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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26855446/effect-of-solid-boundaries-on-swimming-dynamics-of-microorganisms-in-a-viscoelastic-fluid
#1
G-J Li, A Karimi, A M Ardekani
We numerically study the effect of solid boundaries on the swimming behavior of a motile microorganism in viscoelastic media. Understanding the swimmer-wall hydrodynamic interactions is crucial to elucidate the adhesion of bacterial cells to nearby substrates which is precursor to the formation of the microbial biofilms. The microorganism is simulated using a squirmer model that captures the major swimming mechanisms of potential, extensile, and contractile types of swimmers, while neglecting the biological complexities...
December 2014: Rheologica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26565505/active-model-h-scalar-active-matter-in-a-momentum-conserving-fluid
#2
Adriano Tiribocchi, Raphael Wittkowski, Davide Marenduzzo, Michael E Cates
We present a continuum theory of self-propelled particles, without alignment interactions, in a momentum-conserving solvent. To address phase separation, we introduce a dimensionless scalar concentration field ϕ with advective-diffusive dynamics. Activity creates a contribution Σ_{ij}=-κ[over ^][(∂_{i}ϕ)(∂_{j}ϕ)-(∇ϕ)^{2}δ_{ij}/d] to the deviatoric stress, where κ[over ^] is odd under time reversal and d is the number of spatial dimensions; this causes an effective interfacial tension contribution that is negative for contractile swimmers...
October 30, 2015: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26509682/forward-shoulder-posture-in-collegiate-swimmers-a-comparative-analysis-of-muscle-energy-techniques
#3
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kevin G Laudner, Melissa Wenig, Noelle M Selkow, Jeffrey Williams, Eric Post
CONTEXT: Empirical data for treating forward shoulder posture supports stretching the anterior shoulder musculature. Although muscle-energy techniques (METs) have been hypothesized to lengthen muscle, no data have described the usefulness of this technique among swimmers. OBJECTIVE: To determine if an MET provides improvements in resting pectoralis minor length (PML), forward scapular position, and scapular upward rotation in female collegiate swimmers. DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 2015: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26456423/upper-limb-kinematic-differences-between-breathing-and-non-breathing-conditions-in-front-crawl-sprint-swimming
#4
Carla B McCabe, Ross H Sanders, Stelios G Psycharakis
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the breathing action in front crawl (FC) sprint swimming affects the ipsilateral upper limb kinematics relative to a non-breathing stroke cycle (SC). Ten male competitive swimmers performed two 25m FC sprints: one breathing to their preferred side (Br) and one not breathing (NBr). Both swim trials were performed through a 6.75m(3) calibrated space and recorded by six gen-locked JVC KY32 CCD cameras. A paired t-test was used to assess statistical differences between the trials, with a confidence level of p<0...
November 26, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26448836/stroke-in-a-young-swimmer
#5
Shahram Mohaghegh, Maryam Hajian
INTRODUCTION: Arterial dissections are important causes of stroke in the young population. Dissection has been reported in association with some sports. It seems that this report is among the first ones of the cervical arterial dissection in a young swimmer. CASE PRESENTATION: A 30-year-old male professional swimmer with no history of any major disease suddenly complained of severe ataxia, moderate headache, neck pain, unilateral left facial weakness, and feelings of tingling and paresthesia on the left side of his body and face a few minutes following head and body stretching exercises in land...
June 2015: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26433921/kinematic-hand-parameters-in-front-crawl-at-different-paces-of-swimming
#6
Mathias Samson, Tony Monnet, Anthony Bernard, Patrick Lacouture, Laurent David
The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of kinematic hand parameters (sweepback angle, angle of attack, velocity, acceleration and orientation of the hand relative to the absolute coordinate system) throughout an aquatic stroke and to study the possible modifications caused by a variation of the swimming pace. Seventeen competitive swimmers swam at long distance, middle distance and sprint paces. Parameters were calculated from the trajectory of seven markers on the hand measured with an optoelectronic system...
November 5, 2015: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26204528/investigation-of-in-water-and-dry-land-training-programs-for-competitive-swimmers-in-the-united-states
#7
Angela Tate, Shana Harrington, Melissa Buness, Susan Murray, Caitlin Trout, Corinne Meisel
CONTEXT: Youth- through masters-level competitive swimmers incur significant shoulder pain. Risk factors associated with shoulder pain include high swimming yardage, a lack of cross-training, decreased shoulder strength and reduced core endurance, and limited posterior shoulder and pectoral length. Since training, swimming exposure, and physical-performance measures have all been associated with shoulder pain, the methods used to train swimmers may influence the development of shoulder pain, yet studies delineating training methods are lacking...
November 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25654468/the-role-of-the-entry-and-stretch-phase-at-the-different-paces-of-race-in-front-crawl-swimming
#8
Mathias Samson, Tony Monnet, Anthony Bernard, Patrick Lacouture, Laurent David
The aim of this study was to determine the role played by the entry-and-stretch phase in the coordination of swimming, at the different paces of race. Three national level swimmers (two men and one woman) were recorded, in lateral and bottom views, in three swimming paces: sprint (50 m and 100 m), middle-distance (200 m and 400 m) and long-distance (800 m and 1500 m). Anatomical landmark positions were obtained by manual digitalisation of the videos. Computational fluid dynamics and experimental studies (with a strain gauge balance and particle image velocimetry method) were used to measure and to calculate the external forces applied to the hand and to the forearm and to visualise the flow around the profile...
2015: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25585273/light-and-chemically-driven-molecular-machines-showing-a-unidirectional-four-state-switching-cycle
#9
Gebhard Haberhauer, Christoph Burkhart, Sascha Woitschetzki, Christoph Wölper
The imitation of macroscopic movements at the molecular level is a key step in the development of nanomachines. The challenge is the synthesis of molecules that are able to transform external stimuli into a direction-controlled mechanical movement. The more complex such motion sequences are, the more difficult is the construction of the corresponding nanomachine. Here, we present a system that demonstrates a unidirectional, four-state switching cycle that bears similar characteristics to the arm movements of a human breaststroke swimmer...
February 6, 2015: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25457427/body-movement-distribution-with-respect-to-swimmer-s-glide-position-in-human-underwater-undulatory-swimming
#10
Stefan Hochstein, Reinhard Blickhan
Human swimmers use undulatory motions similar to fish locomotion to attain high speeds. The human body is a non-smooth multi-body linkage system with restricted flexibility and is not primarily adapted to motion in the water. Due to anatomical limitations, the human swimmer is forced to deviate from the symmetric fish-like motion and to adjust his motion to his limited abilities. The goal of this paper is to investigates the movement of ten swimmers during human underwater undulatory in a still water pool and to find out to what extent the human swimmer approaches an ideal undulatory wave which is symmetric with respect to the extended gliding position...
December 2014: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24604155/-stability-versus-mobility-of-the-shoulder-biomechanical-aspects-in-athletes
#11
REVIEW
M F Pastor, T Smith, M Struck, M Wellmann
The demand profile of athletes shoulders is high. On the one hand the shoulder has to provide a maximum active range of motion that allows rapid movements of the arm and on the other hand it has to be sufficiently stabilized to decelerate rapid movements and to neutralize the resulting translational forces. Two general types of instability can be differentiated in athletes shoulders: the macroinstability typically occurring in athletes involved in contact sports and the microinstability occurring in athletes involved in overhead sports...
March 2014: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24283342/bioinspired-helical-microswimmers-based-on-vascular-plants
#12
Wei Gao, Xiaomiao Feng, Allen Pei, Christopher R Kane, Ryan Tam, Camille Hennessy, Joseph Wang
Plant-based bioinspired magnetically propelled helical microswimmers are described. The helical microstructures are derived from spiral water-conducting vessels of different plants, harnessing the intrinsic biological structures of nature. Geometric variables of the spiral vessels, such as the helix diameter and pitch, can be controlled by mechanical stretching for the precise fabrication and consistent performance of helical microswimmers. Xylem vessels of a wide variety of different plants have been evaluated for the consistency and reproducibility of their helical parameters...
January 8, 2014: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23945068/a-cross-sectional-study-examining-shoulder-pain-and-disability-in-division-i-female-swimmers
#13
Shana Harrington, Corinne Meisel, Angela Tate
CONTEXT: The prevalence of shoulder pain in the competitive swimming population has been reported to be as high as 91%. Female collegiate swimmers have a reported shoulder-injury rate 3 times greater than their male counterparts. There has been little information on how to best prevent shoulder pain in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine if differences exist in shoulder range of motion, upper-extremity strength, core endurance, and pectoralis minor length in NCAA Division I female swimmers with and without shoulder pain and disability...
February 2014: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23439770/the-acute-effects-of-two-passive-stretch-maneuvers-on-pectoralis-minor-length-and-scapular-kinematics-among-collegiate-swimmers
#14
Jeffrey G Williams, Kevin G Laudner, Todd McLoda
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: To compare the acute effects of two passive stretches on pectoralis minor length and scapular kinematics among a group of collegiate swimmers. METHODS: The study was a descriptive design with repeated measures. All procedures were conducted in a biomechanics laboratory and collegiate swimming facility. Fifty asymptomatic shoulders from 29 NCAA swimmers were used (15 control shoulders, 17 focused stretch shoulders, 18 gross stretch shoulders)...
February 2013: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23375633/comparison-of-dry-land-training-programs-between-age-groups-of-swimmers
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Brian J Krabak, Kyle J Hancock, Shawn Drake
OBJECTIVE: To describe the current use of dry-land training in swimmers by age category. DESIGN: Randomized sampling questionnaire. SETTING: Web-based survey. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-seven coaches from swim clubs throughout the United States. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Dry-land training use, frequency, duration, mode of exercise, and exercise by body region in the following groups: ≤10 years, 11-14 years, 15-18 years, collegiate, and masters swimmers (≥18 years, noncollegiate)...
April 2013: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23204760/no-correlation-between-stroke-specialty-and-rate-of-shoulder-pain-in-ncaa-men-swimmers
#16
Lucas Wymore, Robert E Reeve, Christopher D Chaput
PURPOSE: To established an association between shoulder pain and the stroke specialization among NCAA men swimmers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All members of the top 25 NCAA men's swim teams were invited to complete the survey. Eleven teams with a total of 187 participants completed the study survey. The teams were mailed surveys that included multiple choice questions regarding their primary stroke and their incidence of shoulder pain. Additionally, the survey included questions about risk factors including distance trained, type of equipment, weight training, and stretching...
July 2012: International Journal of Shoulder Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22488280/risk-factors-associated-with-shoulder-pain-and-disability-across-the-lifespan-of-competitive-swimmers
#17
Angela Tate, Gregory N Turner, Sarah E Knab, Colbie Jorgensen, Andrew Strittmatter, Lori A Michener
CONTEXT: The prevalence of shoulder pain among competitive swimmers is high, but no guidelines exist to reduce shoulder injuries. Elucidating differences between swimmers with and without shoulder pain can serve as a basis for the development of a program to prevent shoulder injury that might lead to pain and dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physical characteristics, exposure, or training variables differ between swimmers with and without shoulder pain or disability...
March 2012: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22387875/effect-of-a-6-week-strengthening-program-on-shoulder-and-scapular-stabilizer-strength-and-scapular-kinematics-in-division-i-collegiate-swimmers
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Elizabeth E Hibberd, Saki Oyama, Jeffrey T Spang, William Prentice, Joseph B Myers
CONTEXT: Shoulder injuries are common in swimmers because of the demands of the sport. Muscle imbalances frequently exist due to the biomechanics of the sport, which predispose swimmers to injury. To date, an effective shoulder-injury-prevention program for competitive swimmers has not been established. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of a 6-wk strengthening and stretching intervention program on improving glenohumeral and scapular muscle strength and scapular kinematics in collegiate swimmers...
August 2012: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22108529/the-effect-of-three-recovery-protocols-on-blood-lactate-clearance-after-race-paced-swimming
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Mitch Lomax
The purpose of the present study was to assess the impact of 3 recovery protocols on blood lactate clearance after maximal intensity swimming. Thirty-three regional standard swimmers were tested throughout the course a year and were required to complete a race-paced 200-m swim in their main stroke or individual medley. After the race-paced swim, swimmers were assigned a self-paced continuous steady rate swim of 20 minutes (self-prescribed); a 20-minute coach-administered modified warm-up consisting of various swimming modes, intensities, and rest intervals (coach prescribed); or a 20-minute land-based recovery consisting of light-intensity walking, skipping, and stretching (land based)...
October 2012: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21405707/locomotion-by-tangential-deformation-in-a-polymeric-fluid
#20
Lailai Zhu, Minh Do-Quang, Eric Lauga, Luca Brandt
In several biologically relevant situations, cell locomotion occurs in polymeric fluids with Weissenberg number larger than 1. Here we present results of three-dimensional numerical simulations for the steady locomotion of a self-propelled body in a model polymeric (Giesekus) fluid at low Reynolds number. Locomotion is driven by steady tangential deformation at the surface of the body (the so-called squirming motion). In the case of a spherical squirmer, we show that the swimming velocity is systematically less than that in a Newtonian fluid, with a minimum occurring for Weissenberg numbers of order 1...
January 2011: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
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