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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156552/diversity-of-dsdna-viruses-in-a-south-african-hot-spring-assessed-by-metagenomics-and-microscopy
#1
Olivier Zablocki, Leonardo Joaquim van Zyl, Bronwyn Kirby, Marla Trindade
The current view of virus diversity in terrestrial hot springs is limited to a few sampling sites. To expand our current understanding of hot spring viral community diversity, this study aimed to investigate the first African hot spring (Brandvlei hot spring; 60 °C, pH 5.7) by means of electron microscopy and sequencing of the virus fraction. Microscopy analysis revealed a mixture of regular- and 'jumbo'-sized tailed morphotypes (Caudovirales), lemon-shaped virions (Fuselloviridae-like; salterprovirus-like) and pleiomorphic virus-like particles...
November 18, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156510/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-novel-broad-host-range-bacteriophage-infecting-salmonella-enterica-subsp-enterica-for-biocontrol-and-rapid-detection
#2
In Young Choi, Ju-Hoon Lee, Hye-Jin Kim, Mi-Kyung Park
Bacteriophages have gained substantial attention as biocontrol and bio-recognition agents, substituting antibodies. In this study, a Salmonella Enteritidis-specific bacteriophage, KFS-SE1, was isolated, identified, and characterized. This Siphoviridae phage infects S. Enteritidis with high specificity. This phage is highly stable under various pH (5-11), temperature (4-60°C), and organic solvent conditions. The KFS-SE1 genome consists of 59,715-bp with 73 predicted open reading frames and 57.14% GC content; it has a complete set of genes required for phage reconstruction...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153644/propionic-acid-production-from-soy-molasses-by-propionibacterium-acidipropionici-fermentation-kinetics-and-economic-analysis
#3
Hopen Yang, Zhongqiang Wang, Meng Lin, Shang-Tian Yang
Propionic acid (PA) is a specialty chemical; its calcium salt is widely used as food preservative. Soy molasses (SM), a low-value byproduct from soybean refinery, contains sucrose and raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFO), which are difficult to digest for most animals and industrial microorganisms. The feasibility of using SM for PA production by P. acidipropionici, which has genes encoding enzymes necessary for RFO hydrolysis, was studied. With corn steep liquor as the nitrogen source, stable long-term PA production from SM was demonstrated in sequential batch fermentations, achieving PA productivity of >0...
November 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153518/subacute-ruminal-acidosis-affects-fermentation-and-endotoxin-concentration-in-the-rumen-and-relative-expression-of-the-cd14-tlr4-md2-genes-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-systemic-immune-response-in-dairy-cows
#4
B Stefanska, W Człapa, E Pruszynska-Oszmałek, D Szczepankiewicz, V Fievez, J Komisarek, K Stajek, W Nowak
The first objective of this study was to investigate the effects of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) on fermentation, ruminal free lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and expression of the cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), and myeloid differentiation protein 2 (MD2) complex in white blood cells involved in the systemic immune response in dairy cows. The second objective was a study of whether increased expression of the LPS receptor complex led to increases in the concentrations of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum Ca...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153032/evaluation-of-the-carcinogenic-potential-of-roxadustat-fg-4592-a-small-molecule-inhibitor-of-hypoxia-inducible-factor-prolyl-hydroxylase-in-cd-1-mice-and-sprague-dawley-rats
#5
James Beck, Carroll Henschel, James Chou, Al Lin, Ughetta Del Balzo
The carcinogenic potential of roxadustat (FG-4592), a novel orally active, heterocyclic small molecule inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl hydroxylase (HIF-PH) enzymes in clinical development for treatment of anemia, was evaluated in CD-1 mice and Sprague Dawley rats. Inhibition of HIF-PH by roxadustat leads to a rapid increase in cytoplasmic HIF-α concentrations, followed by translocation of HIF-α to the nucleus and upregulation of HIF-responsive genes, including erythropoietin. Roxadustat was dosed by oral gavage 3 times weekly (TIW) for up to 104 weeks in mice at 0, 15, 30, and 60 mg/kg and in rats at 0, 2...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152770/cytoplasmic-localization-of-the-cell-polarity-factor-scribble-supports-liver-tumor-formation-and-tumor-cell-invasiveness
#6
Shan Wan, Anne-Sophie Meyer, Sofia Maria Elisabeth Weiler, Christian Rupp, Marcell Tóth, Carsten Sticht, Stephan Singer, Stefan Thomann, Stephanie Roessler, Marina Schorpp-Kistner, Jennifer Schmitt, Norbert Gretz, Peter Angel, Darjus Felix Tschaharganeh, Jens Marquardt, Peter Schirmacher, Federico Pinna, Kai Breuhahn
The loss of epithelial cell polarity plays an important role in the development and progression of liver cancer. However, the specific molecular mechanisms supporting tumor initiation and progression are poorly understood. In this study, transcriptome data and immunofluorescence stains of tissue samples derived from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients revealed that overexpression associated with cytoplasmic localization of the baso-lateral cell polarity complex protein Scribble (Scrib) correlated with poor prognosis of HCC patients...
November 20, 2017: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152304/in-situ-protein-templated-porous-protein-hydroxylapatite-nanocomposite-microspheres-for-ph-dependent-sustained-anticancer-drug-release
#7
Yajun Shuai, Shuxu Yang, Chenlin Li, Liangjun Zhu, Chuanbin Mao, Mingying Yang
Silk sericin, a water-soluble glue-like protein, is extensively used as a biomaterial due to its biocompatibility, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, and adequate resource. In addition, hydroxyapatite-based drug carriers are functionally efficient for drug or gene delivery due to their biodegradability, biocompatibility and easy metabolism in vivo. Herein, for the first time, this study used sericin, from a wild silkworm called Antheraea pernyi (A. pernyi), as a template to nucleate hydroxylapatite (HAp) nano-needles and form porous sericin-HAp nanocomposite microspheres as an anticancer drug carrier...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Materials Chemistry. B, Materials for Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152256/consumption-of-kiwifruit-capsules-increases-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance-in-functionally-constipated-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-human-trial
#8
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill(®) wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151339/a-novel-tool-for-estrogenic-activity-measurements-in-water-using-diffusion-gradients-in-thin-film-coupled-with-an-estrogen-bioassay
#9
Wei Guo, Kersten Van Langenhove, Michael S Denison, Willy F Baeyens, Marc Elskens, Yue Gao
A novel type of diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) was combined with a chemically activated luciferase gene expression bioassay (CALUX) to measure estrogens in aquatic systems. The performance of this novel method was assessed with 17β-estradiol (E2) as the model steroid hormone, XAD 18 resin gel as the binding phase in the DGT method and VM7Luc4E2 cells (formerly BG1Luc4E2) for the Estrogen Responsive Element (ERE)-CALUX bioassay. The measured effective diffusion coefficient of E2 in agarose diffusive gel was 4...
November 20, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150773/overexpression-of-a-cellobiose-glucose-halotolerant-endoglucanase-from-scytalidium-thermophilum
#10
Luana Parras Meleiro, Sibeli Carli, Raquel Fonseca-Maldonado, Marcela da Silva Torricillas, Ana Lucia Ribeiro Latorre Zimbardi, Richard John Ward, João Atílio Jorge, Rosa Prazeres Melo Furriel
Enzyme reaction products and by-products from pretreatment steps can inhibit endoglucanases and are major factors limiting the efficiency of enzymatic lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis. The gene encoding the endoglucanase from Scytalidium thermophilum (egst) was cloned and expressed as a soluble protein in Pichia pastoris GS115. The recombinant enzyme (Egst) was monomeric (66 kDa) and showed an estimated carbohydrate content of 53.3% (w/w). The optimum temperature and pH of catalysis were 60-70 °C and pH of 5...
November 18, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150754/detoxification-of-aflatoxin-b1-by-antifungal-compounds-from-lactobacillus-brevis-and-lactobacillus-paracasei-isolated-from-dairy-products
#11
Eman Zakaria Gomaa, Manal Farouk Abdelall, Omima Mohammed El-Mahdy
Aflatoxins are a large group of highly toxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by specific species of fungi. Potential contamination of food commodities by these compounds causes extensive damage that lead to great economic losses. This study explored the potential use of antifungal compounds, produced by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei, for growth inhibition and subsequent aflatoxin B1 production from select strains of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Lactobacilli strains were isolated from traditional Egyptian dairy products, whereas fungal strains were isolated from infected cereal seeds...
November 18, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150705/novel-polycondensed-biopolyamide-generated-from-biomass-derived-4-aminohydrocinnamic-acid
#12
Yukie Kawasaki, Nag Aniruddha, Hajime Minakawa, Shunsuke Masuo, Tatsuo Kaneko, Naoki Takaya
Biomass plastics are expected to contribute to the establishment of a carbon-neutral society by replacing conventional plastics derived from petroleum. The biomass-derived aromatic amine 4-aminocinnamic acid (4ACA) produced by recombinant bacteria is applied to the synthesis of high-performance biopolymers such as polyamides and polyimides. Here, we developed a microbial catalyst that hydrogenates the α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid of 4ACA to generate 4-aminohydrocinnamic acid (4AHCA). The ability of 10 microbial genes for enoate and xenobiotic reductases expressed in Escherichia coli to convert 4ACA to 4AHCA was assessed...
November 17, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150517/multi-omics-reveal-the-lifestyle-of-the-acidophilic-mineral-oxidizing-model-species-leptospirillum-ferriphilum-t
#13
Stephan Christel, Malte Herold, Sören Bellenberg, Mohamed El Hajjami, Antoine Buetti-Dinh, Igor V Pivkin, Wolfgang Sand, Paul Wilmes, Ansgar Poetsch, Mark Dopson
Leptospirillum ferriphilum plays a major role in acidic, metal rich environments where it represents one of the most prevalent iron oxidizers. These milieus include acid rock and mine drainage as well as biomining operations. Despite its perceived importance, no complete genome sequence of this model species' type strain is available, limiting the possibilities to investigate the strategies and adaptations Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) applies to survive and compete in its niche. This study presents a complete, circular genome of Leptospirillum ferriphilum(T) DSM 14647 obtained by PacBio SMRT long read sequencing for use as a high quality reference...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148364/salibacterium-lacus-sp-nov-a-halophilic-non-spore-forming-bacterium-isolated-from-sediment-of-a-saline-lake
#14
Yue-Qiang Wang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Jia Tang, Gui-Qin Yang, Zhen Yu
A novel halophilic bacterium, strain GSS13(T), capable of growing at salinities of 8-28 % (w/v) NaCl (optimally at 24 %, w/v) was isolated from Yuncheng Saline Lake in China. GSS13(T) was Gram-stain-positive, strictly aerobic, rod-shaped, motile and a non-spore-former. Growth occurred at pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0) and at 10-45 °C (optimum 30 °C). On the basis of the results of 16S rRNA gene sequences phylogenetic analyses, GSS13(T) represents a member of the genus Salibacterium and is closely related to Salibacterium halotolerans S7(T), Salibacterium qingdaonense CM1(T) and Salibacterium halochares MSS4(T), with 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities of 98...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148359/albirhodobacter-confluentis-sp-nov-isolated-from-an-estuary
#15
Hye Su Jung, Jaegeun Lee, Jong Woo Hyeon, Seogang Hyun, Che Ok Jeon
A Gram-stain-negative and strictly aerobic, moderately halophilic bacterium, designated strain S1-47(T), was isolated from estuary sediment in South Korea. Cells were non-motile rods showing oxidase- and catalase-positive activities. Growth was observed at 10-30 °C (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 5.0-8.0 (optimum, pH 6.0-7.0) and in the presence of 0-6.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2.0 %). Strain S1-47(T) contained summed feature 3 (comprising C16 : 1ω7c and/or C16 : 1ω6c), summed feature 8 (comprising C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0 as major cellular fatty acids and ubiquinone-10 as the sole isoprenoid quinone...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146968/heterologous-expression-and-characterization-of-a-new-lipase-from-pseudomonas-fluorescens-pf0-1-and-used-for-biodiesel-production
#16
Wu Liu, Menggang Li, Yunjun Yan
As a kind of important biocatalysts, Pseudomonas lipases are commonly applied in various industrial fields. Pflip1, a new extracellular lipase gene from Pseudomonas. fluorescens Pf0-1, was first cloned and respectively expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and Pichia pastoris KM71, the recombinant proteins Pflip1a and Pflip1b were later purified separately. Then Pflip1a was further characterized. The optimum pH of Pflip1a was 8.0 and its optimal temperature was 70 °C. After incubation at 70 °C for 12 h, Pflip1a could retain over 95% of its original activity...
November 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146260/a-novel-burkholderia-ambifaria-strain-able-to-degrade-the-mycotoxin-fusaric-acid-and-to-inhibit-fusarium-spp-growth
#17
Ester Simonetti, Irma N Roberts, Marcela S Montecchia, Flavio H Gutierrez-Boem, Federico M Gomez, Jimena A Ruiz
Fusaric acid (FA) is a fungal metabolite produced by several Fusarium species responsible for wilts and root rot diseases of a great variety of plants. Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. have been considered as promising biocontrol agents against phytopathogenic Fusarium spp., however it has been demonstrated that FA negatively affects growth and production of some antibiotics in these bacteria. Thus, the capability to degrade FA would be a desirable characteristic in bacterial biocontrol agents of Fusarium wilt...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146249/composition-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-during-spontaneous-curly-kale-brassica-oleracea-var-sabellica-fermentation
#18
Magdalena Michalak, Klaudia Gustaw, Adam Waśko, Magdalena Polak-Berecka
The present work is the first report on spontaneous fermentation of curly kale and characteristics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our results indicate that curly kale fermentation is the new possibility of the technological use of this vegetable. Bacteria representing ten different species were isolated from three phases of curly kale fermentation and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among them, four species were identified as Lactobacillus spp. (Lb. plantarum 332, Lb...
January 2018: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145121/role-of-acid-alkali-treatment-in-primary-sludge-anaerobic-fermentation-insights-into-microbial-community-structure-functional-shifts-and-metabolic-output-by-high-throughput-sequencing
#19
Xiao Huang, Wenyi Dong, Hongjie Wang, Yangyang Feng
This study aimed to investigate the effect of acid- or alkali-treatment on volatile fatty acids (VFAs) production and microbiological mechanism during primary sludge anaerobic fermentation. Seven fermentation experiments were conducted at different pH (3-12). Results showed that the optimal pH was 10 for accumulation of VFAs. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that acid and alkali treatment could inhibit Erysipelotrichaceae_UCG-004 and norank_p_Aminicenantes, instead of promoting Pseudomonas and Tissierella at acidic and alkaline condition, respectively...
November 4, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143729/thalassotalea-coralli-sp-nov-isolated-from-the-torch-coral-euphyllia-glabrescens
#20
Der-Shyan Sheu, Shih-Yi Sheu, Pei-Bei Xie, Sen-Lin Tang, Wen-Ming Chen
Strain Eup a-8(T), isolated from a torch coral Euphyllia glabrescens, was characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain Eup a-8(T) were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, motile by means of a single polar flagellum, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate-containing, rod-shaped and formed white colonies. Optimal growth occurred at 25-30 °C, pH 7-8, and in the presence of 2 % NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain Eup a-8(T) belonged to the genus Thalassotalea and showed the highest levels of sequence similarity with respect to Thalassotalea ganghwensis JC2041(T) (97...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
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