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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087369/multidimensional-assessment-of-impulsivity-in-relation-to-obesity-and-food-addiction
#1
Lauren VanderBroek-Stice, Monika K Stojek, Steven R H Beach, Michelle R vanDellen, James MacKillop
Based on similarities between overconsumption of food and addictive drugs, there is increasing interest in "food addiction," a compulsive eating pattern defined using symptoms parallel to substance use disorders. Impulsivity, a multidimensional construct robustly linked to drug addiction, has been increasingly examined as an obesity determinant, but with mixed findings. This study sought to clarify relations between three major domains of impulsivity (i.e., impulsive personality traits, discounting of delayed rewards, and behavioral inhibition) in both obesity and food addiction...
January 10, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078784/rumination-in-patients-with-binge-eating-disorder-and-obesity-associations-with-eating-disorder-psychopathology-and-weight-bias-internalization
#2
Shirley B Wang, Janet A Lydecker, Carlos M Grilo
Overvaluation of shape and weight in binge-eating disorder (BED) is associated with greater eating-disorder psychopathology and greater weight-bias internalization, which are-in turn-associated with poorer mental and physical health. Little is known, however, about the significance of other cognitive processes, such as rumination, in BED. This study examined rumination and overvaluation of shape/weight with eating-disorder psychopathology and weight-bias internalization among 237 treatment-seeking patients with BED and comorbid obesity...
January 12, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078576/feeding-problems-and-nutrient-intake-in-children-with-and-without-autism-a-comparative-study
#3
Prahbhjot Malhi, Lolam Venkatesh, Bhavneet Bharti, Pratibha Singhi
OBJECTIVE: To compare parent reported feeding difficulties and nutritional adequacy of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to an age and socio-economically matched group of typically developing children. METHODS: The scores on Children's Eating Behavior Inventory (CEBI), three-day food records, anthropometric measures and adequacy of micro- and macro- nutrients were compared for 63 children diagnosed with ASD and 50 typically developing children enrolled from the department of pediatrics of a tertiary care teaching hospital from North India...
January 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078085/comparing-effects-a-reanalysis-of-two-studies-on-season-of-birth-bias-in-anorexia-nervosa
#4
Eirin Winje, Anne-Kari Torgalsbøen, Cathrine Brunborg, Kristin Stedal
BACKGROUND: Outcomes from studies on season of birth bias in eating disorders have been inconsistent. This inconsistency has been explained by differences in methodologies resulting in different types of effect sizes. The aim of the current study was to facilitate comparison by using the same methodology on samples from two studies with differing conclusions. METHODS: The statistical analyses used in each study were applied to the samples from the other study and the resulting effect sizes, Cramêr's V and odds ratio (OR), were compared and discussed...
2017: Journal of Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077307/impulsivity-and-test-meal-intake-among-women-with-bulimia-nervosa
#5
Robyn Sysko, Rachel Ojserkis, Janet Schebendach, Suzette M Evans, Tom Hildebrandt, B Timothy Walsh
Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions...
January 7, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076675/low-fasting-oxytocin-levels-are-associated-with-psychopathology-in-anorexia-nervosa-in-partial-recovery
#6
Yuliya Afinogenova, Cindy Schmelkin, Franziska Plessow, Jennifer J Thomas, Reitumetse Pulumo, Nadia Micali, Karen K Miller, Kamryn T Eddy, Elizabeth A Lawson
OBJECTIVE: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a psychiatric disorder characterized by restriction of food intake despite severe weight loss, is associated with increased comorbid anxiety and depression. Secretion of oxytocin, an appetite-regulating neurohormone with anxiolytic and antidepressant properties, is abnormal in AN. The link between oxytocin levels and psychopathology in AN has not been well explored. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 79 women aged 18-45 years (19 AN, 26 AN in partial recovery [ANPR], and 34 healthy controls [HC]) investigating the relationship between basal oxytocin levels and disordered eating psychopathology, anxiety, and depressive symptoms...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075191/reduction-mammaplasty-improves-levels-of-anxiety-depression-and-body-image-satisfaction-in-patients-with-symptomatic-macromastia-in-the-short-and-long-term
#7
Esther Pérez-Panzano, Ana Gascón-Catalán, Ramón Sousa-Domínguez, Patricia Carrera-Lasfuentes, Javier García-Campayo, Antonio Güemes-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the psychological consequences (anxiety, depression and body image dissatisfaction) of symptomatic macromastia and the effectiveness of breast reduction surgery in re-establishing the mental health of the patient in the short and long term. METHOD: 119 patients over 18 years old who had been diagnosed with symptomatic macromastia were assessed, before surgery, one month after the operation and one year later. Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Body Image Dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorders Inventory (EDI-2)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067773/a-systems-biological-view-of-life-and-death-decision-with-respect-to-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-the-role-of-perk-pathway
#8
Margita Márton, Anita Kurucz, Beáta Lizák, Éva Margittai, Gábor Bánhegyi, Orsolya Kapuy
Accumulation of misfolded/unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) leads to the activation of three branches (Protein kinase (RNA)-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase [PERK], Inositol requiring protein 1 [IRE-1] and Activating trascription factor 6 [ATF6], respectively) of unfolded protein response (UPR). The primary role of UPR is to try to drive back the system to the former or a new homeostatic state by self-eating dependent autophagy, while excessive level of ER stress results in apoptotic cell death...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065593/effortful-control-as-a-moderator-in-the-association-between-punishment-and-reward-sensitivity-and-eating-styles-in-adolescent-boys-and-girls
#9
Annelies Matton, Lien Goossens, Myriam Vervaet, Caroline Braet
The reactive traits of Sensitivity to Punishment (SP) and Sensitivity to Reward (SR) are assumed to be involved in the development of Eating Disorders (EDs). Most studies examine whether levels of these traits differ between ED diagnoses, without taking other variables into account. However, vulnerability theories of psychopathology posit that the risk for psychopathology depends on the interaction between reactive traits and self-regulatory traits such as Effortful Control (EC). As such, the present objective was to examine the moderating role of EC in the association between SP, SR and the eating styles restrained eating, emotional eating and external eating as possible ED precursors in adolescents...
January 5, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064539/treating-the-binge-or-the-fat-body-representations-of-fatness-in-a-gold-standard-psychological-treatment-manual-for-binge-eating-disorder
#10
Amy Brown-Bowers, Ashley Ward, Nicole Cormier
This article reports the results of a Foucauldian-informed discourse analysis exploring representations of fatness embedded within an empirically based psychological treatment manual for binge eating disorder, a condition characterized by overvaluation of weight and shape. Analyses indicate that the manual prioritizes weight loss with relatively less emphasis placed on treating the diagnostic symptoms and underlying mechanisms of binge eating disorder. We raise critical concerns about these observations and link our findings to mainstream psychology's adoption of the medical framing of fatness as obesity within the "gold standard" approach to intervention...
January 2017: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064111/modification-of-the-medical-exclusion-criterion-in-dsm-5-social-anxiety-disorder-comorbid-obesity-as-an-example
#11
Kristy L Dalrymple, Emily Walsh, Lia Rosenstein, Iwona Chelminski, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: The DSM 5 modified the medical exclusion criterion from DSM-IV, which now allows for a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder (SAD) to be given if the fears are related only to the medical condition (e.g., obesity) yet cause significant impairment or distress. METHODS: To examine this modification, the current study compared bariatric surgery candidates with DSM-IV SAD (n=135), modified SAD (clinically significant social fears related to obesity only; n=40), and no history of Axis I disorders (n=616) on variables related to pre-surgical problematic eating behaviors, body image dissatisfaction, functional impairment, and other characteristics related to bariatric surgery...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063258/eating-attitudes-and-its-relationship-with-nutritional-status-a-micro-level-study-on-a-group-of-adolescent-girls-in-the-city-of-howrah-west-bengal
#12
Nadira Mallick, Susmita Mukhopadhyay, Subha Ray
BACKGROUND: To assess the relationship between eating attitudes and nutritional status. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 400 adolescent girls (258 aged 14-17 years and 142 aged 18-21 years) from the city of Howrah, West Bengal. Eating attitude was measured using eating distress syndrome (EDS) questionnaire. Nutritional status was assessed using body mass index, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and body fat percentage (BF%). RESULTS: Participants with disordered eating attitudes revealed significantly higher values for body mass index (BMI), WHR and BF% than those with normal eating attitudes (p≤0...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060979/-suicide-risk-after-bariatric-surgery
#13
Arturo Roizblatt, Daniel Roizblatt, Francisca Soto-Aguilar B
Bariatric surgery is considered the most effective treatment for severe obesity and its benefits include improvement in medical comorbidities. However, a higher rate of suicides after this type of surgery has been reported. We performed a literature review on the subject, and concluded that the mentioned increase in suicide rates, compared to the general population, is probably caused by conditions that the patient had before surgery, especially psychiatric disorders such as depression or eating disorders. These are risk factors for suicide, and are more common in the population with indication for bariatric surgery...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060877/heightened-olfactory-sensitivity-in-young-females-with-recent-onset-anorexia-nervosa-and-recovered-individuals
#14
Mette Bentz, Johanne Guldberg, Signe Vangkilde, Tine Pedersen, Kerstin Jessica Plessen, Jens Richardt Moellegaard Jepsen
INTRODUCTION: Olfaction may be related to food restriction and weight loss. However, reports regarding olfactory function in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) have been inconclusive. OBJECTIVE: Characterize olfactory sensitivity and identification in female adolescents and young adults with first-episode AN and young females recovered from AN. METHODS: We used the Sniffin' Sticks Odor Threshold Test and Odor Identification Test to assess 43 participants with first-episode AN, 27 recovered participants, and 39 control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060578/therapist-self-disclosure-and-the-therapeutic-alliance-in-the-treatment-of-eating-problems
#15
Laura M Simonds, Naomi Spokes
Evidence is mixed regarding the potential utility of therapist self-disclosure. The current study modelled relationships between perceived helpfulness of therapist self-disclosures, therapeutic alliance, patient non-disclosure, and shame in participants (n = 120; 95% women) with a history of eating problems. Serial multiple mediator analyses provided support for a putative model connecting the perceived helpfulness of therapist self-disclosures with current eating disorder symptom severity through therapeutic alliance, patient self-disclosure, and shame...
January 6, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059633/adolescent-and-young-adult-women-s-opinions-of-common-eating-disorder-prevention-messages
#16
Jennifer S Mills, Nicole Vu, Ron Manley, Shasha Tse
We examined young women's opinions of five common eating disorder (ED) prevention themes in terms of persuasiveness and impact on behavioral intentions. Video-taped prevention themes were rated by female adolescents and young adults (ages 13-25) with and without eating disorders. Overall, younger participants found the prevention messages less persuasive than older participants. Controlling for age, clinical participants found the messages to be less persuasive than did non-clinical participants. Clinical participants reported no change in their behavioral intentions after watching the videos, whereas non-clinical participants reported a lower intention to diet and make body comparisons after viewing the messages...
January 6, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058799/impact-of-asd-traits-on-treatment-outcomes-of-eating-disorders-in-girls
#17
Catherine S Stewart, Fiona S McEwen, Anna Konstantellou, Ivan Eisler, Mima Simic
Evidence links high levels of Autism Spectrum Disorder Traits in women with chronicity of anorexia nervosa. This study reports through clinical audit the impact of ASD traits on treatment outcomes of girls who were referred for treatment in a specialist eating disorder service. Presence of current, but not early childhood, ASD traits was elevated in comparison with previously reported community samples. Current ASD traits were correlated with emotional disorders and with need for treatment augmentation (psychiatric inpatient or day patient admission), but this relationship was not significant after the contribution of depression had been controlled for...
January 6, 2017: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057515/evidence-for-erp-biomarkers-of-eating-disorder-symptoms-in-women
#18
Katie Groves, Steffan Kennett, Helge Gillmeister
Growing evidence suggests that the brain processes bodies distinctively from other stimuli, but little research has addressed whether visual body perception is modulated by the observer's thoughts and feelings about their own body. The present study thus investigated the relationship between body image and electrophysiological signatures of body perception, with the aim of identifying potential biomarkers of body image disturbances. Occipito-parietal (P1 and N1) and fronto-central (VPP) processing of body and non-body stimuli were assessed in 29 weight-restored eating disordered (ED) women and compared to 27 healthy controls...
January 2, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056106/metasynthesis-of-the-views-about-treatment-of-anorexia-nervosa-in-adolescents-perspectives-of-adolescents-parents-and-professionals
#19
Jordan Sibeoni, Massimiliano Orri, Marie Valentin, Marc-Antoine Podlipski, Stephanie Colin, Jerome Pradere, Anne Revah-Levy
BACKGROUND: Anorexia nervosa in adolescents can be a difficult-to-treat disease. Because qualitative research is a well-established method for deepening our understanding of subjective experiences, such as eating disorders and their treatment, we sought to perform a systematic review of qualitative studies to synthesize the views of adolescents with this disease, their parents, and their healthcare providers about its treatment. METHODS: We performed a thematic synthesis to develop the central themes that summarize all of the topics raised in the articles included in our review...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054099/feeding-modulatory-effects-of-mu-opioids-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-a-review-of-recent-findings-and-comparison-to-opioid-actions-in-the-nucleus-accumbens
#20
REVIEW
Ryan A Selleck, Brian A Baldo
RATIONALE: Whereas reward-modulatory opioid actions have been intensively studied in subcortical sites such as the nucleus accumbens (Acb), the role of cortical opioid transmission has received comparatively little attention. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to describe recent findings on the motivational actions of opioids in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), emphasizing studies of food motivation and ingestion. PFC-based opioid effects will be compared/contrasted to those elicited from the Acb, to glean possible common functional principles...
January 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
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