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Hox miRNA

Cheng-Zhi Xu, Chenyan Jiang, Qingwei Wu, Liu Liu, Xiaojun Yan, Runjie Shi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The lncRNA Homeobox (HOX) transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) is overexpressed in numerous cancers. HuR is also overexpressed during tumourigenesis and is abnormally present within the cytoplasm, where it binds to AU-rich elements in the 3'UTRs of target mRNA and post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of its target genes. However, whether HOTAIR is regulated and the mechanisms by which it affects head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are not well understood...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Dong-Na Su, Shi-Pin Wu, Hong-Tao Chen, Jin-Hua He
Evidence is rapidly accumulating that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in human tumorigenesis and are dysregulated in multiple cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). lncRNAs can regulate essential pathways that contribute to tumor initiation and progression with tissue specificity, which suggests that lncRNAs may be valuable biomarkers and therapeutic targets. HOX transcript antisense intergenic RNA (HOTAIR) has previously been demonstrated to be an oncogene and a negative prognostic factor in a variety of cancers; however, the factors that contribute to the upregulation of HOTAIR and the interaction between HOTAIR and microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are largely unknown...
November 2016: Oncology Letters
Kewei Ren, Yahua Li, Huibin Lu, Zongming Li, Zhen Li, Kai Wu, Zhiqin Li, Xinwei Han
Recent studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) was reported to be dysregulated and correlated with the progression of ESCC. However, the biological role and the underlying mechanism of HOTAIR in the development of ESCC remain unclear. Herein, we found that HOTAIR was aberrantly upregulated in ESCC cells and that HOTAIR depletion inhibited proliferation and led to G1 cell cycle arrest in ESCC cells...
December 2016: Translational Oncology
Edith Schneider, Anna Staffas, Linda Röhner, Kathrin Krowiorz, Michael Heuser, Konstanze Döhner, Lars Bullinger, Hartmut Döhner, Linda Fogelstrand, Arefeh Rouhi, Florian Kuchenbauer, Lars Palmqvist
MicroRNA-155 (miR-155) is an oncogenic miRNA upregulated in various tumor types and leukemias and has been suggested as a potential drug target. Based on our previous work detecting high miR-155 levels in response to Meis1 overexpression in a murine Hox leukemia model, we show here the relationship among HOXA9, MEIS1, and miR-155 levels in MLL-translocated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. Using mouse bone marrow cells transformed by MLL-fusion genes expressing graduated levels of Meis1, we show a positive correlation between miR-155 and Meis1...
September 13, 2016: Experimental Hematology
Ryan M Pace, Miodrag Grbić, Lisa M Nagy
BACKGROUND: The ancestral arthropod is believed to have had a clustered arrangement of ten Hox genes. Within arthropods, Hox gene mutations result in transformation of segment identities. Despite the fact that variation in segment number/character was common in the diversification of arthropods, few examples of Hox gene gains/losses have been correlated with morphological evolution. Furthermore, a full appreciation of the variation in the genomic arrangement of Hox genes in extant arthropods has not been recognized, as genome sequences from each major arthropod clade have not been reported until recently...
2016: EvoDevo
Yousaf A Mian, Nancy J Zeleznik-Le
Mixed lineage leukemias have a relatively poor prognosis and arise as a result of translocations between the MLL(KMT2A) gene and one of multiple partner genes. Downstream targets of MLL are aberrantly upregulated and include the developmentally important HOX genes and MEIS1, as well as multiple microRNAs (miRNAs), including the miR-17∼92 cluster. Here we examined the contribution of specific miRNAs to MLL leukemias through knockdown studies utilizing custom anti-microRNA oligonucleotides. Combinatorial treatment against miR-17-5p and miR-19a-3p of the miR-17∼92 cluster dramatically reduces colony forming ability of MLL-fusion containing cell lines relative to non-MLL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) controls...
July 2016: Leukemia Research
Juliana Giusti, Danillo Pinhal, Simon Moxon, Camila Lovaglio Campos, Andrea Münsterberg, Cesar Martins
Hox gene clusters encode a family of transcription factors that govern anterior-posterior axis patterning during embryogenesis in all bilaterian animals. The time and place of Hox gene expression are largely determined by the relative position of each gene within its cluster. Furthermore, Hox genes were shown to have their expression fine-tuned by regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of these transcription factors during fish early development remain largely unknown...
May 2016: Mechanisms of Development
Neha S Bhise, Lata Chauhan, Miyoung Shin, Xueyuan Cao, Stanley Pounds, Vishal Lamba, Jatinder K Lamba
Cytarabine is the primary chemotherapeutic agent used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Disease relapse after initial remission remains one of the most pressing therapeutic challenges in the treatment of AML. Relapsed disease is often resistant to cytarabine and subsequent salvage therapy is ineffective. Recent studies have shown that some microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with prognosis, but have not yet explored the role of miRNAs in cellular response to cytarabine. We identified 20 miRNAs that associate with the in vitro cytarabine chemo-sensitivity or apoptotic response of eight AML cell lines...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Claudia Berrondo, Jonathan Flax, Victor Kucherov, Aisha Siebert, Thomas Osinski, Alex Rosenberg, Christopher Fucile, Samuel Richheimer, Carla J Beckham
Exosomes are 30-150nM membrane-bound secreted vesicles that are readily isolated from biological fluids such as urine (UEs). Exosomes contain proteins, micro RNA (miRNA), messenger RNA (mRNA), and long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) from their cells of origin. Although miRNA, protein and lncRNA have been isolated from serum as potential biomarkers for benign and malignant disease, it is unknown if lncRNAs in UEs from urothelial bladder cancer (UBC) patients can serve as biomarkers. lncRNAs are > 200 nucleotide long transcripts that do not encode protein and play critical roles in tumor biology...
2016: PloS One
Baoshan Xu, Madelaine Gogol, Karin Gaudenz, Jennifer L Gerton
BACKGROUND: Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a human developmental disorder caused by mutations in the cohesin acetyltransferase ESCO2. We previously reported that mTORC1 signaling was depressed and overall translation was reduced in RBS cells and zebrafish models for RBS. Treatment of RBS cells and zebrafish RBS models with L-leucine partially rescued mTOR function and protein synthesis, correlating with increased cell division and improved development. RESULTS: In this study, we use RBS cells to model mTORC1 repression and analyze transcription and translation with ribosome profiling to determine gene-level effects of L-leucine...
2016: BMC Genomics
Yunxia Ge, Xiaodan Yan, Yiguang Jin, Xinyu Yang, Xiang Yu, Liqing Zhou, Sichong Han, Qipeng Yuan, Ming Yang
Accumulated evidence demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a pivotal role in tumorigenesis. However, it is still largely unknown how these lncRNAs were regulated by small ncRNAs, such as microRNAs (miRNAs), at the post-transcriptional level. We here use lncRNA HOTTIP as an example to study how miRNAs impact lncRNAs expression and its biological significance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LncRNA HOTTIP is a vital oncogene in HCC, one of the deadliest cancers worldwide. In the current study, we identified miR-192 and miR-204 as two microRNAs (miRNAs) suppressing HOTTIP expression via the Argonaute 2 (AGO2)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in HCC...
December 2015: PLoS Genetics
Yiguo Hu, Shaoguang Li
Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are a subpopulation cells at the apex of hierarchies in leukemia cells and responsible for disease continuous propagation. In this article, we discuss some cellular and molecular components, which are critical for LSC survival. These components include intrinsic signaling pathways and extrinsic microenvironments. The intrinsic signaling pathways to be discussed include Wnt/β-catenin signaling, Hox genes, Hh pathway, Alox5, and some miRNAs, which have been shown to play important roles in regulating LSC survival and proliferation...
March 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Gerardo Botti, Laura Marra, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Annamaria Anniciello, Chiara Botti, Renato Franco, Monica Cantile
In the recent years the importance of the role played by non-coding RNA on the regulation of gene expression was increased by numerous studies. The research mainly focused on small ncRNAs, such as miRNAs, while the functions of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) have been much less studied. lncRNAs can be transcribed from intergenic, intragenic or specific chromosomal regions. Compared to miRNAs, lncRNAs have a complex secondary and tertiary structure which allows to bind proteins, RNA, DNA and to carry out their regulatory functions...
2017: Current Drug Targets
Chryssa Kanellopoulou, Timothy Gilpatrick, Gokhul Kilaru, Patrick Burr, Cuong K Nguyen, Aaron Morawski, Michael J Lenardo, Stefan A Muljo
Members of the miR-290 family are the most abundantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). They regulate aspects of differentiation, pluripotency, and proliferation of ESCs, but the molecular program that they control has not been fully delineated. In the absence of Dicer, ESCs fail to express mature miR-290 miRNAs and have selective aberrant overexpression of Hoxa, Hoxb, Hoxc, and Hoxd genes essential for body plan patterning during embryogenesis, but they do not undergo a full differentiation program...
December 8, 2015: Stem Cell Reports
Joao Picao-Osorio, Jamie Johnston, Matthias Landgraf, Jimena Berni, Claudio R Alonso
The relationship between microRNA (miRNA) regulation and the specification of behavior is only beginning to be explored. We found that mutation of a single miRNA locus (miR-iab4/iab8) in Drosophila larvae affects the animal's capacity to correct its orientation if turned upside down (self-righting). One of the miRNA targets involved in this behavior is the Hox gene Ultrabithorax, whose derepression in two metameric neurons leads to self-righting defects. In vivo neural activity analysis reveals that these neurons, the self-righting node (SRN), have different activity patterns in wild type and miRNA mutants, whereas thermogenetic manipulation of SRN activity results in changes in self-righting behavior...
November 13, 2015: Science
Shan Quah, Peter W H Holland
BACKGROUND: Introns represent a potentially rich source of existing transcription for the evolution of novel microRNAs (miRNAs). Within the Hox gene clusters, a miRNA gene, miR-615, is located within the intron of the Hoxc5 gene. This miRNA has a restricted phylogenetic distribution, providing an opportunity to examine the origin and evolution of a new miRNA within the intron of a developmentally-important homeobox gene. RESULTS: Alignment and structural analyses show that the sequence is highly conserved across eutherian mammals and absent in non-mammalian tetrapods...
2015: EvoDevo
Marina Díaz-Beyá, Salut Brunet, Josep Nomdedéu, Marta Pratcorona, Anna Cordeiro, David Gallardo, Lourdes Escoda, Mar Tormo, Inmaculada Heras, Josep Maria Ribera, Rafael Duarte, María Paz Queipo de Llano, Joan Bargay, Antonia Sampol, Meritxell Nomdedeu, Ruth M Risueño, Montserrat Hoyos, Jorge Sierra, Mariano Monzo, Alfons Navarro, Jordi Esteve
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are deregulated in several tumors, although their role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is mostly unknown.We have examined the expression of the lncRNA HOX antisense intergenic RNA myeloid 1 (HOTAIRM1) in 241 AML patients. We have correlated HOTAIRM1 expression with a miRNA expression profile. We have also analyzed the prognostic value of HOTAIRM1 expression in 215 intermediate-risk AML (IR-AML) patients.The lowest expression level was observed in acute promyelocytic leukemia (P < 0...
October 13, 2015: Oncotarget
Daniel L Garaulet, Eric C Lai
The study of Drosophila Hox genes, located in the Antennapedia complex (ANT-C) and Bithorax complex (BX-C), has provided fundamental insights into mechanisms of how the segments of the animal body plan are specified. Notably, even though the analysis of the BX-C formally began over a century ago, surprises continue to emerge regarding its regulation and function. Even simply the gene content of the BX-C has been regularly revised in past years, especially with regard to non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs...
November 2015: Mechanisms of Development
Siew Fen Lisa Wong, Vikram Agarwal, Jennifer H Mansfield, Nicolas Denans, Matthew G Schwartz, Haydn M Prosser, Olivier Pourquié, David P Bartel, Clifford J Tabin, Edwina McGlinn
The Hox genes play a central role in patterning the embryonic anterior-to-posterior axis. An important function of Hox activity in vertebrates is the specification of different vertebral morphologies, with an additional role in axis elongation emerging. The miR-196 family of microRNAs (miRNAs) are predicted to extensively target Hox 3' UTRs, although the full extent to which miR-196 regulates Hox expression dynamics and influences mammalian development remains to be elucidated. Here we used an extensive allelic series of mouse knockouts to show that the miR-196 family of miRNAs is essential both for properly patterning vertebral identity at different axial levels and for modulating the total number of vertebrae...
September 1, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sebastian Fantini, Valentina Salsi, Antonio Vitobello, Filippo M Rijli, Vincenzo Zappavigna
The miR-196 miRNA gene family located within the Hox gene clusters has been shown to function during embryogenesis and to be aberrantly expressed in various malignancies, including leukaemia, melanoma, and colorectal cancer. Despite its involvement in numerous biological processes, the control of miR-196 expression is still poorly defined. We identified the miR-196b promoter and found that the mature miR-196b originates from a large, non-coding primary transcript, which starts within an autonomous TATA box promoter and is not in physical continuity with either the Hoxa10 or Hoxa9 main primary transcripts...
August 2015: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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