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Eating disorders

Scott Griffiths, Susan L Rossell, Deborah Mitchison, Stuart B Murray, Jonathan M Mond
Most individuals with eating disorders do not receive treatment for their eating disorder. Closing this "treatment gap" requires a quantitative examination of individuals' attitudes towards accessing various types of treatment and of individuals' perceived barriers to seeking treatment. Thus, we recruited a sample of 425 individuals with either diagnosed or undiagnosed eating disorders and asked them to complete a survey assessing treatment attitudes, treatment barriers, and eating disorder symptom severity...
September 17, 2018: Eating Disorders
Kendra J Homan, Susan L Crowley, Leslie A Sim
In light of conflicting research regarding eating disorder risk and sports participation, the current study examined the relationship between specific aspects of sports participation (i.e., level of competition, leanness requirements, and physical/cardiovascular intensity level), an individual's motivation for sports participation, and eating disorder symptomatology/risk. Participants included 319 female collegiate athletes (M age = 19.88; SD = 1.62) representing a variety of sports and competition levels...
September 17, 2018: Eating Disorders
E Pettersson, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson, J Song, A Agrawal, A D Børglum, C M Bulik, M J Daly, L K Davis, D Demontis, H J Edenberg, J Grove, J Gelernter, B M Neale, A F Pardiñas, E Stahl, J T R Walters, R Walters, P F Sullivan, D Posthuma, T J C Polderman
BACKGROUND: Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls)...
September 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Natalie K Skead, Shane L Rogers, Jerome Doraisamy
Research indicates that, in comparison to professionals and University students in other disciplines, lawyers and law students may be at greater risk of experiencing high levels of psychological distress. There is also a large body of literature supporting an association between stress, anxiety and depression and unhealthy eating. This article reports on the results of a study of Australian legal professionals and law students that evidence a positive association between psychological distress; disordered eating, weight and shape concerns; and maladaptive eating habits in lawyers and law students...
September 12, 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
S K Tahajjul Taufique, Abhilash Prabhat, Vinod Kumar
Artificial light at night induces circadian disruptions and causes cognitive impairment and mood disorders; yet very little is known about the neural and molecular correlates of these effects in diurnal animals. We manipulated the night environment and examined cellular and molecular changes in hippocampus, the brain region involved in cognition and mood, of Indian house crows (Corvus splendens) exposed to 12 h light (150 lux): 12 h darkness (0 lux). Diurnal corvids are an ideal model species with cognitive abilities at par with mammals...
September 15, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Kelsey Gabel, Kristin K Hoddy, Krista A Varady
This study examines the safety of time restricted feeding (TRF; 8-h feeding window/16-h fasting window daily) in obese adults. Twenty-three subjects participated in an 8-h TRF intervention for 12 weeks. Self-reported adverse events, body image perception, complete blood count and disordered eating patterns did not change from baseline to week 12. These findings suggest that consuming food within an 8-h window can safely facilitate weight loss in subjects with obesity.
September 14, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Aseem Mehra, Nidhi Sharma, Sandeep Grover
"Pica" is the term used to describe craving for non-food and nonnutritive items like dirt, chalk, or paper. Pagophagia (compulsive ice chewing) is a particular form of pica that is characterized by ingestion of ice, freezer frost, or iced drinks. It is usually associated with iron deficiency anemia or mental abnormalities like intellectual disabilities, autism, etc. Very few case reports have reported association of eating ice cubes with compulsive behavior or depressive disorders. In this case report, we present the association of pagophagia with sadness in a patient with recurrent depressive disorder...
2018: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
Aileen Aldalur, Deborah Schooler
The sociocultural model of eating disorders highlights the role of internalization of the thin ideal in the development of negative body image and disordered eating. Considering the limited diversity of models in mainstream media, individuals belonging to minoritized cultural groups may resist identifying with and internalizing mainstream beauty messages. The extent of internalization may also depend on an individual's acculturation status and experiences of acculturative stress. This study applied the sociocultural model to culturally Deaf women...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education
Brad A Mac Neil, Chloe C Hudson
We examined patient experiences and satisfaction with acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) delivered in a novel weekly open-group therapy format immediately following psychiatric intake assessment into a hospital-based outpatient adult eating disorders program. Participants were 68 adults with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition diagnosis of an eating disorder who reported their experiences and satisfaction with the ACT group. Participants reported that they were somewhat satisfied to very satisfied with the open ACT group and that the treatment content was helpful...
September 2018: Journal of Patient Experience
Line Wisting, Torild Skrivarhaug, Knut Dahl-Jørgensen, Øyvind Rø
Background: The increased prevalence of disturbed eating behaviors (DEB), depression, and anxiety in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is generally well established; however the majority of existing research to date has focused on female adolescents and young adults. Data on males and older females is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of DEB and symptoms of depression and anxiety among adult males and females with type 1 diabetes, to investigate differences between individuals scoring below and above the cut-off on psychopathology, and to examine patterns of eating disorder psychopathology by age and weight...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Nina Dittmer, Ulrich Voderholzer, Mareike von der Mühlen, Michael Marwitz, Markus Fumi, Claudia Mönch, Katharina Alexandridis, Ulrich Cuntz, Corinna Jacobi, Sandra Schlegl
Background: Patients with eating disorders (ED) often suffer from compulsive exercise behavior, which is associated with lower short-term response to treatment and poorer long-term outcome. Evidence-based interventions specifically targeting compulsive exercise behavior have been scarce so far. We developed a manualized group therapeutic approach integrating cognitive-behavioral therapy, exercise therapy and exposure with response management to promote healthy exercise behavior. Our objective was to examine the feasibility and acceptance of this new approach as add-on to regular inpatient treatment in a pilot study...
2018: Journal of Eating Disorders
Adrian Meule, Carolyn Küppers, Louisa Harms, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Ulrike Schmidt, Jens Blechert, Timo Brockmeyer
Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) or binge-eating disorder (BED) experience more frequent and intense food cravings than individuals without binge eating. However, it is currently unclear whether they also show larger food cue-induced increases in craving (i.e., food cue reactivity) than those without binge eating, as suggested by conditioning theories of binge eating. A group of individuals with BN or BED (binge-eating group, n = 27) and a group of individuals with low trait food craving scores and without binge eating (control group, n = 19) reported their current food craving before and after a food cue exposure...
2018: PloS One
Hiroki Okauchi, Chiaki Hashimoto, Reiko Nakao, Katsutaka Oishi
Inappropriate eating habits such as skipping breakfast and eating late at night are associated with risk for abnormal weight-gain and adiposity. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the daytime (inactive phase) induces obesity and metabolic disorders accompanied by physical inactivity in mice. The present study compares metabolic changes induced in mice by time-imposed feeding under voluntary wheel-running (RW) and sedentary (SED) conditions to determine the effects of voluntary wheel-running activity on obesity induced in mice by feeding at inappropriate times...
September 13, 2018: Chronobiology International
Rose-Marie Satherley, Ruth Howard, Suzanne Higgs
Objectives: Previous studies on coeliac disease suggest that attitudes towards the gluten-free diet may contribute to the development of disordered eating. This study describes the development and validation of the Coeliac Disease Food Attitudes and Behaviours scale (CD-FAB) to measure these behaviours in coeliac disease. Research Methods and Procedures: Focus groups were used to develop 33 potential questionnaire items. These items were reviewed by service users and then distributed online to 157 adults with coeliac disease...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Clare Lambert, Constadina Panagiotopoulos, Jana Davidson, Ran D Goldman
Question A 10-year-old male patient presented to my clinic with irritability associated with autism spectrum disorder, and previous therapeutic efforts had not been successful. Treatment with quetiapine has considerably reduced irritability and improved his quality of life; however, the patient's mother has stated that her child's clothes are no longer fitting because his waist size has increased substantially, and that he has gained 5 kg since treatment initiation 8 weeks ago. Should second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) treatment be stopped or continued, and how can these side effects be best mitigated in a family practice setting? Answer Use of SGAs in pediatric patients has increased in recent years, which has brought to light a number of worrisome metabolic side effects that occur in children...
September 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Hans Oh, Ai Koyanagi, Jordan E DeVylder, Andrew Stickley
Seasonal allergies have been associated with mental health problems, though the evidence is still emergent, particularly in the United States. We analyzed data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and the National Latino and Asian American Survey (years 2001⁻2003). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relations between lifetime allergies and lifetime psychiatric disorders (each disorder in a separate model), adjusting for socio-demographic variables (including region of residence) and tobacco use...
September 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
M A Green, A Kroska, A Herrick, B Bryant, E Sage, L Miles, M Ravet, M Powers, W Whitegoat, R Linkhart, B King
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a controlled randomized preliminary trial of an expanded online version of the Body Project (n = 46) compared to an assessment-only control condition (n = 36) via a longitudinal design (baseline, postintervention, 2-month follow-up) in a community sample of women (N = 82) with clinical (n = 53) and subclinical (n = 29) eating disorder symptoms. METHOD: The traditional content of the Body Project was modified to include verbal, written, and behavioral exercises designed to dissuade objectification and maladaptive social comparison and adapted to an online format...
September 4, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Valentina Cardi, Jenni Leppanen, David Mataix-Cols, Iain C Campbell, Janet Treasure
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa is characterized by severe malnutrition. This study tested the hypothesis that fear of food is a learned behaviour and evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of gradual exposure to food to improve eating behaviour in people with anorexia nervosa. METHODS: Eighteen women were recruited and completed baseline self-reports. They were interviewed regarding early experiences of eating and the development of food-related anxiety. Participants received eight sessions of in vivo food exposure...
September 10, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 10, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Yael Doreen Lewis, Tal Gilon Mann, Adi Enoch-Levy, Gal Dubnov-Raz, Doron Gothelf, Abraham Weizman, Daniel Stein
OBJECTIVE: Strong relationships exist between obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorder and eating disorders (EDs). The aim of the study was to investigate whether OC symptoms would be expressed differently in different ED types. METHOD: Ninety-four female adolescent inpatients with restricting anorexia nervosa (AN-R), 67 with binge/purge AN (AN-B/P), and 48 with bulimia nervosa (BN) were assessed on admission and discharge using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorders Scale (YBC-EDS), Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...
September 9, 2018: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
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