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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922694/cpkc%C3%AE-membrane-translocation-is-involved-in-herkinorin%C3%A2-induced-neuroprotection-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-mice
#1
Xiaochen Gui, Xu Cui, Haiping Wei, Guang Feng, Xuezheng Zhang, Yongjin He, Junfa Li, Tianzuo Li
Herkinorin is an opiate analgesic with limited adverse effects, functioning as a primary selective atypical opioid µ agonist. The present study aimed to identify whether herkinorin has a positive effect on ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into five groups: i) Naïve, ii) sham, iii) I/R, iv) I/R with dimethyl sulfoxide (I/R+D) and v) I/R with herkinorin (I/R+H). The I/R injury model was induced by occluding the middle cerebral artery for 1 h followed by 24 h or 7 days of reperfusion...
December 6, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904046/cocl2-decreases-ec-sod-expression-through-histone-deacetylation-in-cos7-cells
#2
Shuhei Hattori, Tetsuro Kamiya, Hirokazu Hara, Masayuki Ninomiya, Mamoru Koketsu, Tetsuo Adachi
Extracellular-superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), one of the SOD isozymes, is negatively regulated under hypoxic conditions, and decreases in its expression may exacerbate vascular diseases. Moreover, epigenetics, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, are known to play a critical role in the progression of cancer, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. We previously investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in decreases in EC-SOD expression in hypoxic COS7 cells; however, the role of epigenetics in this process currently remains unknown...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900807/highly-ortho-selective-chlorination-of-anilines-using-a-secondary-ammonium-salt-organocatalyst
#3
Xiaodong Xiong, Ying-Yeung Yeung
An organocatalytic, highly facile, efficient, and regioselective ortho-chlorination of anilines is described. A secondary ammonium chloride salt has been employed as the catalyst and the reaction can be conducted at room temperature without protection from air and moisture. In addition, the reaction is readily scalable and the catalyst can be recycled and reused. This catalytic protocol has been applied to the efficient synthesis of a highly potent c-Met kinase inhibitor. Mechanistic studies revealed that unique structural features of the secondary ammonium chloride salt are important for both the catalysis and regioselectivity of the electrophilic ortho-chlorination...
November 30, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885630/vesicular-glutamate-uptake
#4
Tetsufumi Ueda
Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter widely used in the vertebrate central nervous systems. The synaptic transmission process is characterized by three steps: (1) presynaptic vesicular transmitter uptake, (2) presynaptic release, and (3) postsynaptic receptor activation. Presynaptic vesicular glutamate uptake plays an initial pivotal role in glutamate transmission by concentrating glutamate in the vesicular lumen prior to its release. This active glutamate transport harnesses energy derived from ATP hydrolysis, and intra- or extravesicular chloride, and is highly specific to glutamate...
2016: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882145/microrna-22-attenuates-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-an-anti-inflammatory-mechanism-in-rats
#5
Jian Yang, Zhixing Fan, Jun Yang, Jiawang Ding, Chaojun Yang, Lihua Chen
Previous studies have reported that microRNA-22 (miR-22) may be implicated in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced myocardial injury. Our previously published data also demonstrated that miR-22 may protect against myocardial I/R injury via anti-apoptosis in rats by targeting cAMP response element-binding protein binding protein (CBP). However, the specific function of miR-22 in myocardial I/R injury is far from fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate another cardioprotective signaling mechanism of miR-22 in myocardial I/R injury...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872182/an-ompr-envz-two-component-system-ortholog-regulates-phase-variation-osmotic-tolerance-motility-and-virulence-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-strain-ab5075
#6
Kyle A Tipton, Philip N Rather
: Recently, a novel phase-variable colony opacity phenotype was discovered in Acinetobacter baumannii strain AB5075, where colonies interconvert between opaque and translucent variants. Opaque colonies become mottled/sectored after 24 hours of growth due to translucent variants arising within the colony. This easily distinguishable opaque colony phenotype was used to screen for random transposon insertions that increased the frequency of sectoring at a time point when wild-type colonies were uniformly opaque...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867349/baclofen-protects-primary-rat-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-chemical-hypoxia-induced-apoptosis-through-the-akt-and-perk-pathways
#7
Pingping Fu, Qiang Wu, Jianyan Hu, Tingting Li, Fengjuan Gao
Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) consume large quantities of energy to convert light information into a neuronal signal, which makes them highly susceptible to hypoxic injury. This study aimed to investigate the potential protection by baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist of RGCs against hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2) was applied to mimic hypoxia. Primary rat RGCs were subjected to CoCl2 with or without baclofen treatment, and RNA interference techniques were used to knock down the GABAB2 gene in the primary RGCs...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857212/gr-independent-down-modulation-on-gm-csf-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-by-the-selective-glucocorticoid-receptor-modulator-compound-a
#8
Andres E Barcala Tabarrozzi, Luz Andreone, Julie Deckers, Carla N Castro, María L Gimeno, Laura Ariolfo, Paula M Berguer, María Antunica-Noguerol, Ana C Liberman, Sabine Vettorazzi, Jan P Tuckermann, Karolien De Bosscher, Marcelo J Perone
Dendritic cells (DC) initiate the adaptive immune response. Glucocorticoids (GCs) down-modulate the function of DC. Compound A (CpdA, (2-(4-acetoxyphenyl)-2-chloro-N-methyl-ethylammonium chloride) is a plant-derived GR-ligand with marked dissociative properties. We investigated the effects of CpdA on in vitro generated GM-CSF-conditioned bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC). CpdA-exposed BMDC exhibited low expression of cell-surface molecules and diminution of the release of proinflammatory cytokines upon LPS stimulation; processes associated with BMDC maturation and activation...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852936/the-vasorelaxant-mechanisms-of-methanol-on-isolated-rat-aortic-rings-involvement-of-ion-channels-and-signal-transduction-pathways
#9
Y Bai, Q Zhang, Z Yang, Z Meng, Q Zhao
It is reported that methanol is generally used as an industrial solvent, antifreeze, windshield washer fluid, cooking fuel and perfume. Methanol ingestion can lead to severe metabolic disturbances, blindness, or even death. So far, few studies about its negative effects on cardiovascular system have been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the vasoactive effect of methanol and roles of ion channels and signal transduction pathways on isolated rat aorta. The results suggested that the mechanism of methanol-induced vasorelaxation at low concentrations (<500 mM) was mediated by ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) and L-type Ca(2+) channels, but the mechanism at high concentrations (>600 mM) was related to KATP, voltage-dependent K(+), big-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+), L-type Ca(2+) channels as well as prostacyclin, protein kinase C, β-adrenoceptors pathways...
November 16, 2016: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843294/mimetics-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-loops-1-and-4-are-active-in-a-model-of-ischemic-stroke-in-rats
#10
Tatyana A Gudasheva, Polina Povarnina, Ilya O Logvinov, Tatyana A Antipova, Sergey B Seredenin
BACKGROUND: Two dimeric dipeptides, bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-seryl-l-lysine)hexamethylenediamide (GSB-106) and bis-(N-monosuccinyl-l-methionyl-l-serine) heptamethylenediamide (GSB-214), were designed based on the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) loop 4 and loop 1 β-turn sequences, respectively. Earlier, both of these dipeptides were shown to exhibit neuroprotective activity in vitro (10(-5)-10(-8) M). The present study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of action of these peptides and their neuroprotective activity in an experimental stroke model...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834058/emerging-relationship-between-cftr-actin-and-tight-junction-organization-in-cystic-fibrosis-airway-epithelium
#11
REVIEW
Stefano Castellani, Maria Favia, Lorenzo Guerra, Annalucia Carbone, Anna Claudia Abbattiscianni, Sante Di Gioia, Valeria Casavola, Massimo Conese
Cystic fibrosis (CF), one of the most common genetic disorders affecting primarily Caucasians, is due to mutations in the CF Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) gene, encoding for a chloride channel also acting as regulator of other transmembrane proteins. In healthy subjects, CFTR is maintained in its correct apical plasma membrane location via the formation of a multiprotein complex in which scaffold proteins (such as NHERF1) and signaling molecules (such as cAMP and protein kinases) guarantee its correct functioning...
November 11, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832626/ischemic-postconditioning-regulated-mir-499-protects-the-rat-heart-against-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-through-pdcd4
#12
Jianbing Zhu, Kang Yao, Qian Wang, Junjie Guo, Hongtao Shi, Leilei Ma, Haibo Liu, Wei Gao, Yunzeng Zou, Junbo Ge
BACKGROUND: Here, we determined miR-499 involvement in the protective effect of ischemic postconditioning (IPC) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and identified the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: To investigate the cardioprotective effect of IPC-induced miR-499, rats were divided into the following five groups: sham, I/R, IPC, IPC + scramble, and IPC + antagomiR-499. Hemodynamic indexes were measured by carotid-artery intubation to assess left ventricular function ...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818246/autophagy-suppression-sensitizes-glioma-cells-to-imp-dehydrogenase-inhibition-induced-apoptotic-death
#13
Andjelka M Isakovic, Marija Dulovic, Ivanka Markovic, Tamara Kravic-Stevovic, Vladimir Bumbasirevic, Vladimir Trajkovic, Aleksandra Isakovic
We investigated the role of autophagy, a process of controlled self-digestion, in the in vitro anticancer action of the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitor ribavirin. Ribavirin-triggered oxidative stress, caspase activation, and apoptotic death in U251 human glioma cells were associated with the induction of autophagy, as confirmed by intracellular acidification, appearance of autophagic vesicles, conversion of microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, and degradation of autophagic target p62/sequestosome 1...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803790/total-flavonoid-extract-from-coreopsis-tinctoria-nutt-protects-rats-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Ya Zhang, Changsheng Yuan, He Fang, Jia Li, Shanshan Su, Wen Chen
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of total flavonoid extract from Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. (CTF) against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MIRI) using an isolated Langendorff rat heart model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximum rate of rise and fall of LV pressure (±dp/dtmax) were recorded. Cardiac injury was assessed by analyzing lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) released in the coronary effluent...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803454/isorhamnetin-inhibits-reactive-oxygen-species-dependent-hypoxia-inducible-factor-hif-1%C3%AE-accumulation
#15
Suho Seo, Kyuhwa Seo, Sung Hwan Ki, Sang Mi Shin
Isorhamnetin is a flavonoid metabolite of quercetin and isolated from water dropwort (Oenanthe javanica, Umbelliferae). It has been reported that isorhamnetin exerts beneficial effects including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. The present study investigated whether the antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin is correlated with its anti-cancer effects on colorectal cancer cells. Isorhamnetin significantly repressed cobalt chloride (CoCl2)- or hypoxia-induced hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation in HCT116 and HT29 cells...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803315/inhibition-of-gsk-3%C3%AE-increases-trabecular-bone-volume-but-not-cortical-bone-volume-in-adenine-induced-uremic-mice-with-severe-hyperparathyroidism
#16
Narihito Tatsumoto, Masaki Arioka, Shunsuke Yamada, Fumi Takahashi-Yanaga, Masanori Tokumoto, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Takanari Kitazono, Toshiyuki Sasaguri
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for bone fractures compared with the general population. Repression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is associated with bone abnormalities. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β, a critical component of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, increases bone volume through accumulation of β-catenin. It remains unknown whether inhibition of GSK-3β increases bone volume in CKD The present in vivo study examined the effects of GSK-3β inhibition on bone volume in CKD mice...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771434/therapeutic-applications-of-dichloroacetate-and-the-role-of-glutathione-transferase-zeta-1
#17
REVIEW
Margaret O James, Stephan C Jahn, Guo Zhong, Marci G Smeltz, Zhiwei Hu, Peter W Stacpoole
Dichloroacetate (DCA) has several therapeutic applications based on its pharmacological property of inhibiting pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. DCA has been used to treat inherited mitochondrial disorders that result in lactic acidosis, as well as pulmonary hypertension and several different solid tumors, the latter through its ability to reverse the Warburg effect in cancer cells and restore aerobic glycolysis. The main clinically limiting toxicity is reversible peripheral neuropathy. Although administration of high doses to rodents can result in liver cancer, there is no evidence that DCA is a human carcinogen...
October 19, 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768719/rlj-rgd3-a-novel-recombinant-toxin-protein-from-lampetra-japonica-protects-against-cerebral-reperfusion-injury-following-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-involving-the-integrin-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rats
#18
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765658/occupational-exposures-at-a-polyvinyl-chloride-production-facility-are-associated-with-significant-changes-to-the-plasma-metabolome
#19
John J Guardiola, Juliane I Beier, K Cameron Falkner, Benjamin Wheeler, Craig James McClain, Matt Cave
BACKGROUND: Occupational vinyl chloride (VC) exposures have been associated with toxicant-associated steatohepatitis and liver cancer. Metabolomics has been used to clarify mode of action in drug-induced liver injury but has not been performed following VC exposures. METHODS: Plasma samples from 17 highly exposed VC workers without liver cancer and 27 unexposed healthy volunteers were obtained for metabolite extraction and GC/MS and LC/MS(2) analysis. Following ion identification/quantification, Ingenuity pathway analysis was performed...
December 15, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753931/os-05-06-in-primary-aldosteronism-mineralocorticoids-and-potassium-influence-abundance-of-the-thiazide-sensitive-sodium-chloride-cotransporter
#20
Wolley Mj, Wu A, Xu S, Gordon Rd, Fenton Ra, Stowasser M
BACKGROUND: Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, with the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) a key player. The upstream modulators of NCC are unclear, but recent evidence has revealed the kinases 'with-no-lysine kinase 4' (WNK4) and 'STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK) to be involved. The wider role of mineralocorticoids is poorly understood, but animal models implicate aldosterone as a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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