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distributive shock

A G V Salvanes, M J Gibbons
The oceans of the world are slowly losing oxygen, in part because of climate change and in part because of anthropogenic eutrophication. This deoxygenation affects marine organisms in species-specific ways. This paper reviews what is known on how hypoxia tolerant species respond to low dissolved oxygen, using the bearded goby Sufflogobius bibarbatus as a model system. This species is endemic to the Benguela upwelling ecosystem, where, off Namibia, 9000 km2 of the shelf is hypoxic. Here, the species is now considered central to ecosystem functioning and in recent decades it has sustained commercial fisheries...
March 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Angela L Chiew, Daniel F B Wright, Nicola M Dobos, Kylie McArdle, Ahmed A Mostafa, Annemarie Newth, Michael S Roberts, Geoffrey K Isbister
Massive metformin overdose can cause metabolic acidosis with hyperlactatemia. A 55-year-old female presented 5h post multi-drug overdose, including 132 g extended-release metformin. Continuous venovenous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) and noradrenaline were commenced due to metabolic acidosis (pH 7.0, lactate 17 mmol/L) and shock. Despite 3 hours of CVVHDF, her acidosis worsened (pH 6.83, lactate 24 mmol/L). Intermittent haemodialysis(IHD) improved acidosis (pH 7.13, lactate 26 mmol/l), but again worsened (pH 6...
March 13, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Yuesheng Shen, Wenjin Zhu, Mengye Zhao, Guige Zhao, Geng Niu, Yuwei Bai, Bo Yang, Chao Chen, Hongli Zhu
Polymerized porcine hemoglobin (pPolyHb), a kind of glutaraldehyde-polymerized haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, was developed as a potential red blood substitute for clinical applications. Assessment of its absorption, distribution, and metabolism is a major determinant of its safety and efficacy. In this study, a series of pharmacokinetic parameters of pPolyHb were measured and calculated in different animal models, such as the top-load model, the 50% exchange transfusion model and the haemorrhagic shock model...
March 11, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Fanfan Li, Mengzhou He, Meitao Yang, Yao Fan, Yun Chen, Xi Xia, Yin Xie, Dongrui Deng
Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific, multi-system disorder and the leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in obstetrics worldwide. Excessive vasoconstriction and dysregulated coagulation function are closely associated with PE. Heat shock protein 20 (HSP20) is ubiquitously expressed under normal physiological conditions and has important roles in vascular dilatation and suppression of platelet aggregation. However, the role of HSP20 in the pathogenesis of PE remains unclear. In this study, we collected chorionic plate resistance arteries (CPAs) and serum from 118 healthy pregnant women and 80 women with PE and detected the levels of HSP20 and its phosphorylated form...
March 9, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Blagojce Jovcevski, J Andrew Aquilina, Justin L P Benesch, Heath Ecroyd
αB-Crystallin (HSPB5) is a small heat-shock protein that is composed of dimers that then assemble into a polydisperse ensemble of oligomers. Oligomerisation is mediated by heterologous interactions between the C-terminal tail of one dimer and the core "α-crystallin" domain of another and stabilised by interactions made by the N-terminal region. Comparatively little is known about the latter contribution, but previous studies have suggested that residues in the region 54-60 form contacts that stabilise the assembly...
March 8, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Dirk W Donker, Daniel Brodie, José P S Henriques, Michael Broomé
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) is widely used in cardiogenic shock. It provides systemic perfusion, but left ventricular (LV) unloading is suboptimal. Using a closed-loop, real-time computer model of the human cardiovascular system, cardiogenic shock supported by peripheral VA ECMO was simulated and effects of various adjunct LV unloading interventions were quantified. After VA ECMO initiation (4 L/min) in cardiogenic shock (baseline), hemodynamics improved (mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased to 85 mmHg), while LV overload occurred (10% increase in end-diastolic volume (EDV), and 5 mmHg increase in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP))...
March 6, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
James A Tumlin, Raghavan Murugan, Adam M Deane, Marlies Ostermann, Laurence W Busse, Kealy R Ham, Kianoush Kashani, Harold M Szerlip, John R Prowle, Azra Bihorac, Kevin W Finkel, Alexander Zarbock, Lui G Forni, Shannan J Lynch, Jeff Jensen, Stew Kroll, Lakhmir S Chawla, George F Tidmarsh, Rinaldo Bellomo
OBJECTIVE: Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy in severe vasodilatory shock is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Angiotensin II treatment may help these patients by potentially restoring renal function without decreasing intrarenal oxygenation. We analyzed the impact of angiotensin II on the outcomes of acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of the Angiotensin II for the Treatment of High-Output Shock 3 trial...
March 3, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Hui Fang, Xiao-Yu Qin, Kai-Duan Zhang, Yong Nie, Xiao-Lei Wu
The six- and seven-subunit Na+ /H+ antiporters (Mrp) are widely distributed in bacteria. They are reported to be integral for pH homeostasis in alkaliphilic bacteria when adapting to high pH environments. In this study, operons encoding for the six-subunit Na+ /H+ antiporters were found in the genomes of all studied Dietzia strains, which have different alkaline-resistant abilities. Disruption of the operon in the strain Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b which leads to declined growth in presence of hypersaline and alkaline conditions suggested that the six-subunit Na+ /H+ antiporter played an important role in hypersaline and alkaline resistance...
March 3, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
So Hee Lee, Eun Ji Kim, Jin Won Noh, Jeong Ho Chae
BACKGROUND: The Sewol ferry disaster caused national shock and grief in Korea. The present study examined the prevalence and associated factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. METHODS: This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students (29 boys and 28 girls) who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using a questionnaire, including instruments that assessed psychological status...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Sang Sook Lee, Won Yong Jung, Hyun Ji Park, Arum Lee, Suk-Yoon Kwon, Hyun-Soon Kim, Hye Sun Cho
Introduction: High-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) studies demonstrate that Alter-native Splicing (AS) is a widespread mechanism that enhances transcriptome diversity, particularly in plants exposed to environmental stress. In an attempt to determine the transcriptome and AS patterns of cabbage inbred line "HO" under Heat Stress (HS), RNA-Seq was carried out using HS-treated and con-trol samples. Genome-wide analysis indicated that AS is differentially regulated in response to HS...
January 2018: Current Genomics
Michele B Kaufman
Zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted (Shingrix) for the prevention of shingles in adults; angiotensin II injection (Giapreza) to increase blood pressure in adults with septic or other distributive shock; and glycopyrrolate inhalation solution (Lonhala Magnair) for the maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
March 2018: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
So Hee Lee, Hee Sun Nam, Hak Beom Kim, Eun Ji Kim, Jin-Won Noh, Jeong-Ho Chae
Objective: The Sewol ferry disaster caused shock and grief in South Korea. The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with symptoms of complicated grief (CG) among the surviving students 20 months after that disaster. Methods: This study was conducted using a cross-sectional design and a sample of 57 students who survived the Sewol ferry disaster. Data were collected using the following instruments: Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child, the Child Report of Post-Traumatic Symptoms (CROPS), KIDSCREEN-27, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales-III, the Peri-traumatic Dissociation-Post-traumatic Negative Beliefs-Post-traumatic Social Support scale, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire...
February 22, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
Hossein Fahimi, Mahshid Mohammadipour, Hamed Haddad Kashani, Farshid Parvini, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Dengue viruses are emerging mosquito-borne pathogens belonging to Flaviviridae family which are transmitted to humans via the bites of infected mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Because of the wide distribution of these mosquito vectors, more than 2.5 billion people are approximately at risk of dengue infection. Dengue viruses cause dengue fever and severe life-threatening illnesses as well as dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. All four serotypes of dengue virus can cause dengue diseases, but the manifestations are nearly different depending on type of the virus in consequent infections...
February 22, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Rui Yan, Matijs van Meurs, Eliane R Popa, Ranran Li, Peter J Zwiers, Jan G Zijlstra, Jill Moser, Grietje Molema
Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is associated with low blood pressure due to excessive loss of circulating blood and causes both macrocirculatory and microcirculatory dysfunction. Fluid resuscitation after HS is used in the clinic to restore tissue perfusion. The persistent microcirculatory damage caused by HS and/or resuscitation can result in multiple organ damage, with the kidney being one of the involved organs. The kidney microvasculature consists of different segments that possess a remarkable heterogeneity in functional properties...
February 21, 2018: Shock
Tyler J Loftus, Kolenkode B Kannan, Christy S Carter, Jessica M Plazas, Juan C Mira, Scott C Brakenridge, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Philip A Efron, Alicia M Mohr
BACKGROUND: Hypercatecholaminemia and bone marrow dysfunction have been implicated in the pathophysiology of persistent injury-associated anemia. The elderly may be more vulnerable to bone marrow dysfunction due to high basal and peak catecholamine levels and impaired hematopoietic progenitor growth. We hypothesized that aging would adversely affect persistent injury-associated anemia. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 8 to 9 weeks and F344-BN rats aged 25 months were randomized to naive controls, lung contusion plus hemorrhagic shock (LCHS), and LCHS plus daily chronic restraint stress (LCHS/CS)...
March 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jamie E Anderson, Ian E Brown, Kristin A Olson, Katherine Iverson, Christine S Cocanour, Joseph M Galante
BACKGROUND: Data suggest that methamphetamine may increase the risk of non-occlusive mesenteric ischemia (NOMI). We describe patterns of presentation and outcomes of patients with methamphetamine use who present with NOMI to a single institution. METHODS: This is an observational study of patients from January 2015 to September 2017 with methamphetamine use who presented with NOMI at an academic medical center in Northern California. We summarize patient co-morbidities, clinical presentation, operative findings, pathologic findings, hospital course, and survival...
February 17, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
John B West
One of the most interesting unanticipated findings by André Cournand and Dickinson Richards in their groundbreaking studies of cardiac catheterization was the very low pressure in the normal pulmonary circulation. At the time, in the 1940s, the significance of this was not appreciated. For example, in their speeches at the Nobel Prize ceremony, neither of these laureates referred to the low pressure, although they did discuss other features of the pulmonary circulation. It was up to the cardiologist, William Dock, to point out that these low pressures implied a very uneven distribution of blood flow in the lung, and in particular that in the normal upright lung, the blood flow to the apex would be extremely small...
February 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Katharina Kern, Carla-Lotta Mertineit, Ralf Brinkmann, Yoko Miura
Recent technologies are broadening the possibility to treat the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) with different thermal impacts, from sublethal to lethal ranges. Thus temperature-dependent subcellular molecular responses need to be elucidated in more detail. In this study, RPE cell viability and expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) were investigated after thermal irradiation with different temperature increase using an in-vitro model. Primary porcine RPE cell cultures were irradiated with different laser power of a thulium laser (λ = 1940 nm, beam-diameter 30 mm) for 10 s, such that the maximal temperatures at the center of the culture dish (Tmax ) reach 40, 44, 47, 51 or 59 °C after 10s' irradiation...
February 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Sandro Claudio Lera, Didier Sornette
A model that combines economic growth rate fluctuations at the microscopic and macroscopic levels is presented. At the microscopic level, firms are growing at different rates while also being exposed to idiosyncratic shocks at the firm and sector levels. We describe such fluctuations as independent Lévy-stable fluctuations, varying over multiple orders of magnitude. These fluctuations are aggregated and measured at the macroscopic level in averaged economic output quantities such as GDP. A fundamental question is thereby to what extent individual firm size fluctuations can have a noticeable impact on the overall economy...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
Paul E Abraham, Benjamin J Garcia, Lee E Gunter, Sara S Jawdy, Nancy Engle, Xiaohan Yang, Daniel A Jacobson, Robert L Hettich, Gerald A Tuskan, Timothy J Tschaplinski
Drought stress is a recurring feature of world climate and the single most important factor influencing agricultural yield worldwide. Plants display highly variable, species-specific responses to drought and these responses are multifaceted, requiring physiological and morphological changes influenced by genetic and molecular mechanisms. Moreover, the reproducibility of water deficit studies is very cumbersome, which significantly impedes research on drought tolerance, because how a plant responds is highly influenced by the timing, duration, and intensity of the water deficit...
2018: PloS One
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