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Unmanned aerial vehicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468628/acceptability-and-perceived-utility-of-drone-technology-among-emergency-medical-service-responders-and-incident-commanders-for-mass-casualty-incident-management
#1
Alexander Hart, Peter R Chai, Matthew K Griswold, Jeffrey T Lai, Edward W Boyer, John Broach
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. DESIGN: Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). SETTING: A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462912/uavs-and-machine-learning-revolutionising-invasive-grass-and-vegetation-surveys-in-remote-arid-lands
#2
Juan Sandino, Felipe Gonzalez, Kerrie Mengersen, Kevin J Gaston
The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) and spinifex (Triodia sp...
February 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29461496/online-aerial-terrain-mapping-for-ground-robot-navigation
#3
John Peterson, Haseeb Chaudhry, Karim Abdelatty, John Bird, Kevin Kochersberger
This work presents a collaborative unmanned aerial and ground vehicle system which utilizes the aerial vehicle's overhead view to inform the ground vehicle's path planning in real time. The aerial vehicle acquires imagery which is assembled into a orthomosaic and then classified. These terrain classes are used to estimate relative navigation costs for the ground vehicle so energy-efficient paths may be generated and then executed. The two vehicles are registered in a common coordinate frame using a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) and all image processing is performed onboard the unmanned aerial vehicle, which minimizes the data exchanged between the vehicles...
February 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445152/fourier-transform-spectrometer-on-silicon-with-thermo-optic-non-linearity-and-dispersion-correction
#4
Mario C M M Souza, Andrew Grieco, Newton C Frateschi, Yeshaiahu Fainman
Miniaturized integrated spectrometers will have unprecedented impact on applications ranging from unmanned aerial vehicles to mobile phones, and silicon photonics promises to deliver compact, cost-effective devices. Mirroring its ubiquitous free-space counterpart, a silicon photonics-based Fourier transform spectrometer (Si-FTS) can bring broadband operation and fine resolution to the chip scale. Here we present the modeling and experimental demonstration of a thermally tuned Si-FTS accounting for dispersion, thermo-optic non-linearity, and thermal expansion...
February 14, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443914/using-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-in-postfire-vegetation-survey-campaigns-through-large-and-heterogeneous-areas-opportunities-and-challenges
#5
José Manuel Fernández-Guisuraga, Enoc Sanz-Ablanedo, Susana Suárez-Seoane, Leonor Calvo
This study evaluated the opportunities and challenges of using drones to obtain multispectral orthomosaics at ultra-high resolution that could be useful for monitoring large and heterogeneous burned areas. We conducted a survey using an octocopter equipped with a Parrot SEQUOIA multispectral camera in a 3000 ha framework located within the perimeter of a megafire in Spain. We assessed the quality of both the camera raw imagery and the multispectral orthomosaic obtained, as well as the required processing capability...
February 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440638/energy-use-and-life-cycle-greenhouse-gas-emissions-of-drones-for-commercial-package-delivery
#6
Joshuah K Stolaroff, Constantine Samaras, Emma R O'Neill, Alia Lubers, Alexandra S Mitchell, Daniel Ceperley
The use of automated, unmanned aerial vehicles (drones) to deliver commercial packages is poised to become a new industry, significantly shifting energy use in the freight sector. Here we find the current practical range of multi-copters to be about 4 km with current battery technology, requiring a new network of urban warehouses or waystations as support. We show that, although drones consume less energy per package-km than delivery trucks, the additional warehouse energy required and the longer distances traveled by drones per package greatly increase the life-cycle impacts...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439496/uav-assisted-dynamic-clustering-of-wireless-sensor-networks-for-crop-health-monitoring
#7
Mohammad Ammad Uddin, Ali Mansour, Denis Le Jeune, Mohammad Ayaz, El-Hadi M Aggoune
In this study, a crop health monitoring system is developed by using state of the art technologies including wireless sensors and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Conventionally data is collected from sensor nodes either by fixed base stations or mobile sinks. Mobile sinks are considered a better choice nowadays due to their improved network coverage and energy utilization. Usually, the mobile sink is used in two ways: either it goes for random walk to find the scattered nodes and collect data, or follows a pre-defined path established by the ground network/clusters...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439447/sensor-oriented-path-planning-for-multiregion-surveillance-with-a-single-lightweight-uav-sar
#8
Jincheng Li, Jie Chen, Pengbo Wang, Chunsheng Li
In the surveillance of interested regions by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), system performance relies greatly on the motion control strategy of the UAV and the operation characteristics of the onboard sensors. This paper investigates the 2D path planning problem for the lightweight UAV synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system in an environment of multiple regions of interest (ROIs), the sizes of which are comparable to the radar swath width. Taking into account the special requirements of the SAR system on the motion of the platform, we model path planning for UAV SAR as a constrained multiobjective optimization problem (MOP)...
February 11, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389880/experimental-study-of-multispectral-characteristics-of-an-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-at-different-observation-angles
#9
Haijing Zheng, Tingzhu Bai, Quanxi Wang, Fengmei Cao, Long Shao, Zhaotian Sun
This study investigates multispectral characteristics of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) at different observation angles by experiment. The UAV and its engine are tested on the ground in the cruise state. Spectral radiation intensities at different observation angles are obtained in the infrared band of 0.9-15 μm by a spectral radiometer. Meanwhile, infrared images are captured separately by long-wavelength infrared (LWIR), mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR), and short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) cameras. Additionally, orientation maps of the radiation area and radiance are obtained...
February 1, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388556/bioinspired-wingtip-devices-a-pathway-to-improve-aerodynamic-performance-during-low-reynolds-number-flight
#10
Michael Lynch, Boris Mandadzhiev, Aimy Wissa
Birds are highly capable and maneuverable fliers, traits not currently shared with current small unmanned aerial vehicles. They are able to achieve these flight capabilities by adapting the shape of their wings during flight in a variety of complex manners. One feature of bird wings, the primary feathers, separate to form wingtip gaps at the distal end of the wing. This paper presents bio-inspired wingtip devices with varying wingtip gap sizes, defined as the chordwise distance between wingtip devices, for operation in low Reynolds number conditions of Re = 100,000, where many bird species operate...
February 1, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385722/automatic-coregistration-algorithm-to-remove-canopy-shaded-pixels-in-uav-borne-thermal-images-to-improve-the-estimation-of-crop-water-stress-index-of-a-drip-irrigated-cabernet-sauvignon-vineyard
#11
Tomas Poblete, Samuel Ortega-Farías, Dongryeol Ryu
Water stress caused by water scarcity has a negative impact on the wine industry. Several strategies have been implemented for optimizing water application in vineyards. In this regard, midday stem water potential (SWP) and thermal infrared (TIR) imaging for crop water stress index (CWSI) have been used to assess plant water stress on a vine-by-vine basis without considering the spatial variability. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne TIR images are used to assess the canopy temperature variability within vineyards that can be related to the vine water status...
January 30, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382398/comparison-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-technology-versus-standard-practice-in-identification-of-hazards-at-a-mass-casualty-incident-scenario-by-primary-care-paramedic-students
#12
Trevor Jain, Aaron Sibley, Henrik Stryhn, Ives Hubloue
Introduction The proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has the potential to change the situational awareness of incident commanders allowing greater scene safety. The aim of this study was to compare UAV technology to standard practice (SP) in hazard identification during a simulated multi-vehicle motor collision (MVC) in terms of time to identification, accuracy and the order of hazard identification. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study was conducted with 21 students randomized into UAV or SP group, based on a MVC with 7 hazards...
January 31, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370216/compensating-for-geographic-variation-in-detection-probability-with-water-depth-improves-abundance-estimates-of-coastal-marine-megafauna
#13
Rie Hagihara, Rhondda E Jones, Susan Sobtzick, Christophe Cleguer, Claire Garrigue, Helene Marsh
The probability of an aquatic animal being available for detection is typically <1. Accounting for covariates that reduce the probability of detection is important for obtaining robust estimates of the population abundance and determining its status and trends. The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a bottom-feeding marine mammal and a seagrass community specialist. We hypothesized that the probability of a dugong being available for detection is dependent on water depth and that dugongs spend more time underwater in deep-water seagrass habitats than in shallow-water seagrass habitats...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370203/modelling-multi-rotor-uavs-swarm-deployment-using-virtual-pheromones
#14
Fidel Aznar, Mar Pujol, Ramón Rizo, Carlos Rizo
In this work, a swarm behaviour for multi-rotor Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) deployment will be presented. The main contribution of this behaviour is the use of a virtual device for quantitative sematectonic stigmergy providing more adaptable behaviours in complex environments. It is a fault tolerant highly robust behaviour that does not require prior information of the area to be covered, or to assume the existence of any kind of information signals (GPS, mobile communication networks …), taking into account the specific features of UAVs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342908/rapid-3d-reconstruction-for-image-sequence-acquired-from-uav-camera
#15
Yufu Qu, Jianyu Huang, Xuan Zhang
In order to reconstruct three-dimensional (3D) structures from an image sequence captured by unmanned aerial vehicles' camera (UAVs) and improve the processing speed, we propose a rapid 3D reconstruction method that is based on an image queue, considering the continuity and relevance of UAV camera images. The proposed approach first compresses the feature points of each image into three principal component points by using the principal component analysis method. In order to select the key images suitable for 3D reconstruction, the principal component points are used to estimate the interrelationships between images...
January 14, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342832/development-of-an-internal-real-time-wireless-diagnostic-tool-for-a-proton-exchange-membrane-fuel-cell
#16
Chi-Yuan Lee, Chia-Hung Chen, Chao-Hsuan Tsai, Yu-Syuan Wang
To prolong the operating time of unmanned aerial vehicles which use proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), the performance of PEMFC is the key. However, a long-term operation can make the Pt particles of the catalyst layer and the pollutants in the feedstock gas bond together (e.g., CO), so that the catalyst loses reaction activity. The performance decay and aging of PEMFC will be influenced by operating conditions, temperature, flow and CO concentration. Therefore, this study proposes the development of an internal real-time wireless diagnostic tool for PEMFC, and uses micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology to develop a wireless and thin (<50 μm) flexible integrated (temperature, flow and CO) microsensor...
January 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342101/a-novel-methodology-for-improving-plant-pest-surveillance-in-vineyards-and-crops-using-uav-based-hyperspectral-and-spatial-data
#17
Fernando Vanegas, Dmitry Bratanov, Kevin Powell, John Weiss, Felipe Gonzalez
Recent advances in remote sensed imagery and geospatial image processing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enabled the rapid and ongoing development of monitoring tools for crop management and the detection/surveillance of insect pests. This paper describes a (UAV) remote sensing-based methodology to increase the efficiency of existing surveillance practices (human inspectors and insect traps) for detecting pest infestations (e.g., grape phylloxera in vineyards). The methodology uses a UAV integrated with advanced digital hyperspectral, multispectral, and RGB sensors...
January 17, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331769/source-identification-of-uranium-containing-materials-at-mine-legacy-sites-in-portugal
#18
A C Keatley, P G Martin, K R Hallam, O D Payton, R Awbery, F Carvalho, J M Oliveira, L Silva, M Malta, T B Scott
Whilst prior nuclear forensic studies have focused on identifying signatures to distinguish between different uranium deposit types, this paper focuses on providing a scientific basis for source identification of materials from different uranium mine sites within a single region, which can then be potentially used within nuclear forensics. A number of different tools, including gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, mineralogy and major and minor elemental analysis, have been utilised to determine the provenance of uranium mineral samples collected at eight mine sites, located within three different uranium provinces, in Portugal...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316734/superpixel-based-feature-for-aerial-image-scene-recognition
#19
Hongguang Li, Yang Shi, Baochang Zhang, Yufeng Wang
Image scene recognition is a core technology for many aerial remote sensing applications. Different landforms are inputted as different scenes in aerial imaging, and all landform information is regarded as valuable for aerial image scene recognition. However, the conventional features of the Bag-of-Words model are designed using local points or other related information and thus are unable to fully describe landform areas. This limitation cannot be ignored when the aim is to ensure accurate aerial scene recognition...
January 8, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315256/a-novel-attitude-determination-system-aided-by-polarization-sensor
#20
Wei Zhi, Jinkui Chu, Jinshan Li, Yinlong Wang
This paper aims to develop a novel attitude determination system aided by polarization sensor. An improved heading angle function is derived using the perpendicular relationship between directions of E-vector of linearly polarized light and solar vector in the atmospheric polarization distribution model. The Extended Kalman filter (EKF) with quaternion differential equation as a dynamic model is applied to fuse the data from sensors. The covariance functions of filter process and measurement noises are deduced in detail...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
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