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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233650/impact-of-erdosteine-on-chronic-bronchitis-and-copd-a-meta-analysis
#1
Mario Cazzola, Luigino Calzetta, Clive Page, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera
A previous meta-analysis suggested that the treatment with erdosteine was associated with significant amelioration of the cumulative global efficacy index and symptoms in comparison to placebo or other mucolytics. However, this conclusion was criticized because the meta-analysis, as it had been done, made it impossible to preclude the potential operation of selection biases within and across trials, and identify any realised benefits of an individual patient data approach. Taking into consideration these criticisms and also the publication of two further recent articles focused on the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations with erdosteine, we have carried out a quantitative synthesis via meta-analysis of the currently available data on the use of this drug...
December 9, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231979/otitis-media-with-effusion-in-the-boxer-a-report-of-seven-cases
#2
S Paterson
The aim of this study was to describe otitis media with effusion in seven boxers. All dogs presented with a range of clinical signs, which included head shaking, neurological dysfunction, pain on opening of the mouth and reduction in hearing ability. Otitis media was confirmed under general anaesthesia in each case by video-otoscopic identification of a bulging pars tensa and subsequent myringotomy, which revealed a tenacious mucus plug within the middle ear. Brainstem auditory evoked response thresholds were elevated in all affected ears...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199610/potential-utility-of-n-acetylcysteine-for-treating-mustard-lung
#3
Yunes Panahi, Mostafa Ghanei, Mohammad Mozaffari Hashjin, Ramin Rezaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
More than a century after the introduction of sulfur mustard (SM), as a chemical warfare agent, it has affected thousands of military and civilians on several occasions. The most notable toxic effects of this easily produced chemical, are lung damage ranges from necrotic, hemorrhagic, and infectious acute-lung injury to chronic conditions (i.e., mustard lung). While there is no definite treatment for individuals exposed to sulfur mustard, corticosteroids, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, immunosuppressive medicines, and magnesium are being used to help victims...
2017: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196951/behavioral-and-biochemical-effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-zebrafish-acutely-exposed-to-ethanol
#4
Ricieri Mocelin, Matheus Marcon, Simone D'ambros, Ana P Herrmann, Alex Sander da Rosa Araujo, Angelo Piato
Alcohol hangover refers to unpleasant symptoms experienced as a direct consequence of a binge drinking episode. The effects observed in this condition are related to the increase in alcohol metabolites and imbalance in oxidative status. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a mucolytic agent and an antidote for paracetamol overdose. Preclinical and clinical studies have shown that NAC is a multi-target drug acting through neuroprotective, antioxidant and neurotrophic mechanisms as well as a glutamate modulator. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of NAC in zebrafish acutely exposed to ethanol (EtOH)...
December 1, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093283/effect-of-adjunctive-use-of-systemic-antioxidant-therapy-n-acetylcysteine-on-soluble-receptor-activator-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-ligand-levels-in-gingival-crevicular-fluid-following-surgical-periodontal-treatment-for-chronic-periodontitis
#5
Baleegh Alkadasi, Saleem Abdulrab, Soheir Gaafer, Butchibabu Kalakonda, Manal Hosny, Olfat Shaker, Mohamed Hosny
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is an anti-oxidant drug that has been used as a mucolytic agent and a paracetamol antidote for many years. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of the adjunctive use of NAC for periodontal treatment. Thirty subjects with moderate-to-severe chronic periodontitis were randomized to surgery with NAC (600 mg; S-NAC), surgery only (S-nonNAC), and healthy control groups. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were obtained from all patients and sRANKL levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at baseline, and 1, 3, and 7 months post-surgery...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092802/the-effects-of-mesna-on-the-facial-nerve-an-experimental-animal-study
#6
Deniz Baklacı, Rauf Oğuzhan Kum, Sezer Kulaçoğlu, Yavuz Fuat Yılmaz, Müge Özcan
OBJECTIVE: MESNA (Sodium-2-mercaptoethanesulfonate) is a mucolytic substance that is used for chemically assisted tissue dissection in various surgical operations. The aim of this study was to address the issue of possible neurotoxicity from topical administration of MESNA solution on the facial nerve. We used different concentrations of MESNA solution and evaluated their effects on facial nerve by histopathological and functional analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: These groups were the saline administered group (control) (3 rats, 6 facial nerves), the 25% MESNA solution group (3 rats, 6 facial nerves), and the 100% MESNA solution group (3 rats, 6 facial nerves)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080507/mucus-permeating-self-emulsifying-drug-delivery-systems-sedds-about-the-impact-of-mucolytic-enzymes
#7
Nuri Ari Efiana, Thi Nhu Quynh Phan, Arko Jatmiko Wicaksono, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
This study aimed to improve the mucus permeating properties of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) by anchoring lipidized bromelain, papain and trypsin using palmitoyl chloride. SEDDS containing enzyme-palmitate conjugates were characterized regarding droplet size and zeta potential. Their mucus permeating properties were evaluated by Transwell diffusion and rotating tube method using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) as marker. Degree of substitution of modified enzymes was 35.3%, 47.8% and 38.5% for bromelain-palmitate, papain-palmitate and trypsin-palmitate, respectively...
October 23, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079537/enzyme-decorated-drug-carriers-targeted-swords-to-cleave-and-overcome-the-mucus-barrier
#8
Claudia Menzel, Andreas Bernkop-Schnürch
The use of mucus permeating drug carrier systems being able to overcome the mucus barrier can lead to a remarkable enhancement in bioavailability. One promising approach is the design of mucolytic enzyme decorated carrier systems (MECS). These systems include micro- and nanoparticles as well as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) decorated with mucin cleaving enzymes such as papain (PAP) or bromelain (BRO). MECS are able to cross the mucus barrier in a comparatively efficient manner by cleaving mucus substructures in front of them on their way to the epithelium...
October 24, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062228/impact-and-prevention-of-severe-exacerbations-of-copd-a-review-of-the-evidence
#9
REVIEW
David Mg Halpin, Marc Miravitlles, Norbert Metzdorf, Bartolomé Celli
Severe exacerbations of COPD, ie, those leading to hospitalization, have profound clinical implications for patients and significant economic consequences for society. The prevalence and burden of severe COPD exacerbations remain high, despite recognition of the importance of exacerbation prevention and the availability of new treatment options. Severe COPD exacerbations are associated with high mortality, have negative impact on quality of life, are linked to cardiovascular complications, and are a significant burden on the health-care system...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040122/treatment-and-resolution-of-filamentary-keratitis-in-a-patient-with-stiff-person-syndrome
#10
Steven S Bae, Sonia N Yeung, Clara C Chan
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of filamentary keratitis associated with stiff person syndrome. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 26-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions was referred because of filamentary keratitis. Conservative management using lubrication, mucolytics, and bandage contact lenses failed to adequately relieve symptoms. Despite the addition of oral prednisone, cyclosporine, and azathioprine, the patient's condition persisted with numerous filaments and severe dry eye...
October 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037773/use-of-n-acetylcysteine-plus-simethicone-to-improve-the-mucosal-visibility-during-upper-gi-endoscopy-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Hugo Monrroy, Jose Ignacio Vargas, Esteban Glasinovic, Roberto Candia, Emilio Azúa, Camila Gálvez, Camila Rojas, Natalia Cabrera, Josefa Vidaurre, Natalia Álvarez, Jessica González, Alberto Espino, Robinson González, Adolfo Parra-Blanco
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Upper GI endoscopy (UGE) is essential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal diseases. Mucus and bubbles may decrease mucosal visibility. The use of mucolytics could improve visualization. Our aim was to determine whether premedication with Simethicone or Simethicone plus N-acetylcysteine is effective improving visibility during UGE. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial with 2 control groups: no intervention (NI) and water 100 mL (W); and 3 intervention groups: simethicone 200 mg (S); S+NAC 500 mg (S+NAC500); and S+NAC 1000 mg (S+NAC1000)...
October 13, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025882/mucolytics-for-copd-negotiating-a-slippery-slope-towards-proof-of-efficacy
#12
EDITORIAL
Shawn D Aaron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987048/-the-application-of-n-acetylcysteine-in-optimization-of-specific-pharmacological-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Iga Hołyńska-Iwan, Marcin Wróblewski, Dorota Olszewska-Słonina, Tomasz Tyrakowski
Based on the analysis of data from clinical trials it could be postulated that N-acetylcysteine has a positive impact on the treatment of various diseases. However, less is known about specific molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the reported therapeutic effects. N-acetylcysteine (NAC, N-acetyl-L-cysteine) is an amino acid derivative containing a thiol group. It is a precursor of L-cysteine and glutathione. NAC is well absorbed and safe for the body at doses up to 300 mg per kg of body weight...
September 29, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964880/chemical-modification-of-drug-molecules-as-strategy-to-reduce-interactions-with-mucus
#14
Francisca Araújo, Cláudia Martins, Cláudia Azevedo, Bruno Sarmento
Many drug molecules possess inadequate physical-chemical characteristics that prevent to surpass the viscous mucus layer present in the surface of mucosal tissues. Due to mucus protective role and its fast turnover, these drug molecules end up being removed from the body before being absorbed and, thus, before exerting any physiologic affect. Envisaging a better pharmacokinetics profile, chemical modifications, to render drug a more mucopenetrating character, have been introduced to drug molecules backbone towards more effective therapies...
September 28, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916389/removal-and-killing-of-multispecies-endodontic-biofilms-by-n-acetylcysteine
#15
Young-Suk Choi, Cheul Kim, Ji-Hoi Moon, Jin-Yong Lee
Removal of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system is essential for the management of endodontic disease. Here we evaluated the antibacterial effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a potent antioxidant and mucolytic agent, against mature multispecies endodontic biofilms consisting of Actinomyces naeslundii, Lactobacillus salivarius, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis on sterile human dentin blocks. The biofilms were exposed to NAC (25, 50 and 100mg/mL), saturated calcium hydroxide or 2% chlorhexidine solution for 7 days, then examined by scanning electron microscopy...
September 2, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915583/n-acetylcysteine-breaks-resistance-to-trastuzumab-caused-by-muc4-overexpression-in-human-her2-positive-bc-bearing-nude-mice-monitored-by-89-zr-trastuzumab-and-18-f-fdg-pet-imaging
#16
Zéna Wimana, Geraldine Gebhart, Thomas Guiot, Bruno Vanderlinden, Denis Larsimont, Gilles Doumont, Gaetan Van Simaeys, Serge Goldman, Patrick Flamen, Ghanem Ghanem
Trastuzumab remains an important drug in the management of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpressing breast cancer (BC). Several studies reported resistance mechanisms to trastuzumab, including impaired HER2-accessibility caused by mucin 4 (MUC4). Previously, we demonstrated an increase of Zirconium-89-radiolabeled-trastuzumab ((89)Zr-Trastuzumab) accumulation when MUC4-overexpressing BC-cells were challenged with the mucolytic drug N-Acetylcysteine (NAC). Hereby, using the same approach we investigated whether tumor exposure to NAC would also enhance trastuzumab-efficacy...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902888/dendrimer-based-selective-autophagy-induction-rescues-%C3%AE-f508-cftr-and-inhibits-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-cystic-fibrosis
#17
Scott Mackenzie Brockman, Manish Bodas, David Silverberg, Ajit Sharma, Neeraj Vij
BACKGROUND: Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder caused by mutation(s) in the CF-transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr) gene. The most common mutation, ΔF508, leads to accumulation of defective-CFTR protein in aggresome-bodies. Additionally, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa), a common CF pathogen, exacerbates obstructive CF lung pathology. In the present study, we aimed to develop and test a novel strategy to improve the bioavailability and potentially achieve targeted drug delivery of cysteamine, a potent autophagy-inducing drug with anti-bacterial properties, by developing a dendrimer (PAMAM-DEN)-based cysteamine analogue...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889106/prevention-of-copd-exacerbations-a-european-respiratory-society-american-thoracic-society-guideline
#18
Jadwiga A Wedzicha, Peter M A Calverley, Richard K Albert, Antonio Anzueto, Gerard J Criner, John R Hurst, Marc Miravitlles, Alberto Papi, Klaus F Rabe, David Rigau, Pawel Sliwinski, Thomy Tonia, Jørgen Vestbo, Kevin C Wilson, Jerry A Krishnan
This document provides clinical recommendations for the prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations. It represents a collaborative effort between the European Respiratory Society and the American Thoracic Society.Comprehensive evidence syntheses were performed to summarise all available evidence relevant to the Task Force's questions. The evidence was appraised using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach and the results were summarised in evidence profiles...
September 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874611/how-should-aerosols-be-delivered-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation
#19
Rajiv Dhand
The delivery of aerosols to mechanically ventilated patients presents unique challenges and differs from inhaled drug delivery in spontaneously breathing patients in several respects. Successful aerosol delivery during invasive mechanical ventilation requires careful consideration of a host of factors that influence the amount of drug inhaled by the patient. Pressurized metered-dose inhalers and nebulizers (jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh) are the most commonly used aerosol delivery devices in these patients, although other delivery devices, such as dry powder inhalers, soft mist inhalers, and intratracheal nebulizing catheters, could also be adapted for in-line use...
October 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828368/inhalation-therapies-in-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#20
REVIEW
Antonio Artigas, Marta Camprubí-Rimblas, Neus Tantinyà, Josep Bringué, Raquel Guillamat-Prats, Michael A Matthay
The defining features of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are an excessive inflammatory respiratory response associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment consists mainly of measures to avoid worsening lung injury and cannot reverse the underlying pathophysiological process. New pharmacological agents have shown promising results in preclinical studies; however, they have not been successfully translated to patients with ARDS. The lack of effective therapeutic interventions has resulted in a recent interest in strategies to prevent ARDS with treatments delivering medications directly to the lungs by inhalation and nebulization, hopefully minimizing systemic adverse events...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
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