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Unmanned aerial vehicles

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659526/improved-seam-line-searching-algorithm-for-uav-image-mosaic-with-optical-flow
#1
Weilong Zhang, Bingxuan Guo, Ming Li, Xuan Liao, Wenzhuo Li
Ghosting and seams are two major challenges in creating unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) image mosaic. In response to these problems, this paper proposes an improved method for UAV image seam-line searching. First, an image matching algorithm is used to extract and match the features of adjacent images, so that they can be transformed into the same coordinate system. Then, the gray scale difference, the gradient minimum, and the optical flow value of pixels in adjacent image overlapped area in a neighborhood are calculated, which can be applied to creating an energy function for seam-line searching...
April 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653153/unmanned-aerial-vehicles-drones-to-prevent-drowning
#2
Celia Seguin, Gilles Blaquière, Anderson Loundou, Pierre Michelet, Thibaut Markarian
BACKGROUND: Drowning literature have highlighted the submersion time as the most powerful predictor in assessing the prognosis. Reducing the time taken to provide a flotation device and prevent submersion appears of paramount importance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide the location of the swimmer and a flotation device. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a UAV in providing a flotation device in different sea conditions, and to compare the times taken by rescue operations with and without a UAV (standard vs UAV intervention)...
April 10, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650982/a-hyphenated-preconcentrator-infrared-hollow-waveguide-sensor-system-for-n-2-o-sensing
#3
João Flavio da Silveira Petruci, Andreas Wilk, Arnaldo Alves Cardoso, Boris Mizaikoff
Following the Kyoto protocol, all signatory countries must provide an annual inventory of greenhouse-gas emission including N2 O. This fact associated with the wide variety of sources for N2 O emissions requires appropriate sensor technologies facilitating in-situ monitoring, compact dimensions, ease of operation, and sufficient sensitivity for addressing such emission scenarios. In this contribution, we therefore describe an innovative portable mid-infrared chemical sensor system for quantifying gaseous N2 O via coupling a substrate-integrated hollow waveguide (iHWG) simultaneously serving as highly miniaturized mid-infrared photon conduit and gas cell to a custom-made preconcentrator...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614481/vertical-stratification-of-volatile-organic-compounds-and-their-photochemical-product-formation-potential-in-an-industrial-urban-area
#4
Thi-Dieu-Hien Vo, Chitsan Lin, Chien-Erh Weng, Chung-Shin Yuan, Chia-Wei Lee, Chung-Hsuang Hung, Xuan-Thanh Bui, Kuo-Cheng Lo, Jun-Xian Lin
High emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the petrochemical industry and vehicle exhaust may contribute to high ozone formation potential (OFP) and secondary organic aerosol formation potential (SOAFP). In this study, the vertical profiles of VOCs were created for the southern Taiwan industrial city of Kaohsiung. Vertical air samples were collected up to 1000 m using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). In Renwu District, VOC distribution was affected by the inversion layer up to 200 m height...
March 31, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599542/google-haul-out-earth-observation-imagery-and-digital-aerial-surveys-in-coastal-wildlife-management-and-abundance-estimation
#5
Jerry H Moxley, Andrea Bogomolni, Mike O Hammill, Kathleen M T Moore, Michael J Polito, Lisa Sette, W Brian Sharp, Gordon T Waring, James R Gilbert, Patrick N Halpin, David W Johnston
As the sampling frequency and resolution of Earth observation imagery increase, there are growing opportunities for novel applications in population monitoring. New methods are required to apply established analytical approaches to data collected from new observation platforms (e.g., satellites and unmanned aerial vehicles). Here, we present a method that estimates regional seasonal abundances for an understudied and growing population of gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) in southeastern Massachusetts, using opportunistic observations in Google Earth imagery...
August 1, 2017: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571390/a-uav-and-s2a-data-based-estimation-of-the-initial-biomass-of-green-algae-in-the-south-yellow-sea
#6
Fuxiang Xu, Zhiqiang Gao, Xiaopeng Jiang, Weitao Shang, Jicai Ning, Debin Song, Jinquan Ai
Previous studies have shown that the initial biomass of green tide was the green algae attaching to Pyropia aquaculture rafts in the Southern Yellow Sea. In this study, the green algae was identified with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), an biomass estimation model was proposed for green algae biomass in the radial sand ridge area based on Sentinel-2A image (S2A) and UAV images. The result showed that the green algae was detected highly accurately with the normalized green-red difference index (NGRDI); approximately 1340 tons and 700 tons of green algae were attached to rafts and raft ropes respectively, and the lower biomass might be the main cause for the smaller scale of green tide in 2017...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568305/mapping-the-flowering-of-an-invasive-plant-using-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-is-there-potential-for-biocontrol-monitoring
#7
Nuno C de Sá, Paula Castro, Sabrina Carvalho, Elizabete Marchante, Francisco A López-Núñez, Hélia Marchante
Invasion by alien species is a worldwide phenomenon with negative consequences at both natural and production areas. Acacia longifolia is an invasive shrub/small tree well known for its negative ecological impacts in several places around the world. The recent introduction of a biocontrol agent ( Trichilogaster acaciaelongifoliae ), an Australian bud-galling wasp which decreases flowering of A. longifolia , in Portugal, demands the development of a cost-efficient method to monitor its establishment. We tested how unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) can be used to map A...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565822/aerial-mapping-of-forests-affected-by-pathogens-using-uavs-hyperspectral-sensors-and-artificial-intelligence
#8
Juan Sandino, Geoff Pegg, Felipe Gonzalez, Grant Smith
The environmental and economic impacts of exotic fungal species on natural and plantation forests have been historically catastrophic. Recorded surveillance and control actions are challenging because they are costly, time-consuming, and hazardous in remote areas. Prolonged periods of testing and observation of site-based tests have limitations in verifying the rapid proliferation of exotic pathogens and deterioration rates in hosts. Recent remote sensing approaches have offered fast, broad-scale, and affordable surveys as well as additional indicators that can complement on-ground tests...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563961/estimation-of-vegetation-indices-for-high-throughput-phenotyping-of-wheat-using-aerial-imaging
#9
Zohaib Khan, Vahid Rahimi-Eichi, Stephan Haefele, Trevor Garnett, Stanley J Miklavcic
Background: Unmanned aerial vehicles offer the opportunity for precision agriculture to efficiently monitor agricultural land. A vegetation index (VI) derived from an aerially observed multispectral image (MSI) can quantify crop health, moisture and nutrient content. However, due to the high cost of multispectral sensors, alternate, low-cost solutions have lately received great interest. We present a novel method for model-based estimation of a VI using RGB color images. The non-linear spatio-spectral relationship between the RGB image of vegetation and the index computed by its corresponding MSI is learned through deep neural networks...
2018: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561888/integrated-optimization-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-task-allocation-and-path-planning-under-steady-wind
#10
He Luo, Zhengzheng Liang, Moning Zhu, Xiaoxuan Hu, Guoqiang Wang
Wind has a significant effect on the control of fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), resulting in changes in their ground speed and direction, which has an important influence on the results of integrated optimization of UAV task allocation and path planning. The objective of this integrated optimization problem changes from minimizing flight distance to minimizing flight time. In this study, the Euclidean distance between any two targets is expanded to the Dubins path length, considering the minimum turning radius of fixed-wing UAVs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558434/automatic-modulation-classification-based-on-deep-learning-for-unmanned-aerial-vehicles
#11
Duona Zhang, Wenrui Ding, Baochang Zhang, Chunyu Xie, Hongguang Li, Chunhui Liu, Jungong Han
Deep learning has recently attracted much attention due to its excellent performance in processing audio, image, and video data. However, few studies are devoted to the field of automatic modulation classification (AMC). It is one of the most well-known research topics in communication signal recognition and remains challenging for traditional methods due to complex disturbance from other sources. This paper proposes a heterogeneous deep model fusion (HDMF) method to solve the problem in a unified framework...
March 20, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553928/reconstruction-of-single-image-from-multiple-blurry-measured-images
#12
Tsung-Ching Lin, Liming Hou, Hongqing Liu, Yong Li, Trieu-Kien Truong
The problem of blind image recovery using multiple blurry images of the same scene is addressed in this paper. To perform blind deconvolution, which is also called blind image recovery, the blur kernel and image are represented by groups of sparse domains to exploit the local and nonlocal information such that a novel joint deblurring approach is conceived. In the proposed approach, the group sparse regularization on both the blur kernel and image is provided, where the sparse solution is promoted by -norm...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542096/remotely-piloted-life-saving-effort-vehicles-and-emergency-management-an-analysis-on-revolutionizing-humanitarian-assistance-in-pakistan
#13
Ali Bin Nadeem, Ysa Chandna
The majority of the Pakistani public has known little of the unmanned aerial vehicles, also known for their onomatopoeically inspired name "drones," except the fact that it regularly rains Hellfire missiles in Pakistan, claiming the lives of many innocent Pakistanis settled in the western provinces. In actuality, in addition to their destructive capacities, these remotely piloted vehicles have been used since the turn of the century in a variety of live-saving and risk-reducing roles. This research article primarily addresses the third stage of Emergency management-response, with Pakistan being the primary region of research...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523753/prospective-use-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-for-military-medical-evacuation-in-future-conflicts
#14
EDITORIAL
Charles Handford, F Reeves, P Parker
In order to continue to deliver outstanding medical care on the battlefield, the UK Defence Medical Services must continue to adapt, overcome and actively embrace change. One potential area is the rapid proliferation and sophistication of automated and remote systems such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs are already used to deliver blood to remote military locations in Afghanistan and defibrillators to those that need them in the USA and Sweden. An area of future opportunity would be to facilitate rapid evacuation of wounded personnel from high intensity, high threat, remote and austere areas directly to specialist care...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504149/control-or-rescue-at-sea-aims-and-limits-of-border-surveillance-technologies-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#15
Maria Gabrielsen Jumbert
The matter of boat migrants crossing the Mediterranean Sea, seeking to reach Europe, is interchangeably defined as a 'security issue', requiring stricter border controls, and as a humanitarian issue with corresponding rescue and protection requirements. This paper seeks to understand what role various surveillance technologies, such as radar, satellites, and unmanned aerial vehicles, can play in this respect (legally and technically), in comparison to the role that they are assigned (that is, political expectations)...
March 5, 2018: Disasters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503719/comparing-terrestrial-laser-scanning-and-unmanned-aerial-vehicle-structure-from-motion-to-assess-top-of-canopy-structure-in-tropical-forests
#16
Sabina Roşca, Juha Suomalainen, Harm Bartholomeus, Martin Herold
Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with digital cameras have attracted much attention from the forestry community as potential tools for forest inventories and forest monitoring. This research fills a knowledge gap about the viability and dissimilarities of using these technologies for measuring the top of canopy structure in tropical forests. In an empirical study with data acquired in a Guyanese tropical forest, we assessed the differences between top of canopy models (TCMs) derived from TLS measurements and from UAV imagery, processed using structure from motion...
April 6, 2018: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500389/multi-modal-survey-of-ad%C3%A3-lie-penguin-mega-colonies-reveals-the-danger-islands-as-a-seabird-hotspot
#17
Alex Borowicz, Philip McDowall, Casey Youngflesh, Thomas Sayre-McCord, Gemma Clucas, Rachael Herman, Steven Forrest, Melissa Rider, Mathew Schwaller, Tom Hart, Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Michael J Polito, Hanumant Singh, Heather J Lynch
Despite concerted international effort to track and interpret shifts in the abundance and distribution of Adélie penguins, large populations continue to be identified. Here we report on a major hotspot of Adélie penguin abundance identified in the Danger Islands off the northern tip of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP). We present the first complete census of Pygoscelis spp. penguins in the Danger Islands, estimated from a multi-modal survey consisting of direct ground counts and computer-automated counts of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) imagery...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495504/saliency-detection-and-deep-learning-based-wildfire-identification-in-uav-imagery
#18
Yi Zhao, Jiale Ma, Xiaohui Li, Jie Zhang
An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) equipped with global positioning systems (GPS) can provide direct georeferenced imagery, mapping an area with high resolution. So far, the major difficulty in wildfire image classification is the lack of unified identification marks, the fire features of color, shape, texture (smoke, flame, or both) and background can vary significantly from one scene to another. Deep learning (e.g., DCNN for Deep Convolutional Neural Network) is very effective in high-level feature learning, however, a substantial amount of training images dataset is obligatory in optimizing its weights value and coefficients...
February 27, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489441/targeted-applications-of-unmanned-aerial-vehicles-drones-in-telemedicine
#19
Kunj Bhatt, Ali Pourmand, Neal Sikka
INTRODUCTION: Advances in technology have revolutionized the medical field and changed the way healthcare is delivered. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are the next wave of technological advancements that have the potential to make a huge splash in clinical medicine. UAVs, originally developed for military use, are making their way into the public and private sector. Because they can be flown autonomously and can reach almost any geographical location, the significance of UAVs are becoming increasingly apparent in the medical field...
February 28, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488061/using-drones-to-study-human-beings-ethical-and-regulatory-issues
#20
David B Resnik, Kevin C Elliott
Researchers have used drones to track wildlife populations, monitor forest fires, map glaciers, and measure air pollution but have only begun to consider how to use these unmanned aerial vehicles to study human beings. The potential use of drones to study public gatherings or other human activities raises novel issues of privacy, confidentiality, and consent, which this article explores in depth. It argues that drone research could fall into several different categories: non-human subjects research (HSR), exempt HSR, or non-exempt HSR...
February 27, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
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