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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744332/the-function-of-small-heat-shock-proteins-and-their-implication-in-proteostasis
#1
Annika Strauch, Martin Haslbeck
All organisms rely on a conserved cellular machinery supporting and controlling the life cycle of proteins: the proteostasis network. Within this network, the main players that determine the fate of proteins are molecular chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome and the lysosome-autophagy systems. sHsps (small heat-shock proteins) represent one family of molecular chaperones found in all domains of life. They prevent irreversible aggregation of unfolded proteins and maintain proteostasis by stabilizing promiscuously a variety of non-native proteins in an ATP-independent manner...
October 15, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27505389/improved-quantitative-visualization-of-hypervelocity-flow-through-wavefront-estimation-based-on-shadow-casting-of-sinusoidal-gratings
#2
Biswajit Medhi, Gopalakrishna M Hegde, Sai Siva Gorthi, Kalidevapura Jagannath Reddy, Debasish Roy, Ram Mohan Vasu
A simple noninterferometric optical probe is developed to estimate wavefront distortion suffered by a plane wave in its passage through density variations in a hypersonic flow obstructed by a test model in a typical shock tunnel. The probe has a plane light wave trans-illuminating the flow and casting a shadow of a continuous-tone sinusoidal grating. Through a geometrical optics, eikonal approximation to the distorted wavefront, a bilinear approximation to it is related to the location-dependent shift (distortion) suffered by the grating, which can be read out space-continuously from the projected grating image...
August 1, 2016: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475186/a-numerical-study-of-nonlinear-infrasound-propagation-in-a-windy-atmosphere
#3
R Sabatini, O Marsden, C Bailly, C Bogey
Direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equations are performed to study the acoustic field generated by an infrasonic source in a realistic atmosphere. Some of the main phenomena affecting the propagation of infrasonic waves at large distances from the source are investigated. The effects of thermal and wind-related refraction on the signals recorded at ground level are highlighted, with particular emphasis on the phase shift induced by the presence of caustics in the acoustic field...
July 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176524/observation-of-dispersive-shock-waves-solitons-and-their-interactions-in-viscous-fluid-conduits
#4
Michelle D Maiden, Nicholas K Lowman, Dalton V Anderson, Marika E Schubert, Mark A Hoefer
Dispersive shock waves and solitons are fundamental nonlinear excitations in dispersive media, but dispersive shock wave studies to date have been severely constrained. Here, we report on a novel dispersive hydrodynamic test bed: the effectively frictionless dynamics of interfacial waves between two high viscosity contrast, miscible, low Reynolds number Stokes fluids. This scenario is realized by injecting from below a lighter, viscous fluid into a column filled with high viscosity fluid. The injected fluid forms a deformable pipe whose diameter is proportional to the injection rate, enabling precise control over the generation of symmetric interfacial waves...
April 29, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26720640/incidence-of-amblyopia-and-its-risk-factors-in-children-with-isolated-metopic-craniosynostosis
#5
Thuan B Nguyen, Leslie A Shock, Tara G Missoi, Arshad R Muzaffar
OBJECTIVE: Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with syndromic craniosynostosis have been reported previously, and referral of these children to a pediatric ophthalmologist is recommended. However, it is not as clear whether a child with nonsyndromic synostosis needs to be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist. The aim of this study is to report the incidence of amblyopia and its risk factors in children with isolated metopic craniosynostosis. DESIGN: An institutional review board-approved, retrospective review was performed on 91 children diagnosed with isolated metopic craniosynostosis...
January 2016: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26565161/coupled-hydrodynamic-model-for-laser-plasma-interaction-and-hot-electron-generation
#6
A Colaïtis, G Duchateau, X Ribeyre, Y Maheut, G Boutoux, L Antonelli, Ph Nicolaï, D Batani, V Tikhonchuk
We present a formulation of the model of laser-plasma interaction (LPI) at hydrodynamical scales that couples the plasma dynamics with linear and nonlinear LPI processes, including the creation and propagation of high-energy electrons excited by parametric instabilities and collective effects. This formulation accounts for laser beam refraction and diffraction, energy absorption due to collisional and resonant processes, and hot electron generation due to the stimulated Raman scattering, two-plasmon decay, and resonant absorption processes...
October 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26382524/passage-of-a-shock-wave-through-inhomogeneous-media-and-its-impact-on-gas-bubble-deformation
#7
A F Nowakowski, A Ballil, F C G A Nicolleau
The paper investigates shock-induced vortical flows within inhomogeneous media of nonuniform thermodynamic properties. Numerical simulations are performed using a Eulerian type mathematical model for compressible multicomponent flow problems. The model, which accounts for pressure nonequilibrium and applies different equations of state for individual flow components, shows excellent capabilities for the resolution of interfaces separating compressible fluids as well as for capturing the baroclinic source of vorticity generation...
August 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26093414/characterization-of-spark-generated-n-waves-in-air-using-an-optical-schlieren-method
#8
Maria M Karzova, Petr V Yuldashev, Vera A Khokhlova, Sébastien Ollivier, Edouard Salze, Philippe Blanc-Benon
Accurate measurement of high-amplitude, broadband shock pulses in air is an important part of laboratory-scale experiments in atmospheric acoustics. Although various methods have been developed, specific drawbacks still exist and need to be addressed. Here, a schlieren optical method was used to reconstruct the pressure signatures of nonlinear spherically diverging short acoustic pulses generated using an electric spark source (2.5 kPa, 33 μs at 10 cm from the source) in homogeneous air. A high-speed camera was used to capture light rays deflected by refractive index inhomogeneities, caused by the acoustic wave...
June 2015: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26040097/comparison-of-iol-master-and-ultrasound-biometry-in-preoperative-intra-ocular-lens-iol-power-calculation
#9
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marija Škara Kolega, Suzana Kovačević, Samir Čanović, Ana Didović Pavičić, Jadranka Katušić Bašić
Postoperative refractive outcome largely depends on the accuracy of calculating power of implanted IOL. Lens power calculation can be done by conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry (IOL Master). The aim was to compare the accuracy of IOL power calculations using conventional ultrasound biometry and partial coherence laser interferometry.40 eyes were included in this prospective randomized trial. Twenty eyes underwent IOL master and 20 eyes had aplanation ultrasound biometry...
March 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25968379/optical-beam-distortions-induced-by-a-shock-wave
#10
V A Banakh, A A Sukharev, A V Falits
The mean intensity and the displacement from the initially given propagation direction of the optical beam passed through the shock wave have been calculated. It has been shown that the spatial inhomogeneity of the refractive index of air caused by the shock wave arising in supersonic flow flowing a conical body can cause the focusing of the beam and strong anisotropic distortions of the intensity distribution in its cross section. The angular displacement of the optical beam from the initially given propagation direction owing to the shock wave depends only on the height above the Earth's surface at which the shock wave is formed...
March 10, 2015: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25967162/single-shot-z-eff-dense-plasma-diagnostic-through-simultaneous-refraction-and-attenuation-measurements-with-a-talbot-lau-x-ray-moir%C3%A3-deflectometer
#11
M P Valdivia, D Stutman, M Finkenthal
The Talbot-Lau x-ray moiré deflectometer is a powerful plasma diagnostic capable of delivering simultaneous refraction and attenuation information through the accurate detection of x-ray phase shift and intensity. The diagnostic can provide the index of refraction n=1-δ+iβ of an object (dense plasma, for example) placed in the x-ray beam by independently measuring both δ and β, which are directly related to the electron density n(e) and the attenuation coefficient μ, respectively. Since δ and β depend on the effective atomic number Z(eff), a map can be obtained from the ratio between phase and absorption images acquired in a single shot...
April 1, 2015: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25888085/adult-heart-transplantation-with-distant-procurement-and-ex-vivo-preservation-of-donor-hearts-after-circulatory-death-a-case-series
#12
Kumud K Dhital, Arjun Iyer, Mark Connellan, Hong C Chew, Ling Gao, Aoife Doyle, Mark Hicks, Gayathri Kumarasinghe, Claude Soto, Andrew Dinale, Bruce Cartwright, Priya Nair, Emily Granger, Paul Jansz, Andrew Jabbour, Eugene Kotlyar, Anne Keogh, Christopher Hayward, Robert Graham, Phillip Spratt, Peter Macdonald
BACKGROUND: Orthotopic heart transplantation is the gold-standard long-term treatment for medically refractive end-stage heart failure. However, suitable cardiac donors are scarce. Although donation after circulatory death has been used for kidney, liver, and lung transplantation, it is not used for heart transplantation. We report a case series of heart transplantations from donors after circulatory death. METHODS: The recipients were patients at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney, Australia...
June 27, 2015: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25768595/normal-velocity-freeze-out-of-the-richtmyer-meshkov-instability-when-a-rarefaction-is-reflected
#13
J G Wouchuk, T Sano
The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) develops when a shock front hits a rippled contact surface separating two different fluids. After the incident shock refraction, a transmitted shock is always formed and another shock or a rarefaction is reflected back. The pressure-entropy-vorticity fields generated by the rippled wave fronts are responsible for the generation of hydrodynamic perturbations in both fluids. In linear theory, the contact surface ripple reaches an asymptotic normal velocity which is dependent on the incident shock Mach number, fluids density ratio, and compressibilities...
February 2015: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25476459/surgical-management-for-the-first-48-h-following-blunt-chest-trauma-state-of-the-art-excluding-vascular-injuries
#14
REVIEW
Henri de Lesquen, Jean-Philippe Avaro, Lucile Gust, Robert Michael Ford, Fabien Beranger, Claudia Natale, Pierre-Mathieu Bonnet, Xavier-Benoît D'Journo
This review aims to answer the most common questions in routine surgical practice during the first 48 h of blunt chest trauma (BCT) management. Two authors identified relevant manuscripts published since January 1994 to January 2014. Using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, they focused on the surgical management of BCT, excluded both child and vascular injuries and selected 80 studies. Tension pneumothorax should be promptly diagnosed and treated by needle decompression closely followed with chest tube insertion (Grade D)...
March 2015: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25436426/incidence-of-amblyopia-and-its-risk-factors-in-children-with-isolated-metopic-craniosynostosis
#15
Thuan B Nguyen, Leslie A Shock, Tara G Missoi, Arshad R Muzaffar
Objective :  Ophthalmic abnormalities in children with syndromic craniosynostosis have been reported previously, and referral of these children to a pediatric ophthalmologist is recommended. However, it is not as clear whether a child with nonsyndromic synostosis needs to be referred to a pediatric ophthalmologist. The aim of this study is to report the incidence of amblyopia and its risk factors in children with isolated metopic craniosynostosis. Design :  An institutional review board-approved, retrospective review was performed on 91 children diagnosed with isolated metopic craniosynostosis...
December 1, 2014: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012762/ultrafast-shock-compression-of-an-oxygen-balanced-mixture-of-nitromethane-and-hydrogen-peroxide
#16
Michael R Armstrong, Joseph M Zaug, Christian D Grant, Jonathan C Crowhurst, Sorin Bastea
We apply ultrafast optical interferometry to measure the Hugoniot of an oxygen-balanced mixture of nitromethane and hydrogen peroxide (NM/HP) and compare with Hugoniot data for pure nitromethane (NM) and a 90% hydrogen peroxide/water mixture (HP), as well as theoretical predictions. We observe a 2.1% percent mean pairwise difference between the measured shockwave speed (at the measured piston speed) in unreacted NM/HP and the corresponding "universal" liquid Hugoniot, which is larger than the average standard deviation of our data, 1...
August 14, 2014: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24582830/functions-of-crystallins-in-and-out-of-lens-roles-in-elongated-and-post-mitotic-cells
#17
REVIEW
Christine Slingsby, Graeme J Wistow
The vertebrate lens evolved to collect light and focus it onto the retina. In development, the lens grows through massive elongation of epithelial cells possibly recapitulating the evolutionary origins of the lens. The refractive index of the lens is largely dependent on high concentrations of soluble proteins called crystallins. All vertebrate lenses share a common set of crystallins from two superfamilies (although other lineage specific crystallins exist). The α-crystallins are small heat shock proteins while the β- and γ-crystallins belong to a superfamily that contains structural proteins of uncertain function...
July 2014: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24396965/application-of-femtosecond-laser-in-ocular-surgery
#18
Peili Hou, Yan Lu, Fen Ye, Wen Lan, Zhenping Huang
The femtosecond laser is a type of laser that can produce pulses of light of extremely short duration. The application of femtosecond laser in surgery results in no thermal effect or shock wave, so that this laser is unlikely to cause tissue injuries outside the irradiation area of the laser beam. The femtosecond laser shows promising applications in refractive surgery and corneal transplantation due to its high precision and predictability. In this paper, we review the clinical application of the femtosecond laser in refractive surgery and corneal transplantation...
June 2013: Eye Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24325432/why-don-t-younger-adults-in-england-go-to-have-their-eyes-examined
#19
Darren Shickle, Marcus Griffin, Rebecca Evans, Benjamas Brown, Almira Haseeb, Sharon Knight, Emily Dorrington
PURPOSE: Most research on attitudes to eye health has focussed on older people, reflecting the higher prevalence of eye diseases in older age groups. Little is known about younger people's attitudes to eye health. This paper explores young adults understanding of eye health and the purpose of eye examinations and the reasons why they do or do not attend for eye examinations. The aim is to provide evidence to inform policy on recommendations relating to eye health for individuals at low risk of visual impairment...
January 2014: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24168072/optical-characterization-of-chemistry-in-shocked-nitromethane-with-time-dependent-density-functional-theory
#20
Lenson A Pellouchoud, Evan J Reed
We compute the optical properties of the liquid-phase energetic material nitromethane (CH3NO2) for the first 100 ps behind the front of a simulated shock at 6.5 km/s, close to the experimentally observed detonation shock speed of the material. We utilize molecular dynamics trajectories computed using the multiscale shock technique (MSST) for time-resolved optical spectrum calculations based on both linear response time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) and the Kubo-Greenwood formula with Kohn-Sham DFT wave functions. We find that the TDDFT method predicts an optical conductivity 25-35% lower than the Kubo-Greenwood calculation and provides better agreement with the experimentally measured index of refraction of unreacted nitromethane...
November 27, 2013: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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