the cytoskeleton network phase and the water phase also play a role in determining the cell shape during cytokinesis...
December 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211945/regulation-of-human-nfu-activity-in-fe-s-cluster-delivery-characterization-of-the-interaction-between-nfu-and-the-hspa9-hsc20-chaperone-complex
#18
Christine Wachnowsky, Yushi Liu, Taejin Yoon, J A Cowan
Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis is a complex, but highly regulated process that involves de novo cluster formation from iron and sulfide ions on a scaffold protein and delivery to final targets via a series of Fe-S cluster binding carrier proteins. The process of cluster release from the scaffold/carrier for transfer to the target proteins is mediated by a dedicated Fe-S cluster chaperone system. In human cells, the chaperones include heat shock protein HSPA9 and the J-type chaperone Hsc20. While the role of chaperones has been somewhat clarified in yeast and bacterial systems, many questions remain over their functional roles in cluster delivery and interactions with a variety of human Fe-S cluster proteins...
December 6, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209372/heat-shock-protein-27-plays-a-protective-role-in-thoracic-aortic-dissection-by-promoting-cell-proliferation-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#19
Sili Zou, Mingfang Liao, Junlin Yang, Tong Huang, Mark Green, Jianjin Wu, Lefeng Qu
Background: Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is one of the most severe aortic diseases. The study aimed to explore the potential role of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in the pathogenesis of TAD using an in vitro model of oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: HSP27 was analyzed in aortic surgical specimens from 12 patients with TAD and 8 healthy controls. A lentiviral vector was used to overexpress HSP27 in rat aortic VSMCs. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured under oxidative stress induced by H2O2...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209330/the-enigma-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-immune-tolerance
#20
REVIEW
Willem van Eden, Manon A A Jansen, Irene Ludwig, Peter van Kooten, Ruurd van der Zee, Femke Broere
The fundamental problem of autoimmune diseases is the failure of the immune system to downregulate its own potentially dangerous cells, which leads to destruction of tissue expressing the relevant autoantigens. Current immunosuppressive therapies offer relief but fail to restore the basic condition of self-tolerance. They do not induce long-term physiological regulation resulting in medication-free disease remissions. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) have shown to possess the capacity of inducing lasting protective immune responses in models of experimental autoimmune diseases...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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