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DHA transporter

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886534/differences-in-the-response-of-soil-dehydrogenase-activity-to-cd-contamination-are-determined-by-the-different-substrates-used-for-its-determination
#1
Xiangping Tan, Yanju Liu, Kaihong Yan, Ziquan Wang, Guannan Lu, Yike He, Wenxiang He
Dehydrogenase activity (DHA) is an important indicator of heavy metal toxicity in contaminated soils. Different instances of DHA were determined using various substrates and which could affect the description of heavy metal toxicity. Currently, too few investigations have been done on selecting appropriate substrates. This study employed indoor simulation to determine soil DHA and its response to external cadmium (Cd) using two substrates (TTC and INT). Hormesis for DHA obtained using the TTC method (DHA-TTC) in low Cd concentration was observed which was quickly inhibited in high Cd concentration...
November 22, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864326/both-maternal-and-offspring-elovl2-genotypes-determine-systemic-dha-levels-in-perinatal-mice
#2
Anna M Pauter, Sofia Trattner, Amanda Gonzalez-Bengtsson, Emanuela Talamonti, Abolfazl Asadi, Olga Dethlefsen, Anders Jacobsson
The molecular details relevant to dietary supplementation of the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in mothers as well as in their offspring are not clear. The polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) elongase Elongation of very long-chain 2 (ELOVL2) is a critical enzyme in the formation of DHA in mammals. In order to address the question regarding the origin of DHA during perinatal life we have used DHA deficient Elovl2-ablated mice as a model system to analyse the maternal impact on the DHA level in their offspring of various genotypes...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852782/fatty-acid-binding-protein-5-at-the-blood-brain-barrier-regulates-endogenous-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-levels-and-cognitive-function
#3
Yijun Pan, Jennifer L Short, Kwok H C Choy, Annie X Zeng, Philip J Marriott, Yuji Owada, Martin J Scanlon, Christopher J H Porter, Joseph A Nicolazzo
: Fatty acid-binding protein 5 (FABP5) at the blood-brain barrier contributes to the brain uptake of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a blood-derived polyunsaturated fatty acid essential for maintenance of cognitive function. Given the importance of DHA in cognition, the aim of this study was to investigate whether deletion of FABP5 results in cognitive dysfunction and whether this is associated with reduced brain endothelial cell uptake of exogenous DHA and subsequent attenuation in the brain levels of endogenous DHA...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825801/targeting-autophagy-augments-the-activity-of-dha-e3-to-overcome-p-gp-mediated-multi-drug-resistance
#4
Guangmin Xi, Ming Wang, Bing Sun, Abdul Sami Shaikh, Yongqing Liu, Wei Wang, Hongxiang Lou, Huiqing Yuan
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy treatment. Searching for effective MDR modulators and combining them with anticancer drug therapies has been a promising strategy against clinical MDR. In our previous study, we have found that DHA-E3, a synthetic derivative of DHA, has the ability to modulate the function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and reverse MDR in cancer cells. In this study, we further evaluated the reversal effect of DHA-E3 on MDR and explored its mechanism of action in vitro...
November 5, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796616/human-milk-fatty-acid-composition-comparison-of-novel-dried-milk-spot-versus-standard-liquid-extraction-methods
#5
Michael C Rudolph, Bridget E Young, Kristina Harris Jackson, Nancy F Krebs, William S Harris, Paul S MacLean
Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27571688/docosahexaenoic-acid-triglyceride-based-microemulsions-with-an-added-dendrimer-structural-considerations
#6
Nina Lidich, M Francesca Ottaviani, Roy E Hoffman, Abraham Aserin, Nissim Garti
Omega fatty acids, mainly the triglyceride of docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA), are considered important nutraceuticals. These compounds are water-insoluble and their transport across membranes depends on their carriers. Dendrimers are known as drug carriers across cell membranes and also as permeation enhancers. The solubilization of TG-DHA and dendrimer into a microemulsion (ME) system serving as a carrier could be used for a targeted delivery in the future. The interactions between TG-DHA and second generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (PPI-G2) and their effect on structural transitions of ME were explored along the water dilution line using electron paramagnetic resonance and pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR along with other analytical techniques...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553883/metabolic-engineering-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-for-shikimate-overproduction-by-growth-arrested-cell-reaction
#7
Takahisa Kogure, Takeshi Kubota, Masako Suda, Kazumi Hiraga, Masayuki Inui
Corynebacterium glutamicum with the ability to simultaneously utilize glucose/pentose mixed sugars was metabolically engineered to overproduce shikimate, a valuable hydroaromatic compound used as a starting material for the synthesis of the anti-influenza drug oseltamivir. To achieve this, the shikimate kinase and other potential metabolic activities for the consumption of shikimate and its precursor dehydroshikimate were inactivated. Carbon flux toward shikimate synthesis was enhanced by overexpression of genes for the shikimate pathway and the non-oxidative pentose phosphate pathway...
August 20, 2016: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27514858/genomic-analysis-of-genes-involved-in-the-biosynthesis-of-very-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-thraustochytrium-sp-26185
#8
Xianming Zhao, Meesapyodsuk Dauenpen, Cunmin Qu, Xiao Qiu
Thraustochytrium sp. 26185 is a marine protist that can produce a large amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), an ω3 very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (VLCPUFA) of nutritional importance. However, the mechanism of how this fatty acid is synthesized and assembled into the storage lipid triacylglycerol is unclear. Here we report sequencing of the whole genome and genomic analysis of genes involved in the biosynthesis and assembly of the fatty acids in this species. Genome sequencing produced a total of 2,418,734,139 bp clean sequences with about 62 fold genome coverage...
September 2016: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496085/mechanisms-of-dha-transport-to-the-brain-and-potential-therapy-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#9
Amanda Lo Van, Nobuyuki Sakayori, Mayssa Hachem, Mounir Belkouch, Madeleine Picq, Michel Lagarde, Noriko Osumi, Nathalie Bernoud-Hubac
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3) is highly enriched in the brain and is required for proper brain development and function. Its deficiency has been shown to be linked with the emergence of neurological diseases. Dietary ω-3 fatty acid supplements including DHA have been suggested to improve neuronal development and enhance cognitive functions. However, mechanisms of DHA incorporation in the brain remain to be fully understood. Findings suggested that DHA is better incorporated when esterified within lysophospholipid rather than under its non-esterified form...
August 2, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27367512/expression-profiling-of-ascorbic-acid-related-transporters-in-human-and-mouse-eyes
#10
Nan Ma, Carla Siegfried, Miyuki Kubota, Jie Huang, Ying Liu, Margaret Liu, Belinda Dana, Andrew Huang, David Beebe, Hong Yan, Ying-Bo Shui
PURPOSE: Ascorbic acid (AsA) is an important antioxidant in the eye. Ascorbic acid is usually transported by sodium-dependent AsA transporters (SVCTs), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) by glucose transporters (GLUTs). This study investigates these AsA-related transporters in human compared with mouse eyes. METHODS: Five pairs of human donor eyes and 15 pairs of mouse eyes were collected. Immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization were performed to detect SVCTs and GLUTs expression in the ciliary epithelium, retina, and lens epithelial cells (LECs)...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358067/the-effect-of-apoe-genotype-on-the-delivery-of-dha-to-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Hussein N Yassine, Varun Rawat, Wendy J Mack, Joseph F Quinn, Karin Yurko-Mauro, Eileen Bailey-Hall, Paul S Aisen, Helena C Chui, Lon S Schneider
BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 and low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) levels are predictors for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results of several studies indicate an interaction between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) consumption and cognitive outcomes by APOE genotype. Our objective in the present study was to examine whether APOE ɛ4 genotype and low CSF Aβ42 levels were associated with reduced delivery of DHA to CSF in the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-sponsored DHA clinical trial...
June 30, 2016: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27320814/akita-dogs-possess-glut1-in-erythrocytes-and-na-k-atpase-activity-enables-more-efficient-ascorbic-acid-recycling
#12
Eri Ogawa, Sakurako Neo
We investigated hematologic characteristics of healthy Akita dogs. All were found to contain glucose transporters, GLUT1 and GLUT4, in erythrocyte membrane, whereas Beagle and any other Western dogs have only GLUT4. Of 47 Akitas, ten showed high K and low Na concentrations with elevated glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes due to Na,K-ATPase activity in the membrane (HK). Akitas showed increased capacity for recycling vitamin C or ascorbic acid (AA) from oxidized ascorbic acid (DHA) compared to Beagle dogs. Particularly, HK Akitas performed even greater AA recycling and ferricyanide reduction than normal Akitas which have normal GSH, low K and high Na concentrations (LK)...
June 18, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27306896/a-diet-rich-in-docosahexaenoic-acid-restores-liver-arachidonic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-in-mice-homozygous-for-the-human-apolipoprotein-e-%C3%AE%C2%B54-allele
#13
Raphaël Chouinard-Watkins, Anthony Pinçon, Jean-Denis Coulombe, Riley Spencer, Laurence Massenavette, Mélanie Plourde
BACKGROUND: Metabolism of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) is disturbed in carriers of the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele (APOE4). More specifically, APOE4 carriers are lower responders to ω-3 (n-3) LC-PUFA supplementation; this might be because LC-PUFA transport into cells or β-oxidation is disturbed. However, high doses of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) seem to restore DHA homeostasis in APOE4 carriers, but the contribution of hepatic fatty acid (FA) transporters is unknown...
July 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217152/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-genetic-pharmacogenetic-and-biochemical-studies
#14
REVIEW
C Bonvicini, S V Faraone, C Scassellati
The adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder has a prevalence of up to 5% and is the most severe long-term outcome of this common disorder. Family studies in clinical samples as well as twin studies suggest a familial liability and consequently different genes were investigated in association studies. Pharmacotherapy with methylphenidate (MPH) seems to be the first-line treatment of choice in adults with attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) and some studies were conducted on the genes influencing the response to this drug...
July 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27188885/mfs-transporters-of-candida-species-and-their-role-in-clinical-drug-resistance
#15
Archana K Redhu, Abdul H Shah, Rajendra Prasad
ABC (ATP-binding cassette) and MFS (major facilitator superfamily) exporters, belonging to two different superfamilies, are one of the most prominent contributors of multidrug resistance (MDR) in yeast. While the role of ABC efflux pump proteins in the development of MDR is well documented, the MFS transporters which are also implicated in clinical drug resistance have not received due attention. The MFS superfamily is the largest known family of secondary active membrane carriers, and MFS exporters are capable of transporting a host of substrates ranging from small molecules, including organic and inorganic ions, to complex biomolecules, such as peptide and lipid moieties...
June 2016: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27148215/clotrimazole-drug-resistance-in-candida-glabrata-clinical-isolates-correlates-with-increased-expression-of-the-drug-h-antiporters-cgaqr1-cgtpo1_1-cgtpo3-and-cgqdr2
#16
Catarina Costa, Jonathan Ribeiro, Isabel M Miranda, Ana Silva-Dias, Mafalda Cavalheiro, Sofia Costa-de-Oliveira, Acácio G Rodrigues, Miguel C Teixeira
For years, antifungal drug resistance in Candida species has been associated to the expression of ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) multidrug transporters. More recently, a few drug efflux pumps from the Drug:H(+) Antiporter (DHA) family have also been shown to play a role in this process, although to date only the Candida albicans Mdr1 transporter has been demonstrated to be relevant in the clinical acquisition of antifungal drug resistance. This work provides evidence to suggest the involvement of the C. glabrata DHA transporters CgAqr1, CgQdr2, CgTpo1_1, and CgTpo3 in the clinical acquisition of clotrimazole drug resistance...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27147113/pfcrt-and-pfmdr1-modulate-interactions-of-artemisinin-derivatives-and-ion-channel-blockers
#17
Richard T Eastman, Pwint Khine, Ruili Huang, Craig J Thomas, Xin-Zhuan Su
Treatment of the symptomatic asexual stage of Plasmodium falciparum relies almost exclusively on artemisinin (ART) combination therapies (ACTs) in endemic regions. ACTs combine ART or its derivative with a long-acting partner drug to maximize efficacy during the typical three-day regimen. Both laboratory and clinical studies have previously demonstrated that the common drug resistance determinants P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) and multidrug resistance transporter (PfMDR1) can modulate the susceptibility to many current antimalarial drugs and chemical compounds...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27098669/n-3-fatty-acids-reduced-trans-fatty-acids-retention-and-increased-docosahexaenoic-acid-levels-in-the-brain
#18
Jimena Verónica Lavandera, Juliana Saín, Ana Clara Fariña, Claudio Adrián Bernal, Marcela Aída González
INTRODUCTION: The levels of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) are critical for the normal structure and function of the brain. Trans fatty acids (TFA) and the source of the dietary fatty acids (FA) interfere with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of TFA supplementation in diets containing different proportions of n-9, n-6, and n-3 FA on the brain FA profile, including the retention of TFA, LC-PUFA levels, and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios...
April 21, 2016: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008858/mfsd2a-is-a-transporter-for-the-essential-%C3%AF-3-fatty-acid-docosahexaenoic-acid-dha-in-eye-and-is-important-for-photoreceptor-cell-development
#19
Bernice H Wong, Jia Pei Chan, Amaury Cazenave-Gassiot, Rebecca W Poh, Juat Chin Foo, Dwight L A Galam, Sujoy Ghosh, Long N Nguyen, Veluchamy A Barathi, Sia W Yeo, Chi D Luu, Markus R Wenk, David L Silver
Eye photoreceptor membrane discs in outer rod segments are highly enriched in the visual pigment rhodopsin and the ω-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The eye acquires DHA from blood, but transporters for DHA uptake across the blood-retinal barrier or retinal pigment epithelium have not been identified. Mfsd2a is a newly described sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) symporter expressed at the blood-brain barrier that transports LPCs containing DHA and other long-chain fatty acids. LPC transport via Mfsd2a has been shown to be necessary for human brain growth...
May 13, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27005636/heterotrophic-production-of-omega-3-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-by-trophically-converted-marine-diatom-phaeodactylum-tricornutum
#20
Mary L Hamilton, Stephen Powers, Johnathan A Napier, Olga Sayanova
We have created via metabolic engineering a heterotrophic strain of Phaeodactylum tricornutum that accumulates enhanced levels of the high value omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFAs) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). This was achieved by generation of transgenic strains in which the Δ5-elongase from Ostreococcus tauri was co-expressed with a glucose transporter from the moss Physcomitrella patens. This double transformant has the capacity to grow in the dark in liquid medium supplemented with glucose and accumulate substantial levels of omega-3 LC-PUFAs...
March 2016: Marine Drugs
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