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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651341/plasma-concentrations-of-atovaquone-given-to-immunocompromised-patients-to-prevent-pneumocystis-jirovecii
#1
Christine Robin, Minh Patrick Lê, Giovanna Melica, Laurent Massias, Rabah Redjoul, Nihel Khoudour, Mathieu Leclerc, Florence Beckerich, Sébastien Maury, Anne Hulin, Catherine Cordonnier
Objectives: Atovaquone is one of the alternatives to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in immunocompromised patients. In volunteers, there was wide inter-individual variability in atovaquone bioavailability. The aim of this study was to assess the plasma concentrations of atovaquone in immunocompromised patients under PCP prophylaxis. Methods: Adult haematology or HIV-positive patients receiving atovaquone (750 mg oral suspension twice a day) for PCP prophylaxis were included...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651259/new-biguanides-as-anti-diabetic-agents-part-i-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-1-substituted-biguanide-derivatives-as-anti-diabetic-agents-of-type-ii-diabetes-insulin-resistant
#2
Samir Y Abbas, Wahid M Basyouni, Khairy A M El-Bayouk, Wael M Tohamy, Hanan F Aly, Azza Arafa, Mahmoud S Soliman
New 1-substituted-biguanide hydrochloride salts were synthesized via reacting benzo[1,3-d]dioxol-5-amine, phenylhydrazine, N,N-dimethylhydrazinecarboxamide, benzohydrazide and 2-phenyl acetohydrazide with dicyandiamide in acidic medium. Structures of the obtained biguanide salts were characterized by spectroscopic tools. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-diabetic activity with standard metformin drug. Oral treatment of hyperglycemic rats with the synthesized biguanide derivatives significantly decreased the elevated blood glucose level...
June 26, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651152/methylphenidate-disintegration-from-oral-formulations-for-intravenous-use-by-experienced-substance-users
#3
G D Bjarnadottir, M Johannsson, A Magnusson, B O Rafnar, E Sigurdsson, S Steingrimsson, V Asgrimsson, I Snorradottir, H Bragadottir, H M Haraldsson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Methylphenidate (MPH) is a prescription stimulant used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. MPH is currently the preferred substance among most intravenous (i.v.) substance users in Iceland. Four types of MPH preparations were available in Iceland at the time of study: Immediate-release (IR), sustained-release (SR), osmotic controlled-release oral delivery (OROS) tablet and osmotic-controlled release (OCR). MPH OROS has previously been rated the least desirable by i...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650349/new-oral-antiplatelet-medications
#4
Travis Jeffords
New and more potent oral antiplatelet agents have shown better clinical outcomes over the last few years. This article reviews the latest oral antiplatelet therapies available, their indications and contraindications, genetic resistance, and major drug interactions.
June 22, 2017: Nurse Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650324/formulation-evaluation-and-release-rate-characteristics-of-medicated-jelly-of-vitamin-c
#5
Khalid A Ibrahim, Asma Nawaz, Shamim Mumtaz, Furqan Muhammad Iqbal, Ahmad Khan, Shahiquz Zaman, Nasser M Abd El-Salam, Naseem Ullah, Tajamul Husain, Syed Nisar Hussain Shah
Medicated jelly formulations are patient friendly dosage form for pediatric, geriatric and dysphagic patients. These formulations offer rapid dissolution and absorption of drugs through oral mucosa therefore show the early onset of action. The objective of the study was to develop and evaluate oral jelly formulations of vitamin C. Slurry method was adopted using glucose 103gm, sugar 67gm, gelatin 10gm and sorbitol 6.56gm. Preformulation studies were performed including the organoleptic profile, pH, and solubility of both drugs...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650253/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-osteoporosis-before-and-after-fracture-a-side-by-side-analysis-of-commercially-insured-and-medicare-advantage-osteoporosis-patients
#6
Jessica Weaver, Shiva Sajjan, E Michael Lewiecki, Steven T Harris
BACKGROUND: Although treatment for osteoporosis is recommended by U.S. clinical guidelines, a lack of diagnosis and treatment is common among patients with osteoporotic fractures. OBJECTIVE: To determine the rates of osteoporosis diagnosis and treatment before and after various types of fractures. METHODS: This was a retrospective claims analysis using data from the Humana Medicare Advantage claims (Medicare group) and Optum Insight Clinformatics Data Mart commercial claims (Commercial group)...
July 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650232/pharmacokinetics-of-cyclophosphamide-and-4-hydroxycyclophosphamide-in-cats-after-oral-intravenous-and-intraperitoneal-administration-of-cyclophosphamide
#7
Katherine A Stroda, Jacqueline D Murphy, Ryan J Hansen, Lisa Brownlee, Elizabeth A Atencio, Daniel L Gustafson, Susan E Lana
OBJECTIVE To characterize pharmacokinetics of cyclophosphamide and 4-hydoxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) in the plasma of healthy cats after oral, IV, and IP administration of cyclophosphamide. ANIMALS 6 healthy adult cats. PROCEDURES Cats were randomly assigned to receive cyclophosphamide (200 mg/m(2)) via each of 3 routes of administration (oral, IV, and IP); there was a 30-day washout period between successive treatments. Plasma samples were obtained at various time points for up to 8 hours after administration...
July 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650116/polymeric-drug-delivery-systems-for-intraoral-site-specific-chemoprevention-of-oral-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Kashappa Goud H Desai
Oral cancer is among the most prevalent cancers in the world. Moreover, it is one of the major health problems and causes of death in many regions of the world. The traditional treatment modalities include surgical removal, radiation therapy, systemic chemotherapy, or a combination of these methods. In recent decades, there has been significant interest in intraoral site-specific chemoprevention via local drug delivery using polymeric systems. Because of its easy accessibility and clear visibility, the oral mucosa is amenable for local drug delivery...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650029/nanoparticle-encapsulated-baicalein-markedly-modulates-pro-inflammatory-response-in-gingival-epithelial-cells
#9
Xuan Li, Wei Luo, Tsz Wing Ng, Ping Chung Leung, Chengfei Zhang, Ken Cham-Fai Leung, Lijian Jin
Severe gum disease (periodontitis), which is one of the major global oral diseases, results from microbe-host dysbiosis and dysregulated immuno-inflammatory responses. It seriously affects oral health and general wellbeing with significant socio-economic implications. It has been well documented that natural flavonoids such as baicalin (BA) and baicalein (BE) possess potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, their intrinsic poor solubility and low bioavailability severely limit their biomedical applications...
June 26, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650000/andexanet-alfa-a-recombinant-mimetic-of-human-factor-xa-for-the-reversal-of-anticoagulant-therapies
#10
G Escolar, M Diaz-Ricart, E Arellano-Rodrigo
Activated coagulation factor X (FXa) is a common target for classic and newer anticoagulants. Parenteral anticoagulants with an indirect inhibitory action on FXa (low-molecular-weight heparins) have a well-established clinical efficacy in the prophylaxis and therapy of thromboembolic conditions. More recently developed direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have emerged as a new class of antithrombotic drugs. Rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are direct inhibitors of FXa approved for the management of venous thromboembolism and stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation...
May 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649925/preparation-and-characterization-of-alginate-chitosan-formulations-for-ciprofloxacin-controlled-delivery
#11
Agnieszka Kyzioł, Aleksandra Mazgała, Justyna Michna, Anna Regiel-Futyra, Victor Sebastian
In this work, alginate beads loaded with ciprofloxacin (AL_CP) and alginate beads loaded with ciprofloxacin and covered by chitosan (AL_CP_CS) were prepared by emulsification technique in combination with internal gelation method. Physicochemical characterization of the resulting formulations revealed the hydrodynamic diameter and Zeta potential ca. 160 nm and ca. -32 mV in the case of AL_CP and ca. 240 nm and ca. +14 mV in the case of AL_CP_CS (pH = 6.0), respectively. Kinetics of ciprofloxacin release from alginate/chitosan formulations was studied in different media (pH = 1...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649895/the-safety-and-efficacy-of-palbociclib-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-breast-cancer
#12
Johannes Ettl, Nadia Harbeck
Palbociclib (Ibrance(®)) is the first-in-class CDK4/6 inhibitor which has been introduced into clinical practice for the treatment of hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). It is an orally administered drug, which acts by selectively inhibiting cyclin-dependant kinases CDK4 and CDK6. Given together with anti-estrogens like letrozole and fulvestrant it enhances the antiproliferative effect of these drugs without compromising the favorable toxicity profile of endocrine therapy...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649882/neratinib-for-the-treatment-of-her2-positive-early-stage-breast-cancer
#13
Isabel Echavarria, Sara López-Tarruella, Iván Márquez-Rodas, Yolanda Jerez, Miguel Martin
Despite the advances in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer, resistance to actual chemotherapeutic regimens eventually occurs. Neratinib, an orally available pan-inhibitor of the ERBB family, represents an interesting new option for early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer. Areas covered: In this article, the development of neratinib, with a special focus on its potential value in the treatment of early-stage HER2-positive breast cancer, has been reviewed. For this purpose, a literature search was conducted, including preclinical studies, early-phase trials in advanced cancer with neratinib in monotherapy and in combination, and phase II and large phase III trials in the early setting...
June 26, 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649691/gluten-and-aluminum-content-in-synthroid-%C3%A2-levothyroxine-sodium-tablets
#14
Ramon Espaillat, Michael F Jarvis, Cory Torkelson, Brent Sinclair
INTRODUCTION: Inquiries from healthcare providers and patients about the gluten and aluminum content of Synthroid(®) (levothyroxine sodium tablets) have increased. The objective of this study was to measure and evaluate the gluten content of the raw materials used in the manufacturing of Synthroid. Additionally, this study determined the aluminum content in different strengths of Synthroid tablets by estimating the amount of aluminum in the raw materials used in the manufacturing of Synthroid...
June 26, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649132/reassessment-of-subacute-mptp-treated-mice-as-animal-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Qiu-Shuang Zhang, Yang Heng, Zheng Mou, Ju-Yang Huang, Yu-He Yuan, Nai-Hong Chen
1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model remains the most commonly used animal model of Parkinson's disease (PD). There are three MPTP-treatment schemes: acute, subacute and chronic. Considering the advantages of the period and similarity to PD, the subacute model was often chosen to assess the validity of new candidates, but the changes caused by the subacute MPTP treatment and the appropriate positive control for this model remain to be further confirmed. The aim of this study was: 1 to estimate the value of the subacute MPTP mouse model in aspects of behavioral performance, biochemical changes and pathological abnormalities, and 2 to find effective positive drugs...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649130/dopamine-d2-receptor-antagonist-sulpiride-enhances-dexamethasone-responses-in-the-treatment-of-drug-resistant-and-metastatic-breast-cancer
#16
Jian Li, Qing-Yu Yao, Jun-Sheng Xue, Li-Jie Wang, Yin Yuan, Xiu-Yun Tian, Hong Su, Si-Yuan Wang, Wen-Jun Chen, Wei Lu, Tian-Yan Zhou
Recent evidence shows that dopamine D2-like receptor (D2DR) antagonists, such as trifluoperazine and thioridazine, are effective for cancer therapy and inhibition of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effects of combination therapy of dexamethasone (DEX) and sulpiride (SUL), an atypical antipsychotic, against drug-resistant and metastatic breast cancers and further explored the underlying mechanisms. Oral administration of SUL (25, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1)) alone did not inhibit the tumor growth in human breast cancer MCF-7/Adr xenograft model, but dose-dependently decreased the proportion of CSCs in vitro and in vivo...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649126/cis-stilbene-glucoside-in-polygonum-multiflorum-induces-immunological-idiosyncratic-hepatotoxicity-in-lps-treated-rats-by-suppressing-ppar-%C3%AE
#17
Ya-Kun Meng, Chun-Yu Li, Rui-Yu Li, Lan-Zhi He, He-Rong Cui, Ping Yin, Cong-En Zhang, Peng-Yan Li, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Ya Wang, Ming Niu, Ya-Ming Zhang, Yu-Ming Guo, Rong Sun, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The root of Polygonum multiflorum Thunb (PM) has been used in China to treat a variety of diseases, such as constipation, early graying of the hair and hyperlipemia. Recent evidence shows that PM causes idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (IDILI) in humans. In this study, we investigated the molecular basis of PM-induced liver injury in a rat model of IDILI based on a non-hepatotoxic dose of LPS. SD rats were orally administered 3 potentially hepatotoxic compounds of PM: cis-stilbene glucoside (cis-SG, 50 mg/kg), trans-SG (50 mg/kg) or emodin (5 mg/kg), followed by injection of LPS (2...
June 26, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649076/renal-clearance-and-urinary-excretion-of-omeprazole-in-healthy-female-volunteers-in-pakistan
#18
Nazia Qadir, Tanweer Khaliq, Rai Altaf Hussain, Ghulam Abbas Shah, Sadia Asharaf, Ahmad Raza, Nadia Noor
Omeprazole is a widely prescribed proton pump inhibitor to treat various gastric acid hyper secretion disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the renal clearance and urinary excretion of omeprazole in eight healthy female volunteers to increase the understanding of the contributing factors such as demographics variability in the renal clearance and urinary excretion of omeprazole under indigenous conditions. The urine and blood samples were collected 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 hours after oral administration of enteric coated omeprazole (20 mg) and drug concentration in the samples was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with C18 column and UV detector...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649075/hypouricemic-and-nephroprotective-effects-of-total-flavonoids-from-the-residue-of-supercritical-co2-extraction-of-humulus-lupulus-in-potassium-oxonate-induced-mice
#19
Zhen Jing Li, Zhuan Li, Xiao Ying Dong, Lai Feng Lu, Chang Lu Wang
Total flavonoids of Humulus lupulus (TFHL) were prepared using ethanol extraction, liquid-liquid partition and purification with polyamide resin. Different dose of TFHL were orally administered to normal and hyperuricemic mice for 7 days. The xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity and hypouricemic effects of TFHL on potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice were examined. The TFHL showed very potent XOD inhibitory activity with IC50=66.8 μg/mL. At a single oral dose of 100mg/kg TFHL, the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic mice significantly decreased (P<0...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649065/poor-adherence-with-ace-inhibitors-is-a-risk-factor-of-cva-with-oral-hypoglycemic-agents-in-diabetic-patients
#20
Muhammad Tariq Aftab, Hasnain Abbas Dharamshi, Ahmed Faraz, Saba Shakeel, Osama Shakeel
Poor adherence with medicine declines the clinical outcome of pharmacotherapy. It may carry serious sequelae especially in case of antihypertensive drugs like cerebrovascular accident (CVA). This study has been planned to find the association of poor adherence with anti-hypertensive with CVA in diabetic and non- diabetic patients. One hundred CVA patients who were admitted through Emergency in Abbasi Shaheed hospital, a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, were recruited from Jun 2013 till Dec 2013. The criteria of inclusion was, diagnosed case of CVA, with primary hypertension, availability of patient's therapeutic record, consent of the patient or legal successor/heir...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
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