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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024668/potential-risks-of-maternal-administration-of-mucophylline-on-the-pups-of-albino-rats-during-lactation
#1
Hamida Hamdi, Heba Ali
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential risks of the mucolytic and broncholytic drug, Theophylline derivatives (Mucophylline) maternally administered on the pups. The nursing rats orally administered from 1st postpartum day (PPD) to 21th PPD with two different doses 30.83mg/kg (low dose) and 66.61mg/kg (Human equivalent dose (HED)). On the 21th PPD, the postnatal developmental signs, skeletal malformation and the histopathology of neonatal liver, kidney and brain were examined. Our results showed that Mucophylline induced a significant reduction in the neonatal weight and length, delayed, weak and incomplete ossification, wavy ribs and the neonatal liver revealed histopathological changes, pyknotic hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated sinusoid and necrotic area...
December 23, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011677/n-acetylcysteine-in-preclinical-mouse-and-baboon-models-of-thrombotic-thrombocytopenic-purpura
#2
Claudia Tersteeg, Jan Roodt, Walter J Van Rensburg, Charlotte Dekimpe, Nele Vandeputte, Inge Pareyn, Aline Vandenbulcke, Barbara Plaimauer, Seb Lamprecht, Hans Deckmyn, José A Lopez, Simon F De Meyer, Karen Vanhoorelbeke
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathic disorder diagnosed by thrombocytopenia and hemolytic anemia, associated with a deficiency in von Willebrand factor (VWF) cleaving protease ADAMTS13. Current treatment is based on plasma infusion for congenital TTP, or plasma exchange, often in combination with immunosuppressive agents, for acquired TTP. These treatment methods are however not always effective and therefore new treatment methods are highly necessary. N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an FDA-approved anti-mucolytic agent, could be a possible new treatment strategy for TTP as it was demonstrated to reduce disulfide bonds in VWF, thereby decreasing VWF multimer size and hence its prothrombotic potential...
December 23, 2016: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992707/inapproriate-prescription-of-cough-remedies-among-children-hospitalized-with-respiratory-illness-over-the-period-2002-to-2015-in-kenya
#3
Michuki Maina, Samuel Akech, Paul Mwaniki, Susan Gachau, Morris Ogero, Thomas Julius, Phillip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Mike English
OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in prescription of cough medicines over the period 2002 to 2015 in children aged 1 month to 12 years admitted to Kenyan hospitals with cough, difficulty breathing or diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection. METHODS: We reviewed hospitalization records of children included in four studies providing cross-sectional prevalence estimates from government hospitals for 6 time periods between 2002 and 2015. Children with an atopic illness were excluded...
December 19, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957326/increased-rhinovirus-replication-in-nasal-mucosa-cells-in-allergic-subjects-is-associated-with-increased-icam-1-levels-and-endosomal-acidification-and-is-inhibited-by-l-carbocisteine
#4
Mutsuo Yamaya, Kazuhiro Nomura, Kazuya Arakawa, Hidekazu Nishimura, Nadine Lusamba Kalonji, Hiroshi Kubo, Ryoichi Nagatomi, Tetsuaki Kawase
Increased viral replication and cytokine production may be associated with the pathogenesis of asthma attacks in rhinovirus (RV) infections. However, the association between increased RV replication and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), a receptor for a major RV group, in airway epithelial cells has remained unclear. Furthermore, the inhibitory effects of mucolytics, which have clinical benefits in asthmatic subjects, are uncertain. Human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells were infected with type 14 rhinovirus (RV14), a major RV group...
June 2016: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881029/pemphigus-herpetiformis-type-drug-reaction-caused-by-erdosteine-containing-mucolytic-in-a-child
#5
Gulsen Akoglu, Sibel Orhun Yavuz
Drug-related pemphigus is very rare in children. Erdosteine is a thiol compound having mucoactive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitussive effects and is reported to be safe for treatment of acute respiratory tract diseases in children. Herein, we report a 9-year-old boy presented with pemphigus herpetiformis associated with anti-desmoglein 1 antibodies due to erdosteine consumption.
November 23, 2016: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793104/n-acetyl-cysteine-exhibits-potent-anti-mycobacterial-activity-in-addition-to-its-known-anti-oxidative-functions
#6
Eduardo P Amaral, Elisabete L Conceição, Diego L Costa, Michael S Rocha, Jamocyr M Marinho, Marcelo Cordeiro-Santos, Maria Regina D'Império-Lima, Theolis Barbosa, Alan Sher, Bruno B Andrade
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is thought to induce oxidative stress. N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) is widely used in patients with chronic pulmonary diseases including tuberculosis due to its mucolytic and anti-oxidant activities. Here, we tested whether NAC exerts a direct antibiotic activity against mycobacteria. METHODS: Oxidative stress status in plasma was compared between pulmonary TB (PTB) patients and those with latent M. tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or healthy uninfected individuals...
October 28, 2016: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787715/bifunctional-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-respiratory-diseases
#7
Clive Page, Mario Cazzola
Over the last decade, there has been a steady increase in the use of fixed dose combinations for the treatment of a range of diseases, including cancer, AIDS, tuberculosis and other infectious diseases. It is now evident that patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can also benefit from the use of fixed dose combinations, including combinations of a long-acting β2-agonist (LABA) and an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), and combinations of LABAs and long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs)...
October 28, 2016: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775548/il-33-regulates-the-iga-microbiota-axis-to-restrain-il-1%C3%AE-dependent-colitis-and-tumorigenesis
#8
Ankit Malik, Deepika Sharma, Qifan Zhu, Rajendra Karki, Clifford S Guy, Peter Vogel, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) affect over 5 million individuals in the industrialized world, with an increasing incidence rate worldwide. IBD also predisposes affected individuals to development of colorectal cancer, which is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in adults. Mutations in genes encoding molecules in the IL-33 signaling pathway are associated with colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC), but how IL-33 modulates gut homeostasis is unclear. Here, we have shown that Il33-deficient mice are highly susceptible to colitis and CAC...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766914/n-acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-current-status-and-future-prospects
#9
Alessandro Minarini, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Galletti, Nina Giambalvo, Daniela Perrone, Giulia Rioli, Gian Maria Galeazzi
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder...
November 2, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762515/a-cross-sectional-cohort-analyses-assessing-response-to-levosalbutamol-bronchodilatory-cough-formulations-in-outpatient-community-settings-of-india-bus-analyses
#10
A Vora, Amit Bhargava
INTRODUCTION: Cough is significant health problem with greater implication for impaired quality of life. Acute and chronic cough due to infective (viral/bacterial), allergic conditions or bronchial asthma including cough variant asthma are often treated with combination of mucolytics, expectorants and bronchodilators. Bronchodilators reduces cough sensitivity, promotes clearance of cough secretions while reducing protrusive inflammatory mediator release. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To further understand the clinical utility and safety of Bronchodilatory cough formulations (BCF) containing Levosalbutamol in real world settings...
September 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684511/constrictive-bronchiolitis-in-cystic-fibrosis-adolescents-with-refractory-pulmonary-decline
#11
William T Harris, J Todd Boyd, Gary L McPhail, Alan S Brody, Rhonda D Szczesniak, Leslie L Korbee, Michael L Baker, John P Clancy
RATIONALE: Refractory lung function decline in association with recurrent pulmonary exacerbations is a common, yet poorly explained finding in cystic fibrosis (CF). To investigate the histopathologic mechanisms of pulmonary deterioration during adolescence and early adulthood, we reviewed clinically-indicated lung biopsy specimens obtained during a period of persistent decline. OBJECTIVES: To determine if peribronchiolar remodeling is prominent in lung biopsy specimens obtained in adolescents with CF refractory to conventional therapy...
December 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623804/in-vitro-cultures-of-ectodermal-monolayers-from-the-model-sea-anemone-nematostella-vectensis
#12
Claudette Rabinowitz, Elisabeth Moiseeva, Baruch Rinkevich
We report here a novel approach for the extraction, isolation and culturing of intact ectodermal tissue layers from a model marine invertebrate, the sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. A methodology is described in which a brief exposure of the animal to the mucolytic agent N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) solution triggers the dislodging of the ectodermis from its underlying basement membrane and mesoglea. These extracted fragments of cell sheets adherent to culture-dish substrates, initially form 2D monolayers that are transformed within 24 h post-isolation into 3D structures...
September 13, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613392/pharmacological-strategies-to-reduce-exacerbation-risk-in-copd-a-narrative-review
#13
REVIEW
Marc Miravitlles, Anthony D'Urzo, Dave Singh, Vladimir Koblizek
Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an initial strategy to reduce exacerbation risk irrespective of patient phenotype. Therefore, in patients assessed as frequent exacerbators (>1 exacerbation/year) we propose initial bronchodilator treatment with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/ long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)...
September 10, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27576234/respiratory-conditions-update-cystic-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Lyle L Pritchard
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive genetic disease that occurs in approximately 1 in 2,500 white live births. It is less common in nonwhite individuals. A dysfunctional epithelial chloride channel leads to excessively thick mucus affecting multiple organ systems. Common issues include mucous plugging of the airway, lung inflammation, chronic pulmonary infections, intestinal malabsorption, and malnutrition. Universal screening of newborns for CF is recommended in many countries. CF can be diagnosed based on clinical evidence of disease along with genetic testing or other laboratory evidence of chloride channel dysfunction...
September 2016: FP Essentials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574611/extraordinary-sneeze-spontaneous-transmaxillary-transnasal-discharge-of-a-migrated-dental-implant
#15
Pasquale Procacci, Daniele De Santis, Dario Bertossi, Massimo Albanese, Cristina Plotegher, Giovanni Zanette, Alessia Pardo, Pier Francesco Nocini
This case report describes an extraordinary case of the spontaneous transmaxillary-transnasal discharge of a dental implant, which occurred during a sneeze. The patient was complained of symptoms of acute sinusitis. She underwent a computed tomography scan that revealed a dental implant dislocated in the maxillary sinus. Medical treatment based on antibiotics and mucolytics was administered to the patient in order to prepare her for endoscopic endonasal surgery. The implant was spontaneously discharged two days after during a sneeze...
August 16, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561233/nano-based-rescue-of-dysfunctional-autophagy-in-chronic-obstructive-lung-diseases
#16
Neeraj Vij
INTRODUCTION: ΔF508-CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) is a common CF-mutation that is known to induce oxidative-inflammatory stress through activation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which induces autophagy-impairment resulting in accumulation of CFTR in aggresome-bodies. Cysteamine, the reduced form of cystamine, is a FDA-approved drug that has anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, and mucolytic properties. This drug has been shown in a recent clinical trial to decrease lung inflammation and improve lung function in CF patients by potentially restoring autophagy and allowing CFTR to be trafficked to the cell membrane...
August 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27532613/outcomes-following-the-use-of-nebulized-heparin-for-inhalation-injury-hihi-study
#17
Allyson M McIntire, Serena A Harris, Jessica A Whitten, Andrew C Fritschle-Hilliard, David R Foster, Rajiv Sood, Todd A Walroth
Inhalation injury (IHI) causes significant morbidity and mortality in burn victims due to both local and systemic effects. Nebulized heparin promotes improvement in lung function and decreased mortality in IHI by reducing the inflammatory response and fibrin cast formation. The study objective was to determine if nebulized heparin 10,000 units improves lung function and decreases mechanical ventilation duration, mortality, and hospitalization length in IHI with minimal systemic adverse events. This retrospective, case-control study evaluated efficacy and safety of nebulized heparin administered to mechanically ventilated adults admitted within 48 hr of confirmed IHI...
January 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497418/hospital-clinical-trial-homeopathy-agraphis-nutans-5ch-thuya-occidentalis-5ch-kalium-muriaticum-9ch-and-arsenicum-iodatum-9ch-as-adjuvant-in-children-with-otitis-media-with-effusion
#18
M F Pedrero-Escalas, J Jimenez-Antolin, L Lassaletta, G Diaz-Saez, J Gavilán
BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the most common cause of paediatric hearing loss. No single treatment has proved its effectiveness. There is a lack of evidence-based medicine studies in the area of homeopathy. METHOD: A prospective randomized, double blinded interventional placebo control study was conducted. Patients, from 2 months to 12 years, with OME diagnosed by pneumatic otoscopy (PNO) and tympanometry, were randomized into two groups. Both groups received aerosol therapy (mucolytics and corticosteroids)...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27418656/rheological-study-of-healthy-chicken-s-pooled-tracheobronchial-secretions-and-its-modification-by-mucolytics-drugs
#19
Lizbeth Carrillo, Héctor Sumano, Luis Medina-Torres, Graciela Tapia, Lilia Gutiérrez
The rheological properties of pooled tracheobronchial secretions (TBS) of chicken, including mucus, have not been characterized. Yet mucolytic drugs are frequently used in poultry medicine. To define such properties, TBS from healthy untreated and from chickens treated with various mucolytic drugs was studied. Three hundred, three-week-old Rhode Island Red chickens were divided into five groups, with three repetitions each (n = 20) as follows: ambroxol (GAmb), ethylene diamine dihydro-iodide (GEddi), carbocysteine (GCs), bromhexine (GBr), and an untreated control group (CG)...
November 1, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27393775/chronic-rhinosinusitis-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#20
Daniel L Hamilos
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is highly prevalent in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and accounts for significant morbidity and contribution to CF lung disease. Mutations of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene occur with increased prevalence in patients with CRS without CF, suggesting some contribution to CRS pathophysiology. Nasal polyps (NPs) occur with increased prevalence in patients with CF of all ages and have a more neutrophilic appearance with fewer eosinophils and increased submucosal glandular elements in comparison to NPs from patients without CF...
July 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
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