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Adrenaline and shock in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689353/cardiorespiratory-arrest-in-children-out-of-hospital
#1
Kristina Krmpotic, Hilary Writer
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children per year in resource-rich countries, with two-thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 45% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for non-submersion out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to November 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview)...
2015: Clinical Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26522419/-six-cases-of-wheat-dependent-exercise-induced-anaphylaxis-in-children
#2
Tomoko Nakagawa, Kazunori Sakai, Naofumi Hayashi, Arisa Sato, Kemal Sasaki, Teruaki Matsui, Shiro Sugiura, Naoyuki Kando, Komei Ito
Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is often reported in adults for whom the specific IgE to ω-5 gliadin can be a useful diagnostic test. However, few cases of WDEIA in children have been reported. We herein report six cases (aged 7-16 years) of children with WDEIA, who had no clinical history of immediate-type wheat allergy but who were diagnosed by a wheat ingestion + exercise provocation test. The specific IgE to wheat ranged <0.35-3.49 (median 1.64) UA/ml. Skin prick tests using wheat extract were performed on 3 patients who showed either a negative or low specific IgE titer to wheat, and all of them resulted in negative findings...
August 2015: Arerugī, [Allergy]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24461180/-serious-systemic-adverse-events-associated-with-allergen-specific-immunotherapy-in-children-with-asthma
#3
Li Dai, Ying Huang, Ying Wang, Huan-Li Han, Qu-Bei Li, Yong-Hui Jiang
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess serious systemic adverse effects of standardized dust-mite vaccine in children with asthma. METHODS: Medical records of 704 children (5-17 years in age) with asthma between January, 2005 and December, 2011 were reviewed. Serious systemic adverse events following treatment with a standardized dust-mite vaccine in these children were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 336 systemic adverse reactions were observed in 17...
January 2014: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24404597/-anaphylaxis-recognize-and-treat-early
#4
M Boulyana
Allergic emergencies in children are now more frequent and unpredictable and can cause death by anaphylactic shock, bronchospasm, and airway angioedema. Despite the publication of recent guidelines, many studies show that caregivers are still not at ease with the management of anaphylaxis and intramuscular administration of adrenaline. The prognosis depends on the early diagnosis of anaphylaxis and adrenaline administration before cardiorespiratory failure. The biphasic course of anaphylaxis requires systematic hospitalization of at least 6–24 hours depending on severity...
December 2013: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23812341/evolution-of-haemodynamics-and-outcome-of-fluid-refractory-septic-shock-in-children
#5
Akash Deep, Chulananda D A Goonasekera, Yanzhong Wang, Joe Brierley
BACKGROUND: Maintaining threshold values of cardiac output (CO) and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) when used as part of the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) haemodynamic protocol improves the outcomes in paediatric septic shock. OBJECTIVE: We observed the evolution of CO and SVR during the intensive care admission of children with fluid-refractory septic shock and report this together with the eventual outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective observational study...
September 2013: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23282762/eight-years-of-severe-allergic-reactions-in-finland-a-register-based-report
#6
Soili Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Tari Haahtela
BACKGROUND: : No data have been available on severe allergic reactions in Finland. MATERIALS AND METHODS: : We summarize the data accumulated from 2000 to 2007 in the national register established at the Skin and Allergy Hospital of the Helsinki University Central Hospital, where physicians voluntarily report on patients with severe allergic reactions. RESULTS: : During the period, the 530 reported cases of severe allergic reactions represented an annual frequency of 0...
November 2008: World Allergy Organization Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22017373/basic-and-advanced-paediatric-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-guidelines-of-the-australian-and-new-zealand-resuscitation-councils-2010
#7
James Tibballs, Richard Aickin, Gabrielle Nuthall
Guidelines for basic and advanced paediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have been revised by Australian and New Zealand Resuscitation Councils. Changes encourage CPR out-of-hospital and aim to improve the quality of CPR in-hospital. Features of basic CPR include: omission of abdominal thrusts for foreign body airway obstruction; commencement with chest compression followed by ventilation in a ratio of 30:2 or compression-only CPR if the rescuer is unwilling/unable to give expired-air breathing when the victim is 'unresponsive and not breathing normally'...
July 2012: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21644273/-european-resuscitation-council-guidelines-for-resuscitation-2010
#8
Silvija Hunyadi-Anticević, Zeljko Colak, Ines Lojna Funtak, Anita Lukić, Boris Filipović-Grcić, Branka Tomljanović, Hrvoje Kniewald, Alen Protić, Tatjana Pandak, Zdravka Poljaković, Marino Canadija
All rescuers trained or not, should provide chest compressions to victims of cardiac arrest. The aim should be to push to a depth of at least 5 cm at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute, to allow full chest recoil, and to minimise interruptions in chest compressions. Trained rescuers should also provide ventilations with a compression-ventilation ratio of 30:2. ELECTRICAL THERAPIES: Much greater emphasis on minimising the duration of the pre-shock and post-shock pauses; the continuation of compressions during charging of the defibrillator is recommended...
January 2011: Lijec̆nic̆ki Vjesnik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21406131/cardiorespiratory-arrest-in-children-out-of-hospital
#9
REVIEW
Hilary Writer
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two-thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 45% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for non-submersion out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to December 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
2010: Clinical Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21125214/-comments-on-the-2010-guidelines-on-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-of-the-european-resuscitation-council
#10
V Wenzel, S G Russo, H R Arntz, J Bahr, M A Baubin, B W Böttiger, B Dirks, U Kreimeier, M Fries, C Eich
ADULTS: Administer chest compressions (minimum 100/min, minimum 5 cm depth) at a ratio of 30:2 with ventilation (tidal volume 500-600 ml, inspiration time 1 s, F(I)O₂ if possible 1.0). Avoid any interruptions in chest compressions. After every single defibrillation attempt (initially biphasic 120-200 J, monophasic 360 J, subsequently with the respective highest energy), chest compressions are initiated again immediately for 2 min independent of the ECG rhythm. Tracheal intubation is the optimal method for securing the airway during resuscitation but should be performed only by experienced airway management providers...
December 2010: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20580150/an-epidemiological-survey-of-hymenoptera-venom-allergy-in-the-spanish-paediatric-population
#11
A Martínez-Cañavate, A I Tabar, J L Eseverri, F Martín, C Pedemonte-Marco
UNLABELLED: Hypersensitivity reactions to hymenoptera venom are infrequent in paediatric patients. A study was made to determine the incidence of this pathology in children, based on an epidemiological survey targeted to all members of the SEICAP (Sociedad Española de Inmunología Clínica y Alergia Pediátrica/Spanish Society of Paediatric Clinical Immunology and Allergy), and designed to collect the data on patients under 17 years of age diagnosed with hymenoptera venom allergy. RESULTS: The data corresponding to 175 patients (135 males) were collected...
September 2010: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20544136/-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-nine-pediatric-intensive-care-units-of-the-argentine-republic
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Rodolfo P Moreno, Juan C Vassallo, Silvia S Sáenz, Ana C Blanco, Daniel Allende, José L Araguas, Santiago Ayala Torales, Edgardo Banille, Amanda M Berrueta, Patricia Capocasa, César G Caprotta, Guillermo E Moreno, Hilda S Pérez, Liliana Porta, Gabriela Rodríguez, Marcelo Rojo
INTRODUCTION: The cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a common setting in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). There are very few reports or publications that evaluate the form of CPR administered in children. OBJECTIVES: 1) Identify the etiology and epidemiology of the CPR in the PICU. 2) Describe how to conduct CPR. 3) Describe the drugs used. 4) Knowing the patient outcomes. 5) Knowing CPR training of physicians in the PICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All children with cardiopulmonary arrest who were resuscitated in the PICU between 01/04/2004- 31/03/2005...
June 2010: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20094123/-paediatric-intensive-care
#13
Ulf Mostad, Sigurd Fasting
BACKGROUND: Child physiology and disease is not the same as in adults, which implies different challenges within intensive care. The aim of this review article is to shed light on special diagnostic and therapeutic problems in paediatric intensive care. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The review is based on literature identified through a non-systematic search in PubMed, and on the authors' own clinical experience. RESULTS: Common causes for admitting children to intensive care units are head injuries; septic shock and respiratory failure...
January 14, 2010: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19450304/cardiorespiratory-arrest-in-children-out-of-hospital
#14
REVIEW
Hilary Writer
INTRODUCTION: Cardiorespiratory arrest outside hospital occurs in approximately 1/10,000 children a year in resource-rich countries, with two thirds of arrests occurring in children under 18 months of age. Approximately 40% of cases have undetermined causes, including sudden infant death syndrome. Of the rest, 20% are caused by trauma, 10% by chronic disease, and 6% by pneumonia. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for non-submersion out-of-hospital cardiorespiratory arrest in children? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to February 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review)...
2007: Clinical Evidence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18092150/terlipressin-as-a-rescue-therapy-for-catecholamine-resistant-septic-shock-in-children
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Dincer Yildizdas, Hacer Yapicioglu, Umit Celik, Yasar Sertdemir, Emre Alhan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of terlipressin on oxygenation, PaO2/FIO2, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and mortality in children with septic shock refractory to high doses of dopamine/dobutamine and adrenaline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A randomized, nonblind study in the pediatric intensive care unit of a university hospital. PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: We studied 58 children with septic shock and refractory hypotension despite fluid loading and high doses of catecholamines, randomly enrolled to terlipressin (TP, n=30) or control (n=28)...
March 2008: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17153762/-pediatric-advanced-life-support
#16
REVIEW
A Castellanos Ortega, C Rey Galán, A Alvarez Carrillo, J López-Herce Cid, M A Delgado Domínguez
Advanced life support (ALS) includes all the procedures and maneuvers used to restore spontaneous circulation and breathing, thus minimizing brain injury. The fundamental steps of ALS are airway control with adjuncts, ventilation with 100% oxygen, vascular access and fluid and drug administration, and monitoring to diagnose and treat arrhythmias. Airway control can be achieved by means of oropharyngeal airway, endotracheal intubation, and alternative methods (laryngeal mask and cricothyroidotomy). Vascular access can be achieved by the peripheral venous, intraosseous, central venous, and tracheal routes...
October 2006: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17083780/-continuous-blood-purification-in-the-treatment-of-pediatric-septic-shock
#17
Zhi-chun Feng, Ping Chang, Shao-hua Tao, Hui Chen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy of continuous blood purification (CBP) and to explore its mechanism in the treatment of pediatric septic shock. METHODS: Nine children weighted 3.1 kg - 14.0 kg with septic shock were treated with continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) which is also referred to as CBP with blood access of double-lumen hemodialysis catheter of 6.5 to 8Fr inserted via central vein, hemofilters of Minifilter plus (for children with body weight < 5 kg) or AV400s (for children with body weight > or = 5 kg), child's type extracorporeal circuit vessel and heparin anticoagulation...
August 2006: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16886486/-pediatric-emergencies
#18
A Dorsch
Management of acute emergencies in children has a number of specific aspects, with which the first person providing medical care needs to be familiar. For example, intubation requires knowledge of the particular anatomy of infants and young children. In addition, a specific and flexible approach to such matters as oxygen requirement, blood volumes, thermoregulation and the venous system is essential. Administration of adrenaline should initially be via inhalation, since this can be done rapidly and easily. Among the causes of cardiac arrest, sudden infant death predominates in babies, while in young and pre-school children, trauma and near-drowning accidents represent the most common events requiring reanimation measures...
July 6, 2006: MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14588220/-treatment-of-septic-shock-with-continuous-plasmafiltration-and-hemodiafiltration
#19
REVIEW
J López-Herce Cid, A Bustinza Arriortúa, A Alcaraz Romero, K B Brandstrup Azuero, C Fernández García-Abril, M Roncero Rubio
Despite recent therapeutic advances, mortality due to septic shock remains high. The most important causes of mortality are refractory shock, uncontrollable alterations of coagulation, and multiorgan failure. Some authors have proposed the early use of plasmafiltration and high flow hemodiafiltration for refractory septic shock. Most authors initiate treatment with a short session of plasmafiltration followed by continuous hemodiafiltration. A 13-year-old girl presented refractory meningococcal septic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute renal failure unresponsive to volume expansion and high doses of adrenalin and noradrenaline...
November 2003: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14525645/cardiac-rescue-with-enoximone-in-volume-and-catecholamine-refractory-septic-shock
#20
Hannelore I G Ringe, Verena Varnholt, Gerhard Gaedicke
In December 2000 and February 2001, two children with suspected meningococcal disease were admitted to our pediatric intensive unit. Their Glasgow Meningococcal Septicaemia Prognostic score was 12 points. General treatment including antibiotics, steroids in case of meningitis, and fluid replacement, was performed. Despite appropriate volume replacement, intubation and ventilation, noradrenaline and adrenaline continuous infusions < or =1.0 microg/kg/min, and additional bolus infusions, cardiac output deteriorated within minutes in both children...
October 2003: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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