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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675773/a-polymer-chemistry-point-of-view-on-mucoadhesion-and-mucopenetration
#1
REVIEW
Philipp Schattling, Essi Taipaleenmäki, Yan Zhang, Brigitte Städler
Although oral is the preferred route of administration of pharmaceutical formulations, the long-standing challenge for medically active compounds to efficiently cross the mucus layer barrier limits its wider applicability. Efforts in nanomedicine to overcome this hurdle consider mucoadhesive and mucopenetrating drug carriers by selectively designing (macromolecular) building blocks. This review highlights and critically discusses recent strategies developed in this context including poly(ethylene glycol)-based modifications, cationic and thiolated polymers, as well as particles with high charge density, zeta-potential shifting ability, or mucolytic properties...
July 4, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658521/the-in-vitro-mucolytic-effect-of-xylitol-and-dornase-alfa-on-chronic-rhinosinusitis-mucus
#2
Tim Hardcastle, Ravi Jain, Fiona Radcliff, Sharon Waldvogel-Thurlow, Melissa Zoing, Kristi Biswas, Richard Douglas
BACKGROUND: The overproduction and stagnation of purulent mucus impair mucociliary clearance and exacerbate the symptoms of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). There is a clinical need for effective topical mucolytic agents to facilitate removal of mucus and improve postoperative outcomes. METHODS: The effects of xylitol (5%) and dornase alfa (1 mg/mL) on mucus and mucus crusts were investigated. Viscoelasticity and viscosity of wet mucus derived from 30 CRS patients was measured with a plate rheometer...
June 28, 2017: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601320/protective-role-of-erdosteine-pretreatment-on-oleic-acid-induced-acute-lung-injury
#3
Ayşen Erdem, Esra Gedikli, Nilgün Yersal, Serkan Karaismailoglu, Sevda Muftuoglu, Ersin Fadillioglu, Meltem Tuncer
BACKGROUND: Erdosteine is a mucolytic agent with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We evaluated the protective effect of erdosteine pretreatment on oleic acid (OA)-induced acute lung injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were assigned to four treatments: control (oral saline + 50 μL intravenous [i.v.] saline), OA (oral saline + 50 μL i.v. OA), erdosteine (150 mg/kg oral erdosteine + 50 μL i.v. saline), and OA + erdosteine (150 mg/kg oral erdosteine + 50 μL i...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504001/n-acetylcysteine-potentiates-diclofenac-toxicity-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-stronger-potentiation-in-abc-transporter-mutant-strains
#4
Houssein Al-Attrache, Hala Chamieh, Monzer Hamzé, Isabelle Morel, Samir Taha, Ziad Abdel-Razzak
Diclofenac (DCF) adverse reactions involve diverse mechanisms in different models. We recently demonstrated that DCF-induced toxicity in HepaRG decreases as they express DCF-metabolizing enzymes. DCF metabolism promotes toxicity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing heterologous cytochromes-P450. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) is used to treat diverse medical conditions due to its multiple properties (antioxidant, metal chelator, thiol-disulfide disruption). The latter property accounts for its mucolytic effects and broadens its potential molecular targets to signal transduction proteins, ABC transporters and others...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487393/potent-thrombolytic-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-on-arterial-thrombi
#5
Sara Martinez de Lizarrondo, Clément Gakuba, Bradley A Herbig, Yohann Repessé, Carine Ali, Cécile V Denis, Peter Lenting, Emmanuel Touzé, Scott L Diamond, Denis Vivien, Maxime Gauberti
Background -Platelet crosslinking during arterial thrombosis involves von Willebrand Factor (VWF) multimers. Therefore, proteolysis of VWF appears promising to disaggregate platelet-rich thrombi and restore vessel patency in acute thrombotic disorders such as ischemic stroke, acute coronary syndrome or acute limb ischemia. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC, a clinically approved mucolytic drug) can reduce intrachain disulfide bonds in large polymeric proteins. In the present study, we postulated that NAC might cleave the VWF multimers inside occlusive thrombi, thereby leading to their dissolution and arterial recanalization...
May 9, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480154/congenital-tracheobronchomegaly-mounier-kuhn-syndrome-in-a-woman-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-case-report
#6
Amanda Fletcher, Justin Stowell, Socrates Jamoulis
Congenital tracheobronchomegaly (Mounier-Kuhn Syndrome, MKS) is a rare idiopathic disorder characterized by dilation of the central airways, including the trachea and first through fourth order bronchi. MKS disproportionately affects men and results in chronic respiratory tract infections. The diagnosis is made through the synthesis of clinical and radiological data. Here we report a unique case of MKS in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 45-year-old African American woman with a past medical history of HIV, tobacco and recreational drug abuse, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, and a 15-year history of recurrent respiratory infections presented with dyspnea, wheezing, a productive cough, increased yellow-green sputum production, and subjective fevers...
April 4, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455978/n-acetylcysteine-breaks-resistance-to-trastuzumab-caused-by-muc4-overexpression-in-human-her2-positive-bc-bearing-nude-mice-monitored-by-89zr-trastuzumab-and-18f-fdg-pet-imaging
#7
Zéna Wimana, Geraldine Gebhart, Thomas Guiot, Bruno Vanderlinden, Denis Larsimont, Gilles Doumont, Gaetan Van Simaeys, Serge Goldman, Patrick Flamen, Ghanem Ghanem
Trastuzumab remains an important drug in the management of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer (BC). Several studies reported resistance mechanisms to trastuzumab, including impaired HER2-accessibility caused by mucin 4 (MUC4). Previously, we demonstrated an increase of Zirconium-89-radiolabeled-trastuzumab (89Zr-Trastuzumab) accumulation when MUC4-overexpressing BC-cells were challenged with the mucolytic drug N-Acetylcysteine (NAC). Hereby, using the same approach we investigated whether tumor exposure to NAC would also enhance trastuzumab-efficacy...
April 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444395/effects-of-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-on-the-membrane-vesicle-release-and-growth-of-respiratory-pathogens
#8
Charlotte Volgers, Birke J Benedikter, Gert E Grauls, Pauline H M Hellebrand, Paul H M Savelkoul, Frank R M Stassen
Bacterial infections contribute to the disease progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by stimulating mucus production in the airways. This increased mucus production and other symptoms are often alleviated when patients are treated with mucolytics such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC). Moreover, NAC has been suggested to inhibit bacterial growth. Bacteria can release membrane vesicles (MVs) in response to stress, and recent studies report a role for these proinflammatory MVs in the pathogenesis of airways disease...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420285/dry-powders-for-the-inhalation-of-ciprofloxacin-or-levofloxacin-combined-with-a-mucolytic-agent-for-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#9
Yagmur Akdag Cayli, Selma Sahin, Francesca Buttini, Anna Giulia Balducci, Serena Montanari, Imran Vural, Levent Oner
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to design and characterize an inhalable dry powder of ciprofloxacin or levofloxacin combined with the mucolytics acetylcysteine and dornase alfa for the management of pulmonary infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. METHODS: Ball milling, homogenization in isopropyl alcohol and spray drying processes were used to prepare dry powders for inhalation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the dry powders were assessed via thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy...
April 27, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402103/patient-derived-airway-secretion-dissociation-technique-to-isolate-and-concentrate-immune-cells-using-closed-loop-inertial-microfluidics
#10
Hyunryul Ryu, Kyungyong Choi, Yanyan Qu, Taehong Kwon, Janet S Lee, Jongyoon Han
Assessment of airway secretion cells, both for research and clinical purposes, is a highly desired goal in patients with acute and chronic pulmonary diseases. However, lack of proper cell isolation and enrichment techniques hinder downstream evaluation and characterization of cells found in airway secretions. Here, we demonstrate a novel enrichment method to capture immune-related cells from clinical airway secretions using closed-loop separation of spiral inertial microfluidics (C-sep). By recirculating the output focusing stream back to the input reservoir and running continuously with a high flow processing rate, one can achieve optimal concentration, recovery and purity of airway immune cells from a large volume of diluent, which was not readily possible in the single-pass operation...
April 21, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393062/the-likelihood-of-preventing-respiratory-exacerbations-in-children-and-adolescents-with-either-chronic-suppurative-lung-disease-or-bronchiectasis
#11
REVIEW
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Keith Grimwood
Chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) and bronchiectasis in children and adolescents are important causes of respiratory morbidity and reduced quality of life (QoL), also leading to subsequent premature death during adulthood. Acute respiratory exacerbations in pediatric CSLD and bronchiectasis are important markers of disease control clinically, given that they impact upon QoL and increase health-care-associated costs and can adversely affect future lung functioning. Preventing exacerbations in this population is, therefore, likely to have significant individual, familial, societal, and health-sector benefits...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377314/clarithromycin-and-n-acetylcysteine-co-spray-dried-powders-for-pulmonary-drug-delivery-a-focus-on-drug-solubility
#12
Michele Dario Manniello, Pasquale Del Gaudio, Rita P Aquino, Paola Russo
Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are usually susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and this bacterium is resistant to immune system clearance and drug control. Particularly, the biofilm mode of growth protects several microorganisms from host defenses and antibacterial drugs, mainly due to a delayed penetration of the drug through the biofilm matrix. Biofilm, together with lung mucus viscosity and tenacity, reduces, therefore, the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in CF. The aim of this research was to design and develop a stable, portable, easy to use dry powder inhaler (DPI) for CF patients, able to release directly to the lung an association of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin) and a mucolytic agent (N-Acetyl-Cysteine)...
April 1, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371943/bioassay-guided-isolation-of-iridoids-and-phenylpropanoids-from-aerial-parts-of-lamium-album-and-their-anti-inflammatory-activity-in-human-neutrophils
#13
Monika E Czerwińska, Anita Świerczewska, Marta Woźniak, Anna K Kiss
In traditional medicine, flowers and aerial parts of Lamium album are assigned by their anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, and mucolytic activities, and are used in chronic bronchitis and pharyngitis as well as skin, vaginal, and cervical inflammation.The aim of the present study was to compare effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from flowers and aerial parts of L. album on selected functions of human neutrophils, which are involved in an inflammatory response. In order to identify the compounds engaged in the anti-inflammatory activity of extracts, the bioassay-guided isolation of compounds was performed based on the inhibition of cytokine secretion by stimulated neutrophils...
April 3, 2017: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367412/a-review-on-various-uses-of-n-acetyl-cysteine
#14
REVIEW
Vida Mokhtari, Parvaneh Afsharian, Maryam Shahhoseini, Seyed Mehdi Kalantar, Ashraf Moini
N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), as a nutritional supplement, is a greatly applied antioxidant in vivo and in vitro. NAC is a precursor of L-cysteine that results in glutathione elevation biosynthesis. It acts directly as a scavenger of free radicals, especially oxygen radicals. NAC is a powerful antioxidant. It is also recommended as a potential treatment option for different disorders resulted from generation of free oxygen radicals. Additionally, it is a protected and endured mucolytic drug that mellows tenacious mucous discharges...
April 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356227/production-and-characterization-of-a-pegylated-derivative-of-recombinant-human-deoxyribonuclease-i-for-cystic-fibrosis-therapy
#15
Marie-Julie Guichard, Harshad P Patil, Salome Juliette Koussoroplis, Ruddy Wattiez, Teresinha Leal, Rita Vanbever
Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (rhDNase) is the mucolytic agent most widely used for the treatment of respiratory disease in cystic fibrosis. However, rhDNase is rapidly cleared from the lungs which implies a high dosing frequency and limited patient adherence. The aim of this study was to produce a long-acting PEGylated derivative of rhDNase presenting a preserved enzymatic activity. Site-specific PEGylation on the N-terminal (N-ter) leucine residue of rhDNase was achieved by reductive alkylation at acidic pH using linear 20kDa, linear 30kDa or two-arm 40kDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) propionaldehydes...
March 27, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188210/management-of-oral-secretions-in-neurological-disease
#16
REVIEW
Alexander J McGeachan, Christopher J Mcdermott
Sialorrhoea is a common and problematic symptom that arises from a range of neurological conditions associated with bulbar or facial muscle dysfunction. Drooling can significantly affect quality of life due to both physical complications such as oral chapping, and psychological complications such as embarrassment and social isolation. Thicker, tenacious oral and pharyngeal secretions may result from the drying management approach to sialorrhoea. The management of sialorrhoea in neurological diseases depends on the underlying pathology and severity of symptoms...
April 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178715/infectious-causes-of-right-middle-lobe-syndrome
#17
Aatif Rashid, Sowmya Nanjappa, John N Greene
Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation. We report on 2 case patients with RML syndrome, one due to infection with Mycobacterium avium complex followed by M asiaticum infection and the other due to allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A history of atopy, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been reported in up to one-half of those with RML...
January 2017: Cancer Control: Journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138305/physical-and-chemical-characteristics-of-mucin-secreted-by-pseudomyxoma-peritonei-pmp
#18
Krishna Pillai, Javed Akhter, Ahmed Mekkawy, Terence C Chua, David L Morris
Background: Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare disease with excess intraperitoneal mucin secretion. Treatment involves laparotomy, cytoreduction and chemotherapy that is very invasive with patients often acquiring numerous compromises. Hence a mucolytic comprising of bromelain and N-acetyl cystein has been developed to solubilise mucin in situ for removal by catherization. Owing to differences in mucin appearance and hardness, dissolution varies. Therefore the current study investigates the inter-mucin physical and chemical characteristics, in order to reformulate an effective mucolytic for all mucin...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122105/acetylcysteine-in-the-treatment-of-subacute-sinusitis-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mehrzad Bahtouee, Gholamhosein Monavarsadegh, Mohammadjavad Ahmadipour, Mazyar Motieilangroodi, Niloofar Motamed, Jamshid Saberifard, Seyyedsajjad Eghbali, Hooman Adibi, Hesam Maneshi, Hasan Malekizadeh
Sinusitis is a common disease with harmful effects on the health and finances of patients and the economy of the community. It is easily treated in most of its acute stages but is associated with some management difficulties as it goes toward chronicity. Therefore, we tried to improve the treatment of subacute sinusitis by using acetylcysteine, which is a safe mucolytic and antioxidant agent. Thirty-nine adult patients with subacute sinusitis proved by computed tomography (CT) were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial...
January 2017: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118826/pharmacological-investigation-on-the-anti-oxidant-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-an-ex-vivo-model-of-copd-exacerbation
#20
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Francesco Facciolo, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress is recognized to be one of predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of COPD. The oxidant/antioxidant imbalance is significantly pronounced in patients with COPD exacerbation. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) seems to be able to reduce COPD exacerbations by modulating the oxidative stress in addition to its well-known mucolytic activity, but there are discordant findings on the actual anti-oxidant activity of NAC. METHODS: The anti-oxidant effect of NAC and its impact on the inflammatory response have been pharmacologically characterized on a human ex vivo model of COPD exacerbation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 24, 2017: Respiratory Research
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