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Anaphase-promoting complex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133301/taming-the-beast-control-of-apc-c-cdc20-dependent-destruction
#1
Pablo Lara-Gonzalez, Taekyung Kim, Arshad Desai
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that triggers the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in the cell cycle by targeting the substrates cyclin B and securin for destruction. APC/C activity toward these two key substrates requires the coactivator Cdc20. To ensure that cells enter mitosis and partition their duplicated genome with high accuracy, APC/C(Cdc20) activity must be tightly controlled. Here, we discuss the mechanisms that regulate APC/C(Cdc20) activity both before and during mitosis...
November 13, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118076/the-meiosis-specific-cdc20-family-member-ama1-promotes-binding-of-the-ssp2-activator-to-the-smk1-map-kinase
#2
Gregory Omerza, Chong Wai Tio, Timothy Philips, Aviva Diamond, Aaron M Neiman, Edward Winter
Smk1 is a meiosis-specific MAP kinase (MAPK) in budding yeast that is required for spore formation. It is localized to prospore membranes (PSMs), the structures that engulf haploid cells during meiosis II (MII). Similar to canonically activated MAPKs, Smk1 is controlled by phosphorylation of its activation-loop threonine (T) and tyrosine (Y). However, activation loop phosphorylation occurs via a non-canonical two-step mechanism in which 1- the cyclin-dependent kinase activating kinase Cak1 phosphorylaytes T207 during MI and 2- Smk1 autophosphorylates Y209 as MII draws to a close...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115400/global-gene-expression-analysis-combined-with-a-genomics-approach-for-the-identification-of-signal-transduction-networks-involved-in-postnatal-mouse-myocardial-proliferation-and-development
#3
Ruoxin Wang, Chao Su, Xinting Wang, Qiang Fu, Xingjie Gao, Chunyan Zhang, Jie Yang, Xi Yang, Minxin Wei
Mammalian cardiomyocytes may permanently lose their ability to proliferate after birth. Therefore, studying the proliferation and growth arrest of cardiomyocytes during the postnatal period may enhance the current understanding regarding this molecular mechanism. The present study identified the differentially expressed genes in hearts obtained from 24 h‑old mice, which contain proliferative cardiomyocytes; 7‑day‑old mice, in which the cardiomyocytes are undergoing a proliferative burst; and 10‑week‑old mice, which contain growth‑arrested cardiomyocytes, using global gene expression analysis...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084198/distinct-kinetics-of-serine-and-threonine-dephosphorylation-are-essential-for-mitosis
#4
Jamin B Hein, Emil P T Hertz, Dimitriya H Garvanska, Thomas Kruse, Jakob Nilsson
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) in complex with B55 regulatory subunits reverses cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) phosphorylations at mitotic exit. Interestingly, threonine and serine residues phosphorylated by Cdk1 display distinct phosphorylation dynamics, but the biological significance remains unexplored. Here we demonstrate that the phosphothreonine preference of PP2A-B55 provides an essential regulatory element of mitotic exit. To allow rapid activation of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) co-activator Cdc20, inhibitory phosphorylation sites are conserved as threonines while serine substitutions delay dephosphorylation and Cdc20 activation...
October 30, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030390/apc-c-fzr-1-controls-sas-5-levels-to-regulate-centrosome-duplication-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#5
Jeffrey C Medley, Lauren E DeMeyer, Megan M Kabara, Mi Hye Song
As the primary microtubule-organizing center, centrosomes play a key role in establishing mitotic bipolar spindles that secure correct transmission of genomic content. For the fidelity of cell division, centrosome number must be strictly controlled by duplicating only once per cell cycle. Proper levels of centrosome proteins are shown to be critical for normal centrosome number and function. Overexpressing core centrosome factors leads to extra centrosomes, while depleting these factors results in centrosome duplication failure...
October 13, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021344/a-microtubule-polymerase-cooperates-with-the-kinesin-6-motor-and-a-microtubule-crosslinker-to-promote-bipolar-spindle-assembly-in-the-absence-of-kinesin-5-and-kinesin-14-in-fission-yeast
#6
Masashi Yukawa, Tomoki Kawakami, Masaki Okazaki, Kazunori Kume, Ngang Heok Tang, Takashi Toda
Accurate chromosome segregation relies on the bipolar mitotic spindle. In many eukaryotes, spindle formation is driven by the plus-end directed motor Kinesin-5 that generates outward force to establish spindle bipolarity. Its inhibition leads to the emergence of monopolar spindles with mitotic arrest. Intriguingly, simultaneous inactivation of the minus-end directed motor Kinesin-14 restores spindle bipolarity in many systems. Here we show that in fission yeast, three independent pathways contribute to spindle bipolarity in the absence of Kinesin-5/Cut7 and Kinesin-14/Pkl1...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978643/chromosome-biorientation-and-apc-activity-remain-uncoupled-in-oocytes-with-reduced-volume
#7
Simon I R Lane, Keith T Jones
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents chromosome missegregation by coupling anaphase onset with correct chromosome attachment and tension to microtubules. It does this by generating a diffusible signal from free kinetochores into the cytoplasm, inhibiting the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). The volume in which this signal remains effective is unknown. This raises the possibility that cell volume may be the reason the SAC is weak, and chromosome segregation error-prone, in mammalian oocytes. Here, by a process of serial bisection, we analyzed the influence of oocyte volume on the ability of the SAC to inhibit bivalent segregation in meiosis I...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977671/a-novel-tpr-ben-domain-interaction-mediates-pich-bend3-association
#8
Ganesha P Pitchai, Manuel Kaulich, Anna H Bizard, Pablo Mesa, Qi Yao, Kata Sarlos, Werner W Streicher, Erich A Nigg, Guillermo Montoya, Ian D Hickson
PICH is a DNA translocase required for the maintenance of chromosome stability in human cells. Recent data indicate that PICH co-operates with topoisomerase IIα to suppress pathological chromosome missegregation through promoting the resolution of ultra-fine anaphase bridges (UFBs). Here, we identify the BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) as an interaction partner of PICH in human cells in mitosis. We have purified full length PICH and BEND3 and shown that they exhibit a functional biochemical interaction in vitro...
September 5, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968996/apc-c-is-essential-for-hematopoiesis-and-impaired-in-aplastic-anemia
#9
Jia Wang, Min-Zhi Yin, Ke-Wen Zhao, Fang Ke, Wen-Jie Jin, Xiao-Lin Guo, Tian-Hui Liu, Xiao-Ye Liu, Hao Gu, Xiao-Min Yu, Zhen Li, Li-Li Mu, Deng-Li Hong, Jing Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen
Anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is essential for cell cycle progression. Recently, its non-mitotic functions were also reported but less studied in several tissues including hematopoietic cells. Here, we developed an inducible Anapc2 (a core subunit of APC/C) knockout mice. The animals displayed a fatal bone marrow failure within 7 days after knockout induction. Their hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) demonstrated a sharp decline and could form little colony. Further, the results of BrdU label-retaining cell assay showed that the dormant HPSCs lost rapidly...
September 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954866/two-mechanisms-coordinate-the-recruitment-of-the-chromosomal-passenger-complex-to-the-plane-of-cell-division
#10
Jennifer Landino, Stephen R Norris, Muyi Li, Edward R Ballister, Michael A Lampson, Ryoma Ohi
During cytokinesis, the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) promotes midzone organization, specifies the cleavage plane, and regulates furrow contractility. The localizations of the CPC are coupled to its cytokinetic functions. At the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, the CPC dissociates from centromeres and localizes to midzone microtubules and the equatorial cortex. CPC relocalization to the cell middle is thought to depend on MKlp2-driven plus-end directed transport. In support of this idea, MKlp2 depletion impairs cytokinesis; however, cytokinesis failure stems from furrow regression rather than failed initiation of furrowing...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943088/bubr1-promotes-bub3-dependent-apc-c-inhibition-during-spindle-assembly-checkpoint-signaling
#11
Katharina Overlack, Tanja Bange, Florian Weissmann, Alex C Faesen, Stefano Maffini, Ivana Primorac, Franziska Müller, Jan-Michael Peters, Andrea Musacchio
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) prevents premature sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Phosphorylation of unattached kinetochores by the Mps1 kinase promotes recruitment of SAC machinery that catalyzes assembly of the SAC effector mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). The SAC protein Bub3 is a phospho-amino acid adaptor that forms structurally related stable complexes with functionally distinct paralogs named Bub1 and BubR1. A short motif ("loop") of Bub1, but not the equivalent loop of BubR1, enhances binding of Bub3 to kinetochore phospho-targets...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933982/function-and-regulation-mechanism-of-chk1-during-meiotic-maturation-in-porcine-oocytes
#12
Zheng-Wen Nie, Li Chen, Qiu-Shi Jin, Ying-Ying Gao, Tao Wang, Xia Zhang, Yi-Liang Miao
Checkpoint 1 (Chk1), as an important member of DNA replication checkpoint and DNA damage response, has an important role during the G2/M stage of mitosis. In this study, we used porcine oocyte as a model to investigate the function of Chk1 during porcine oocyte maturation. Chk1 was expressed from germinal vesicle (GV) to metaphase II (MII) stages, mainly localized in the cytoplasm at GV stage and moved to the spindle after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Chk1 depletion not only induced oocytes to be arrested at MI stage with abnormal chromosomes arrangement, but also inhibited the degradation of Cyclin B1 and decreased the expression of Mitotic Arrest Deficient 2-Like 1 (Mad2L1), one of spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) proteins, and cadherin 1 (Cdh1), one of coactivation for anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)...
September 21, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932723/anaphase-promoting-complex-7-is-a-prognostic-factor-in-human-colorectal-cancer
#13
Ik Yong Kim, Hye Yeon Kwon, Kwang Hwa Park, Dae Sung Kim
PURPOSE: The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multiprotein complex with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is required for ubiquitination of securin and cyclin-B. Several APC-targeting molecules are reported to be oncogenes. Dysregulation of APC may be associated with tumorigenesis. This study examines the relationship between APC expression and clinicopathological factors and evaluates the possibility of an aberrant APC function in colorectal carcinomas (CRCs). METHODS: To determine whether the loss of APC7 expression is related to tumorigenesis, we used tissue micro-arrays in 114 resected CRCs to scrutinize the expressions of APC7 and Ki-67 immunohistochemistry and to find relations with clinocopathologic parameters...
August 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932719/what-is-the-meaning-of-anaphase-promoting-complex-7-in-malignant-neoplasms
#14
EDITORIAL
Weon-Young Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Coloproctology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915607/coal-tar-pitch-extract-could-induce-chromosomal-instability-of-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells-mediated-by-spindle-checkpoint-related-proteins
#15
Peng Zhang, Zhitao Li, Na Wang, Guangcai Duan, Wei Wang, Yanming Feng, Yong Zhao, Lixia Wang, Hansong Zhu, Qiao Zhang, Xiaozhuan Liu, Weidong Wu, Yongjun Wu, Wu Yao, Jing Wang, Yiming Wu, Feifei Feng
Coal tar pitch (CTP) is a byproduct of coal tar distillation. The workers working with coal tar or in aluminum smelters, potrooms and carbon plants have the opportunities of exposing to coal tar pitch volatiles. Coal tar pitches from which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) originate have been shown to exhibit lung carcinogenicity in humans. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a mechanism in carcinogenesis, however, whether CIN is involved in coal tar pitch-induced lung cancer remains elusive. In this present study, human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) were first exposed to coal tar pitch extracts (CTPE) to induce a malignant transformation model...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851945/delayed-apc-c-activation-extends-the-first-mitosis-of-mouse-embryos
#16
Anna Ajduk, Bernhard Strauss, Jonathon Pines, Magdalena Zernicka-Goetz
The correct temporal regulation of mitosis underpins genomic stability because it ensures the alignment of chromosomes on the mitotic spindle that is required for their proper segregation to the two daughter cells. Crucially, sister chromatid separation must be delayed until all the chromosomes have attached to the spindle; this is achieved by the Spindle Assembly Checkpoint (SAC) that inhibits the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase. In many species the first embryonic M-phase is significantly prolonged compared to the subsequent divisions, but the reason behind this has remained unclear...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851706/dna-damage-induces-a-kinetochore-based-atm-atr-independent-sac-arrest-unique-to-the-first-meiotic-division-in-mouse-oocytes
#17
Simon I R Lane, Stephanie L Morgan, Tianyu Wu, Josie K Collins, Julie A Merriman, Elias ElInati, James M Turner, Keith T Jones
Mouse oocytes carrying DNA damage arrest in meiosis I, thereby preventing creation of embryos with deleterious mutations. The arrest is dependent on activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint, which results in anaphase-promoting complex (APC) inhibition. However, little is understood about how this checkpoint is engaged following DNA damage. Here, we find that within minutes of DNA damage checkpoint proteins are assembled at the kinetochore, not at damage sites along chromosome arms, such that the APC is fully inhibited within 30 min...
October 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815566/maturation-promoting-factor-destabilization-mediates-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-induced-meiotic-resumption-in-rat-oocytes
#18
Meenakshi Tiwari, Shail K Chaube
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) mimics the action of luteinizing hormone (LH) and triggers meiotic maturation and ovulation in mammals. The mechanism by which hCG triggers meiotic resumption in mammalian oocytes remains poorly understood. We aimed to find out the impact of hCG surge on morphological changes, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), cell division cycle 25B (Cdc25B), Wee1, early mitotic inhibitor 2 (Emi2), anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), meiotic arrest deficient protein 2 (MAD2), phosphorylation status of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), its activity and cyclin B1 expression levels during meiotic resumption from diplotene as well as metaphase-II (M-II) arrest in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs)...
September 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807996/klhl6-deficiency-impairs-transitional-b-cell-survival-and-differentiation
#19
Barbara Bertocci, Damiana Lecoeuche, Delphine Sterlin, Julius Kühn, Baptiste Gaillard, Annie De Smet, Frederique Lembo, Christine Bole-Feysot, Nicolas Cagnard, Tatiana Fadeev, Auriel Dahan, Jean-Claude Weill, Claude-Agnès Reynaud
Klhl6 belongs to the KLHL gene family, which is composed of an N-terminal BTB-POZ domain and four to six Kelch motifs in tandem. Several of these proteins function as adaptors of the Cullin3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. In this article, we report that Klhl6 deficiency induces, as previously described, a 2-fold reduction in mature B cells. However, we find that this deficit is centered on the inability of transitional type 1 B cells to survive and to progress toward the transitional type 2 B cell stage, whereas cells that have passed this step generate normal germinal centers (GCs) upon a T-dependent immune challenge...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776765/saccharomyces-cerevisiae-gle2-rae1-is-involved-in-septin-organization-essential-for-cell-cycle-progression
#20
Gesa Zander, Wilfried Kramer, Anika Seel, Heike Krebber
Gle2/Rae1 is highly conserved from yeast to humans and has been described as an mRNA export factor. Additionally, it is implicated in the anaphase-promoting complex-mediated cell cycle regulation in higher eukaryotes. Here we identify an involvement for Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gle2 in septin organization, which is crucial for cell cycle progression and cell division. Gle2 genetically and physically interacts with components of the septin ring. Importantly, deletion of GLE2 leads to elongated buds, severe defects in septin-assembly and their cellular mislocalization...
August 4, 2017: Yeast
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