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Placenta extract

Chandni V Jain, Philip Jessmon, Brian A Kilburn, Meritxell Jodar, Edward Sendler, Stephen A Krawetz, D Randall Armant
INTRODUCTION: The growth factor HBEGF is upregulated post-transcriptionally in the low O2 environment of the human placenta during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy. We have examined the possible roles of HBEGF turnover and micro-RNA (miRNA) in its regulation by O2 in human first trimester trophoblast. METHODS: HTR-8/SVneo trophoblast cells were cultured at 2% or 20% O2. The cells were transfected with a dual luciferase reporter construct (psiCHECK-2) containing no insert (control), the HBEGF 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), or sub-regions of the 3'UTR, as well as with siRNA for DGCR8...
2016: PloS One
Simon H J Brown, Samuel R Eather, Dilys J Freeman, Barbara J Meyer, Todd W Mitchell
In preeclampsia, maternal insulin resistance leads to defective expansion of adipocytes, enhanced adipocyte lipolysis, up-regulation of very low density lipoprotein synthesis, maternal hypertriglyceridaemia and the potential for ectopic fat storage. Our aim was to quantitate and compare the total amount and type of lipid in placenta from pregnancies complicated with preeclampsia and healthy pregnancies. Quantitative lipid analysis of lipid extracts from full thickness placental biopsies was carried out by shotgun lipidomics...
2016: PloS One
Adjimon Gatien Lokossou, Chirine Toufaily, Amandine Vargas, Benoit Barbeau
Human primary villous cytotrophoblasts are a very useful source of primary cells to study placental functions and regulatory mechanisms, and to comprehend diseases related to pregnancy. In this protocol, human primary villous cytotrophoblasts freshly isolated from placentas through a standard DNase/trypsin protocol are microporated with small interfering RNA (siRNA). This approach provided greater efficiency for siRNA transfection when compared to a lipofection-based method. Transfected cells can subsequently be analyzed by standard Western blot within a time frame of 3-4 days post-transfection...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
M Massimiani, S Salvi, D Piccirilli, L Vecchione, S Moresi, S Ferrazzani, H Stuhlmann, L Campagnolo
INTRODUCTION: Placental development requires invasion and differentiation of trophoblast cells, together with coordinated fetal vasculogenesis and maternal vascular remodeling. During placental development, extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the uterine spiral arteries of the decidua and myometrium. These invasive cytotrophoblasts replace the endothelial layer of the maternal spiral arteries, transforming them from high-resistance vessels into large-caliber capacitance vessels capable of adequately nourishing the fetus...
August 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Chiara Civardi, Jan Van den Bulcke, Mark Schubert, Elisabeth Michel, Maria Isabel Butron, Matthieu N Boone, Manuel Dierick, Joris Van Acker, Peter Wick, Francis W M R Schwarze
The North American wood decking market mostly relies on easily treatable Southern yellow pine (SYP), which is being impregnated with micronized copper (MC) wood preservatives since 2006. These formulations are composed of copper (Cu) carbonate particles (CuCO3·Cu(OH)2), with sizes ranging from 1 nm to 250 μm, according to manufacturers. MC-treated SYP wood is protected against decay by solubilized Cu2+ ions and unreacted CuCO3·Cu(OH)2 particles that successively release Cu2+ ions (reservoir effect). The wood species used for the European wood decking market differ from the North American SYP...
2016: PloS One
Zahra Heidari, Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh Sagheb, Nadia Sheibak
Objective: Reports of increased level of Myeloperoxidase (MPO) in plasma and placental extracts of Systematic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) has been proposed that MPO may have an important role in this pregnancy complication. In present study immunohistochemical MPO expression was investigated in placental samples of SLE women compared with normal controls. Materials and methods: Ten patients with SLE were recruited as case group. Control group was selected from mothers with normal uncomplicated pregnancies. A monoclonal antibody specific for MPO was used for immunohistochemical staining and then the staining was quantified and differences between groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test...
June 2016: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
Camilo Mejia, Josh Lewis, Clinton Jordan, Juan Mejia, Connor Ogden, Troy Monson, Duane Winden, Marc Watson, Paul R Reynolds, Juan A Arroyo
Cigarette smoke is known to be a risk for the development of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Our objective was to assess the effects of secondhand smoke (SHS) during pregnancy and to what extent it regulates the activation of mTOR family members and murine trophoblast invasion. Mice were treated to SHS for 4 days. Placental and fetal weights were recorded at the time of necropsy. Immunohistochemistry was used to determine the level of placental trophoblast invasion. Western blots were utilized to assess the activation of caspase 3, XIAP, mTOR, p70 and 4EBP1 in treated and control placental lysates...
September 9, 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Asako Mori, Hirotaka Nishi, Toru Sasaki, Yuzo Nagamitsu, Rie Kawaguchi, Aikou Okamoto, Masahiko Kuroda, Keiichi Isaka
INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia occurs in the first trimester of placental development and is implicated in the regulation of trophoblast differentiation. Prolonged hypoxic conditions in the placenta are related to the development of preeclampsia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding, single-stranded RNAs that modulate gene expression by targeting messenger RNA. We hypothesized that, under hypoxic conditions, trophoblasts may have a unique miRNA profile that may play a critical role in placental development...
September 2016: Placenta
Cheryl McQuire, Shantini Paranjothy, Lisa Hurt, Mala Mann, Daniel Farewell, Alison Kemp
CONTEXT: Objective measurement of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is essential for identifying children at risk for adverse outcomes, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Biomarkers have been advocated for use in universal screening programs, but their validity has not been comprehensively evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the validity of objective measures of PAE. DATA SOURCES: Thirteen electronic databases and supplementary sources were searched for studies published between January 1990 and October 2015...
September 2016: Pediatrics
Nhat-Thang Tran, Valerie Amarger, Aurelie Bourdon, Emilie Misbert, Isabelle Grit, Norbert Winer, Dominique Darmaun
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of maternal citrulline supplementation on fetal growth and placental efficiency in a rat model of IUGR induced by maternal protein restriction. METHODS: Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to three groups: NP (receiving a control 20% protein diet), LP (a 4% protein diet), or LP-CIT (an LP diet along with L-citrulline, 2 g/kg/d in drinking water). On the 15(th) and 21(st) day of gestation (GD15 and GD21, respectively), dams underwent a C-section, by which fetuses and placentas were extracted...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Fang Jiao, Dan Zhang, Mengqi Jiang, Jia Mi, Xianbing Liu, Haixia Zhang, Zhengping Hu, Xiaoyan Xu, Xuemei Hu
: Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, obligate intracellular parasite capable of crossing the placental barrier and causing spontaneous abortion, preterm labor, or significant disease in the surviving neonate. To better understand molecular mechanisms underlying abnormal pregnancy outcomes caused by T. gondii, placental proteins extracted from T. gondii-infected and -uninfected mice were comparatively analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Significant difference was observed in the expression of 58 out of 792 proteins in infected placentas (p<0...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Marina Ayres Pereira, Thomas Mandel Clausen, Caroline Pehrson, Yang Mao, Mafalda Resende, Mads Daugaard, Anders Riis Kristensen, Charlotte Spliid, Line Mathiesen, Lisbeth E Knudsen, Peter Damm, Thor G Theander, Stefan R Hansson, Morten A Nielsen, Ali Salanti
During placental malaria, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes sequester in the placenta, causing health problems for both the mother and fetus. The specific adherence is mediated by the VAR2CSA protein, which binds to placental chondroitin sulfate (CS) on chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in the placental syncytium. However, the identity of the CSPG core protein and the cellular impact of the interaction have remain elusive. In this study we identified the specific CSPG core protein to which the CS is attached, and characterized its exact placental location...
August 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Vindya Lankika Udalamaththa, Chanika Dilumi Jayasinghe, Preethi Vidya Udagama
Stem cell therapy has revolutionized modern clinical therapy with the potential of stem cells to differentiate into many different cell types which may help to replace different cell lines of an organism. Innumerous trials are carried out to merge new scientific knowledge and techniques with traditional herbal extracts that may result in less toxic, affordable, and highly available natural alternative therapeutics. Currently, mesenchyamal stromal cell (MSC) lines are treated with individual and mixtures of crude herbal extracts, as well as with purified compounds from herbal extracts, to investigate the mechanisms and effects of these on stem cell growth and differentiation...
2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
A Dimirov, T Garnizov, V Zlatkov, B Frundeva, A Masseva
Conservative management of placenta accrete consists in leaving the entire placenta accreta in situ after vaginal delivery of the fetus. This behavior requires active monitoring the vital signs of mother, genital status and paraclinical indicators for an extended period after birth. Monitoring is suspended after full absorption of the placenta. The success of the conservative approach depends on: the adopted protocol formanagement of placenta accreta, whether the diagnosis is known before birth, the possible of application techniques, reducing blood flow to the uterus, keeping the placental period and others...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Mana Taweevisit, Paul Scott Thorner
INTRODUCTION: Placental ischemia can be pre-placental (maternal), placental or post-placental (fetal), with corresponding changes in villous vasculature. Hydrops fetalis (HF) resulting from hemoglobin (Hb) Bart disease can serve as a model for intrauterine hypoxia, and placentas from such cases show a distinctive peripheral villous stromal myofibroblastic hypercellularity (PVSH). We hypothesized that Hb Bart disease, which results in profound fetal hypoxia, would lead to placental hypoxia on a post-placental basis...
August 2016: Placenta
Linda M Ernst, Rebecca L Linn, Lucy Minturn, Emily S Miller
BACKGROUND: The pathology that underlies morbidly adherent placenta (MAP) is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to describe the placental pathology, especially implantation site pathology, associated with MAP. METHODS: This was a single institution, retrospective case-control study design examining placentas of patients who delivered between January 2008 and September 2013. MAP cases were defined by the need for clinical intervention at delivery beyond spontaneous placental delivery or simple manual extraction of the placenta...
July 21, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
Camila I Vannucchi, Liege G Silva, Cristina F Lúcio, Gisele A L Veiga
The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of duration of calving and obstetric assistance on retained placenta incidence of high milk production Holstein cows. Experimental groups were determined according to the duration of the expulsive phase of calving: 2 h (n = 16), 2-4 h (n = 16) and >4 h (n = 12), and additionally allocated in two sub-groups: spontaneous calving (n = 22) and intervention calving (n = 22). Diagnosis of retained placenta was considered with a threshold of 8 h after the expulsive phase...
July 20, 2016: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Abigail P Lauder, Aoife M Roche, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Aubrey Bailey, Alice L Laughlin, Kyle Bittinger, Rita Leite, Michal A Elovitz, Samuel Parry, Frederic D Bushman
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that bacteria associated with the placenta-a "placental microbiome"-may be important in reproductive health and disease. However, a challenge in working with specimens with low bacterial biomass, such as placental samples, is that some or all of the bacterial DNA may derive from contamination in dust or commercial reagents. To investigate this, we compared placental samples from healthy deliveries to a matched set of contamination controls, as well as to oral and vaginal samples from the same women...
2016: Microbiome
Samantha Sheller, John Papaconstantinou, Rheanna Urrabaz-Garza, Lauren Richardson, George Saade, Carlos Salomon, Ramkumar Menon
At term, the signals of fetal maturity and feto-placental tissue aging prompt uterine readiness for delivery by transitioning quiescent myometrium to an active stage. It is still unclear how the signals reach the distant myometrium. Exosomes are a specific type of extracellular vesicle (EVs) that transport molecular signals between cells, and are released from a wide range of cells, including the maternal and fetal cells. In this study, we hypothesize that i) exosomes act as carriers of signals in utero-placental compartments and ii) exosomes reflect the physiologic status of the origin cells...
2016: PloS One
Stephen J Sheinkopf, Giulia Righi, Carmen J Marsit, Barry M Lester
Epigenetic mechanisms regulating expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) promoter may influence behavioral and biological aspects of stress response in human infants. Acoustic features of infant crying are an indicator of neurobehavioral and neurological status not yet investigated in relation to epigenetic mechanisms. We examined NR3C1 methylation in placental tissue from a series of 120 healthy newborn infants in relation to a detailed set of acoustic features extracted from newborn infant cries...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
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