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He Luo, Zhengzheng Liang, Moning Zhu, Xiaoxuan Hu, Guoqiang Wang
Wind has a significant effect on the control of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), resulting in changes in their ground speed and direction, which has an important influence on the results of integrated optimization of UAV task allocation and path planning. The objective of this integrated optimization problem changes from minimizing flight distance to minimizing flight time. In this study, the Euclidean distance between any two targets is expanded to the Dubins path length, considering the minimum turning radius of fixed-wing UAVs...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan C Ryan, Alun Hubbard, Marek Stibal, Tristram D Irvine-Fynn, Joseph Cook, Laurence C Smith, Karen Cameron, Jason Box
Albedo-a primary control on surface melt-varies considerably across the Greenland Ice Sheet yet the specific surface types that comprise its dark zone remain unquantified. Here we use UAV imagery to attribute seven distinct surface types to observed albedo along a 25 km transect dissecting the western, ablating sector of the ice sheet. Our results demonstrate that distributed surface impurities-an admixture of dust, black carbon and pigmented algae-explain 73% of the observed spatial variability in albedo and are responsible for the dark zone itself...
March 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Martin Selecký, Jan Faigl, Milan Rollo
Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations...
March 14, 2018: Sensors
Charles Handford, F Reeves, P Parker
In order to continue to deliver outstanding medical care on the battlefield, the UK Defence Medical Services must continue to adapt, overcome and actively embrace change. One potential area is the rapid proliferation and sophistication of automated and remote systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are already used to deliver blood to remote military locations in Afghanistan and defibrillators to those that need them in the USA and Sweden. An area of future opportunity would be to facilitate rapid evacuation of wounded personnel from high intensity, high threat, remote and austere areas directly to specialist care...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Sabina Roşca, Juha Suomalainen, Harm Bartholomeus, Martin Herold
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with digital cameras have attracted much attention from the forestry community as potential tools for forest inventories and forest monitoring. This research fills a knowledge gap about the viability and dissimilarities of using these technologies for measuring the top of canopy structure in tropical forests. In an empirical study with data acquired in a Guyanese tropical forest, we assessed the differences between top of canopy models (TCMs) derived from TLS measurements and from UAV imagery, processed using structure from motion...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
Alex Borowicz, Philip McDowall, Casey Youngflesh, Thomas Sayre-McCord, Gemma Clucas, Rachael Herman, Steven Forrest, Melissa Rider, Mathew Schwaller, Tom Hart, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Michael J Polito, Hanumant Singh, Heather J Lynch
Despite concerted international effort to track and interpret shifts in the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins, large populations continue to be identified. Here we report on a major hotspot of Adélie penguin abundance identified in the Danger Islands off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). We present the first complete census of Pygoscelis spp. penguins in the Danger Islands, estimated from a multi-modal survey consisting of direct ground counts and computer-automated counts of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yi Zhao, Jiale Ma, Xiaohui Li, Jie Zhang
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) can provide direct georeferenced imagery, mapping an area with high resolution. So far, the major difficulty in wildfire image classification is the lack of unified identification marks, the fire features of color, shape, texture (smoke, flame, or both) and background can vary significantly from one scene to another. Deep learning (e.g., DCNN for Deep Convolutional Neural Network) is very effective in high-level feature learning, however, a substantial amount of training images dataset is obligatory in optimizing its weights value and coefficients...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
Kunj Bhatt, Ali Pourmand, Neal Sikka
INTRODUCTION: Advances in technology have revolutionized the medical field and changed the way healthcare is delivered. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the next wave of technological advancements that have the potential to make a huge splash in clinical medicine. UAVs, originally developed for military use, are making their way into the public and private sector. Because they can be flown autonomously and can reach almost any geographical location, the significance of UAVs are becoming increasingly apparent in the medical field...
February 28, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Alexander Hart, Peter R Chai, Matthew K Griswold, Jeffrey T Lai, Edward W Boyer, John Broach
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. DESIGN: Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). SETTING: A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Juan Sandino, Felipe Gonzalez, Kerrie Mengersen, Kevin J Gaston
The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and spinifex (Triodia sp...
February 16, 2018: Sensors
Mohammad Ammad Uddin, Ali Mansour, Denis Le Jeune, Mohammad Ayaz, El-Hadi M Aggoune
In this study, a crop health monitoring system is developed by using state of the art technologies including wireless sensors and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Conventionally data is collected from sensor nodes either by fixed base stations or mobile sinks. Mobile sinks are considered a better choice nowadays due to their improved network coverage and energy utilization. Usually, the mobile sink is used in two ways: either it goes for random walk to find the scattered nodes and collect data, or follows a pre-defined path established by the ground network/clusters...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
Jincheng Li, Jie Chen, Pengbo Wang, Chunsheng Li
In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP)...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
Xiang Mao, Hongbin Zhang, Yanhui Wang
This paper investigates the flocking problem of quad-rotor UAVs. Considering the actual situations, we derived a new simplified quad-rotor UAV model which is more reasonable. Based on the model, the T-S fuzzy model of attitude dynamic equation and the corresponding T-S fuzzy feedback controller are discussed. By introducing a double-loop control construction, we adjust its attitude to realize the position control. Then a flocking algorithm is proposed to achieve the flocking of the quad-rotor UAVs. Compared with the flocking algorithm of the mass point model, we dealt with the collision problem of the quad-rotor UAVs...
February 1, 2018: ISA Transactions
Adrian Kolesar, Tomas Toporcer, Milan Bajmoczi, Jan Luczy, Peter Candik, Frantisek Sabol
BACKGROUND: The unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a well-described pediatric congenital abnormality, with incidence of 0.02% in the general population. Bicuspidization has been described as a potential surgical option to repair this defect. METHODS: Seventeen symptomatic young patients with a unicuspid valve combined with either valve insufficiency or valve stenosis underwent aortic valve bicuspidization procedure using either an equine pericardium. In addition to bicuspidization, eight patients underwent aortic ring implantation and five patients underwent supracoronary replacement of the aorta...
January 29, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Haijing Zheng, Tingzhu Bai, Quanxi Wang, Fengmei Cao, Long Shao, Zhaotian Sun
This study investigates multispectral characteristics of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at different observation angles by experiment. The UAV and its engine are tested on the ground in the cruise state. Spectral radiation intensities at different observation angles are obtained in the infrared band of 0.9-15 μm by a spectral radiometer. Meanwhile, infrared images are captured separately by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR), mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) cameras. Additionally, orientation maps of the radiation area and radiance are obtained...
February 1, 2018: Sensors
Tomas Poblete, Samuel Ortega-Farías, Dongryeol Ryu
Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status...
January 30, 2018: Sensors
Trevor Jain, Aaron Sibley, Henrik Stryhn, Ives Hubloue
Introduction The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has the potential to change the situational awareness of incident commanders allowing greater scene safety. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in hazard identification during a simulated multi-vehicle motor collision (MVC) in terms of time to identification, accuracy and the order of hazard identification. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted with 21 students randomized into UAV or SP group, based on a MVC with 7 hazards...
January 31, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Fidel Aznar, Mar Pujol, Ramón Rizo, Carlos Rizo
In this work, a swarm behaviour for multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) deployment will be presented. The main contribution of this behaviour is the use of a virtual device for quantitative sematectonic stigmergy providing more adaptable behaviours in complex environments. It is a fault tolerant highly robust behaviour that does not require prior information of the area to be covered, or to assume the existence of any kind of information signals (GPS, mobile communication networks …), taking into account the specific features of UAVs...
2018: PloS One
Sebastian Ewen, Irem Karliova, Petra Weber, Stephan H Schirmer, Hashim Abdul-Khaliq, Jakob Schöpe, Felix Mahfoud, Hans-Joachim Schäfers
Aims: Unicuspid aortic valve (UAV) is a rare congenital malformation associated with severe aortic stenosis or regurgitation. This study aimed to systematically determine echocardiographic criteria to identify UAV. Methods and results: All patients underwent a preoperative baseline examination, including echocardiography. A total of 69 patients with intraoperatively confirmed UAV underwent an aortic valve repair procedure between August 2001 and May 2011. To compare the findings of UAV cases with those of other valve morphologies, we examined 99 consecutive patients with a bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and 103 consecutive patients with a tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) undergoing isolated aortic valve surgery before May 2016...
January 15, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Yufu Qu, Jianyu Huang, Xuan Zhang
In order to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) structures from an image sequence captured by unmanned aerial vehicles' camera (UAVs) and improve the processing speed, we propose a rapid 3D reconstruction method that is based on an image queue, considering the continuity and relevance of UAV camera images. The proposed approach first compresses the feature points of each image into three principal component points by using the principal component analysis method. In order to select the key images suitable for 3D reconstruction, the principal component points are used to estimate the interrelationships between images...
January 14, 2018: Sensors
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