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DHA transporter

Nina Lidich, M Francesca Ottaviani, Roy E Hoffman, Abraham Aserin, Nissim Garti
Omega fatty acids, mainly the triglyceride of docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA), are considered important nutraceuticals. These compounds are water-insoluble and their transport across membranes depends on their carriers. Dendrimers are known as drug carriers across cell membranes and also as permeation enhancers. The solubilization of TG-DHA and dendrimer into a microemulsion (ME) system serving as a carrier could be used for a targeted delivery in the future. The interactions between TG-DHA and second generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (PPI-G2) and their effect on structural transitions of ME were explored along the water dilution line using electron paramagnetic resonance and pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR along with other analytical techniques...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Takahisa Kogure, Takeshi Kubota, Masako Suda, Kazumi Hiraga, Masayuki Inui
Corynebacterium glutamicum with the ability to simultaneously utilize glucose/pentose mixed sugars was metabolically engineered to overproduce shikimate, a valuable hydroaromatic compound used as a starting material for the synthesis of the anti-influenza drug oseltamivir. To achieve this, the shikimate kinase and other potential metabolic activities for the consumption of shikimate and its precursor dehydroshikimate were inactivated. Carbon flux toward shikimate synthesis was enhanced by overexpression of genes for the shikimate pathway and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway...
August 20, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
Xianming Zhao, Meesapyodsuk Dauenpen, Cunmin Qu, Xiao Qiu
Thraustochytrium sp. 26185 is a marine protist that can produce a large amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), an ω3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA) of nutritional importance. However, the mechanism of how this fatty acid is synthesized and assembled into the storage lipid triacylglycerol is unclear. Here we report sequencing of the whole genome and genomic analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis and assembly of the fatty acids in this species. Genome sequencing produced a total of 2,418,734,139 bp clean sequences with about 62 fold genome coverage...
September 2016: Lipids
Amanda Lo Van, Nobuyuki Sakayori, Mayssa Hachem, Mounir Belkouch, Madeleine Picq, Michel Lagarde, Noriko Osumi, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3) is highly enriched in the brain and is required for proper brain development and function. Its deficiency has been shown to be linked with the emergence of neurological diseases. Dietary ω-3 fatty acid supplements including DHA have been suggested to improve neuronal development and enhance cognitive functions. However, mechanisms of DHA incorporation in the brain remain to be fully understood. Findings suggested that DHA is better incorporated when esterified within lysophospholipid rather than under its non-esterified form...
August 2, 2016: Biochimie
Nan Ma, Carla Siegfried, Miyuki Kubota, Jie Huang, Ying Liu, Margaret Liu, Belinda Dana, Andrew Huang, David Beebe, Hong Yan, Ying-Bo Shui
PURPOSE: Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in the eye. Ascorbic acid is usually transported by sodium-dependent AsA transporters (SVCTs), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) by glucose transporters (GLUTs). This study investigates these AsA-related transporters in human compared with mouse eyes. METHODS: Five pairs of human donor eyes and 15 pairs of mouse eyes were collected. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization were performed to detect SVCTs and GLUTs expression in the ciliary epithelium, retina, and lens epithelial cells (LECs)...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hussein N Yassine, Varun Rawat, Wendy J Mack, Joseph F Quinn, Karin Yurko-Mauro, Eileen Bailey-Hall, Paul S Aisen, Helena C Chui, Lon S Schneider
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) levels are predictors for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results of several studies indicate an interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) consumption and cognitive outcomes by APOE genotype. Our objective in the present study was to examine whether APOE ɛ4 genotype and low CSF Aβ42 levels were associated with reduced delivery of DHA to CSF in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-sponsored DHA clinical trial...
2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Eri Ogawa, Sakurako Neo
We investigated hematologic characteristics of healthy Akita dogs. All were found to contain glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT4, in erythrocyte membrane, whereas Beagle and any other Western dogs have only GLUT4. Of 47 Akitas, ten showed high K and low Na concentrations with elevated glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes due to Na,K-ATPase activity in the membrane (HK). Akitas showed increased capacity for recycling vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) from oxidized ascorbic acid (DHA) compared to Beagle dogs. Particularly, HK Akitas performed even greater AA recycling and ferricyanide reduction than normal Akitas which have normal GSH, low K and high Na concentrations (LK)...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Anthony Pinçon, Jean-Denis Coulombe, Riley Spencer, Laurence Massenavette, Mélanie Plourde
BACKGROUND: Metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) is disturbed in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele (APOE4). More specifically, APOE4 carriers are lower responders to ω-3 (n-3) LC-PUFA supplementation; this might be because LC-PUFA transport into cells or β-oxidation is disturbed. However, high doses of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) seem to restore DHA homeostasis in APOE4 carriers, but the contribution of hepatic fatty acid (FA) transporters is unknown...
July 2016: Journal of Nutrition
C Bonvicini, S V Faraone, C Scassellati
The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Archana K Redhu, Abdul H Shah, Rajendra Prasad
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and MFS (major facilitator superfamily) exporters, belonging to two different superfamilies, are one of the most prominent contributors of multidrug resistance (MDR) in yeast. While the role of ABC efflux pump proteins in the development of MDR is well documented, the MFS transporters which are also implicated in clinical drug resistance have not received due attention. The MFS superfamily is the largest known family of secondary active membrane carriers, and MFS exporters are capable of transporting a host of substrates ranging from small molecules, including organic and inorganic ions, to complex biomolecules, such as peptide and lipid moieties...
June 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
Catarina Costa, Jonathan Ribeiro, Isabel M Miranda, Ana Silva-Dias, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Sofia Costa-de-Oliveira, Acácio G Rodrigues, Miguel C Teixeira
For years, antifungal drug resistance in Candida species has been associated to the expression of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters. More recently, a few drug efflux pumps from the Drug:H(+) Antiporter (DHA) family have also been shown to play a role in this process, although to date only the Candida albicans Mdr1 transporter has been demonstrated to be relevant in the clinical acquisition of antifungal drug resistance. This work provides evidence to suggest the involvement of the C. glabrata DHA transporters CgAqr1, CgQdr2, CgTpo1_1, and CgTpo3 in the clinical acquisition of clotrimazole drug resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Richard T Eastman, Pwint Khine, Ruili Huang, Craig J Thomas, Xin-Zhuan Su
Treatment of the symptomatic asexual stage of Plasmodium falciparum relies almost exclusively on artemisinin (ART) combination therapies (ACTs) in endemic regions. ACTs combine ART or its derivative with a long-acting partner drug to maximize efficacy during the typical three-day regimen. Both laboratory and clinical studies have previously demonstrated that the common drug resistance determinants P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) and multidrug resistance transporter (PfMDR1) can modulate the susceptibility to many current antimalarial drugs and chemical compounds...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jimena Verónica Lavandera, Juliana Saín, Ana Clara Fariña, Claudio Adrián Bernal, Marcela Aída González
INTRODUCTION: The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios...
April 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
Bernice H Wong, Jia Pei Chan, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Rebecca W Poh, Juat Chin Foo, Dwight L A Galam, Sujoy Ghosh, Long N Nguyen, Veluchamy A Barathi, Sia W Yeo, Chi D Luu, Markus R Wenk, David L Silver
Eye photoreceptor membrane discs in outer rod segments are highly enriched in the visual pigment rhodopsin and the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The eye acquires DHA from blood, but transporters for DHA uptake across the blood-retinal barrier or retinal pigment epithelium have not been identified. Mfsd2a is a newly described sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) symporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier that transports LPCs containing DHA and other long-chain fatty acids. LPC transport via Mfsd2a has been shown to be necessary for human brain growth...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mary L Hamilton, Stephen Powers, Johnathan A Napier, Olga Sayanova
We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs...
March 2016: Marine Drugs
Edith Miville-Godbout, Mélanie Bourque, Marc Morissette, Sara Al-Sweidi, Tara Smith, Asuka Mochizuki, Vijitha Senanayake, Dushmanthi Jayasinghe, Li Wang, Dayan Goodenowe, Thérèse Di Paolo
Plasmalogens are a class of glycerophospholipids shown to play critical roles in membrane structure and function. Decreased plasmalogens are reported in the brain and blood of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The present study investigated the hypothesis that augmenting plasmalogens could protect striatal dopamine neurons that degenerate in response to 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treatment in mice, a PD model. First, in a pre-treatment experiment male mice were treated for 10 days with the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-plasmalogen precursor PPI-1011 (10, 50 and 200 mg/kg)...
2016: PloS One
Mouhamad Oseikria, Sébastien Elis, Virginie Maillard, Emilie Corbin, Svetlana Uzbekova
The positive effect of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (FAs) on fertility in ruminants seems to be partly mediated through direct effects on the oocyte developmental potential. We aimed to investigate whether supplementation with physiological levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids) during IVM has an effect on oocyte maturation and in vitro embryo development in cattle. We reported that DHA (0, 1, 10, or 100 μM) had no effect on oocyte viability or maturation rate after 22-hour IVM...
June 2016: Theriogenology
Hongbin Tu, Hongyan Li, Yu Wang, Mahtab Niyyati, Yaohui Wang, Jonathan Leshin, Mark Levine
Strategies to prevent diabetic microvascular angiopathy focus on the vascular endothelium. Because red blood cells (RBCs) are less deformable in diabetes, we explored an original concept linking decreased RBC deformability to RBC ascorbate and hyperglycemia. We characterized ascorbate concentrations from human and mouse RBCs and plasma, and showed an inverse relationship between RBC ascorbate concentrations and deformability, measured by osmotic fragility. RBCs from ascorbate deficient mice were osmotically sensitive, appeared as spherocytes, and had decreased β-spectrin...
November 2015: EBioMedicine
María T Prieto-Sánchez, María Ruiz-Palacios, José E Blanco-Carnero, Ana Pagan, Christian Hellmuth, Olaf Uhl, Wolfgang Peissner, Antonio J Ruiz-Alcaraz, Juan J Parrilla, Berthold Koletzko, Elvira Larqué
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal-fetal transfer of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is impaired by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. MFSD2a was recently recognized as a lyso-phospholipid (lyso-PL) transporter that facilitates DHA accretion in brain. The role of this transporter in placenta is uncertain. We evaluated effects of GDM and its treatment (diet or insulin) on phospholipid species, fatty acid profile in women, cord blood and placental fatty acid carriers...
January 29, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Qianchun Deng, Xiao Yu, Jiqu Xu, Xiuying Kou, Mingming Zheng, Fenghong Huang, Qingde Huang, Lan Wang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggested phytosterol esters (PE) exhibited an advantage over naturally occurring phytosterols in reducing atherosclerosis risk factors due to improved fat solubility and compatibility. However, the effects of dietary patterns of PE on lipid-lowering activity were limited and inconsistent. This study aimed to explore the effects of dose and frequency of α-linolenic acid rich phytosterol esters (ALA-PE) on cholesterol and triglyceride metabolism markers focused on intestinal cholesterol absorption and bioconversion of ALA in liver...
2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
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