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Rachel J Pryor, Nadia Masroor, Michael Stevens, Kakotan Sanogo, Pedro José Hernández O'Hagan, Gonzalo Bearman
INTRODUCTION: Because cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Honduras, this study assessed knowledge, attitudes and barriers to cervical cancer screening services by Papanicolaou smear (pap smear) for women in rural, remote Honduras served by Virginia Commonwealth University's Global Health and Health Disparities Program (GH2DP). METHODS: Two interviewers administered an institutional review board approved, 20 question survey by convenience sample methodology to adult female patients visiting GH2DP clinics in June 2014...
April 2017: Rural and Remote Health
Mohammad Yazdizadeh, Masoumeh Skini, Seyyed Mohsen Hoseini Goosheh, Mansour Jafarzadeh, Milad Shamohammadi, Vahid Rakhshan
INTRODUCTION: Cyclic fatigue is the common reason for breakage of rotary instruments. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of cryogenic treatment (CT) in improving the resistance to cyclic fatigue of endodontic rotary instruments. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this in vitro study, 20 RaCe and 20 Mtwo files were randomly divided into two groups of negative control and CT. CT files were stored in liquid nitrogen at -196(°)C for 24 h, and then were gradually warmed to the room temperature...
2017: Iranian Endodontic Journal
Robert E Roberts, Hao T Duong
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to provide the first data on the prospective, reciprocal association between short sleep duration and DSM-IV anxiety disorders among adolescents. METHODS: A community-based two-wave cohort study included 4175 youths aged 11-17 years at baseline, with 3134 of these followed up a year later, drawn from a metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. Anxiety is defined as any DSM-IV anxiety disorder in the past year generalized anxiety: panic disorder, agoraphobia without panic, social phobia, and post-traumatic stress disorder...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
Aaron R Hansen, Natalie Cook, Eitan Amir, Lillian L Siu, Albiruni Ryan Abdul Razak
BACKGROUND: The recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of anticancer agents is determined traditionally by dose-limiting toxicities. Nontoxicity or biological endpoints such as pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and efficacy can also be used to identify RP2D, which may be relevant to molecularly targeted agents (MTAs). METHODS: A systematic review identified all monotherapy phase 1 studies of MTAs in solid tumors published between 2001 and 2013. Dose, dosing schedule, and determinants of RP2D were collected from each study...
April 15, 2017: Cancer
Paula M Wye, Emily A Stockings, Jenny A Bowman, Chris Oldmeadow, John H Wiggers
BACKGROUND: Despite clinical practice guidelines recommending the routine provision of nicotine dependence treatment to smokers in inpatient psychiatric facilities, the prevalence of such treatment provision is low. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment to patients in inpatient psychiatric facilities. METHODS: We undertook an interrupted time series analysis of nicotine dependence treatment provision before, during and after a clinical practice change intervention to increase clinician recorded provision of nicotine dependence treatment for all hospital discharges (aged >18 years, N = 4175) over a 19 month period in two inpatient adult psychiatric facilities in New South Wales, Australia...
February 7, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Sean P Arlauckas, Manoj Kumar, Anatoliy V Popov, Harish Poptani, Edward J Delikatny
Choline kinase alpha (ChoKα) overexpression is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. ChoKα inhibitors induce apoptosis in tumors, however validation of their specificity is difficult in vivo. We report the use of optical imaging to assess ChoKα status in cells and in vivo using JAS239, a carbocyanine-based ChoKα inhibitor with inherent near infrared fluorescence. JAS239 attenuated choline phosphorylation and viability in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Antibody blockade prevented cellular retention of JAS239 indicating direct interaction with ChoKα independent of the choline transporters and catabolic choline pathways...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Matthew T Cook, Yayun Liang, Cynthia Besch-Williford, Salman M Hyder
Most breast cancer-related deaths from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) occur following metastasis of cancer cells and development of tumors at secondary sites. Because TNBCs lack the three receptors targeted by current chemotherapeutic regimens, they are typically treated with extremely aggressive and highly toxic non-targeted treatment strategies. Women with TNBC frequently develop metastatic lesions originating from drug-resistant residual cells and have poor prognosis. For this reason, novel therapeutic strategies that are safer and more effective are sought...
2017: Breast Cancer: Targets and Therapy
Shawnda A Morrison, Urša Ciuha, Daniela Zavec-Pavlinić, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic
PURPOSE: Acute hypoxia alters the threshold for sensation of cutaneous thermal stimuli. We hypothesised that hypoxia-induced alterations in cutaneous temperature sensation may lead to modulation of the perception of temperature, ultimately influencing behavioural thermoregulation and that the magnitude of this effect could be influenced by daily physical training. METHODS: Fourteen men were confined 10 days to a normobaric hypoxic environment (PIO2 = 88.2 ± 0...
February 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Amrutlal K Patel, Ramesh J Pandit, Jalpa R Thakkar, Ankit T Hinsu, Vinod C Pandey, Joy K Pal, Kantilal S Prajapati, Subhash J Jakhesara, Chaitanya G Joshi
OBJECTIVE: Chicken astroviruses have been known to cause severe disease in chickens leading to increased mortality and "white chicks" condition. Here we aim to characterize the causative agent of visceral gout suspected for astrovirus infection in broiler breeder chickens. METHODS: Total RNA isolated from allantoic fluid of SPF embryo passaged with infected chicken sample was sequenced by whole genome shotgun sequencing using ion-torrent PGM platform. The sequence was analysed for the presence of coding and non-coding features, its similarity with reported isolates and epitope analysis of capsid structural protein...
March 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
Matthew J Rowland, Payashi Garry, Jon Westbrook, Rufus Corkill, Chrystalina A Antoniades, Kyle T S Pattinson
OBJECTIVE Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) causing cerebral infarction remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Early brain injury in the first 72 hours following rupture is likely to play a key role in the pathophysiology underlying DCI but remains difficult to quantify objectively. Current diagnostic modalities are based on the concept of vasoconstriction causing cerebral ischemia and infarction and are either invasive or have a steep learning curve and user variability...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
Jiang-Feng Lan, Li-Juan Zhao, Shun Wei, Yuan Wang, Li Lin, Xin-Cang Li
Drosophila Toll and mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of evolutionarily conserved immune receptors that play a crucial role in the first-line defense against intruded pathogens. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a member of the ATF/CREB transcription factor family, is an important factor that participates in TLR signaling and other physiological processes. However, in crustaceans, whether ATF4 homologs were involved in TLR signaling remains unclear. In the current study, we identified a Toll homolog PcToll2 and a novel ATF4 homolog PcATF4 from Procambarus clarkii, and analyzed the likely regulatory activity of PcATF4 in PcToll2 signaling...
November 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Iuliia Filipenko, Stephanie Schwalm, Luca Reali, Josef Pfeilschifter, Doriano Fabbro, Andrea Huwiler, Uwe Zangemeister-Wittke
Breast cancer is one of the most common and devastating malignancies among women worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that malignant progression is also driven by processes involving the sphingolipid molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and its binding to cognate receptor subtypes on the cell surface. To investigate the effect of this interaction on the metastatic phenotype, we used the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 and the sublines 4175 and 1833 derived from lung and bone metastases in nude mice, respectively...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Hao T Duong, Robert E Roberts
OBJECTIVE: To estimate prevalence, trends and persistence of discordance between measured body weight and perceived body weight and body satisfaction, and examine its association with gender, ethnicity, and family income. METHODS: Using two-wave data from a prospective cohort study of adolescents sampled from Houston metropolitan area, aged 11-17years at baseline (n=4175) in 2000, and followed up in 2001 (n=3134). Survey logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR)...
September 2016: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Joanna Sajewicz-Krukowska, Katarzyna Domanska-Blicharz
Avian astroviruses (aAstVs) are divided into three species, Avastrovirus 1, Avastrovirus 2, and Avastrovirus 3, but there are a few strains are waiting to be assigned to an official taxonomic group. This study presents the molecular characterization of chicken astrovirus (CAstV), PL/G059/2014, which is involved in the induction of "white chicks" condition. The 7382-nucleotide-long genome sequence was determined by next-generation sequencing using an Illumina MiSeq System. Phylogenetic analysis showed that it has the characteristics that are typical of avian astroviruses...
September 2016: Archives of Virology
David A Fried, Jane Rhyu, Karen Odato, Heather Blunt, Margaret R Karagas, Diane Gilbert-Diamond
CONTEXT: It is unclear how in utero vitamin D deficiency affects the extraskeletal health of children, despite the known risks for adverse pregnancy/birth outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review seeks to assess the effect of in utero vitamin D exposure on childhood allergy and infection outcomes using the PRISMA guidelines. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases were searched. STUDY SELECTION: Literature published through April 2015 was searched for studies reporting on the association between maternal pregnancy or cord blood vitamin D status and childhood allergy and infection...
June 2016: Nutrition Reviews
J de Almeida Mello, J Macq, T Van Durme, S Cès, N Spruytte, C Van Audenhove, A Declercq
Research into informal caregivers' burden does not distinguish between different stages of impairment. This study explored the determinants of burden from an in-depth perspective in order to identify which determinants apply to which phases of impairment. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study including frail older persons aged 65 and above. Instruments used were the interRAI Home Care, the Zarit-12 interview and an ad hoc economic questionnaire. A combination of variables from the Stress Process Model and Role Theory and a sub-group analysis enabled refined multivariate logistic analyses...
April 7, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
Shawnda A Morrison, Andrej Pangerc, Ola Eiken, Igor B Mekjavic, Leja Dolenc-Groselj
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypoxic exercise exacerbates periodic breathing in otherwise healthy, awake humans. Interactions between sleep, exercise and hypoxic exposure have not been fully elucidated. METHODS: Fourteen men were confined 10 days to a simulated altitude of 4175 m (FIO2 = 0.139; PIO2 = 88 mm Hg). They were randomly assigned to an exercise intervention of 2 × 60-min cycle exercise/day at 50% of their hypoxia-specific peak power output (exercise, n = 8), or they completed no exercise (control, n = 6, random order)...
May 2016: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Marina Panova-Noeva, Andreas Schulz, M Iris Hermanns, Vera Grossmann, Evgenia Pefani, Henri M H Spronk, Dagmar Laubert-Reh, Harald Binder, Manfred Beutel, Norbert Pfeiffer, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller, Thomas Münzel, Karl J Lackner, Hugo Ten Cate, Philipp S Wild
Mean platelet volume (MPV), a measure of platelet size, is a potential biological marker of platelet function. To date, a comprehensive analysis including known genetic and nongenetic factors that determine MPV is still lacking. MPV has been evaluated in 15 010 individuals from the population-based Gutenberg Health Study. Genetic information was available for 4175 individuals. Our results showed that age (β, 0.0346; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0255 to 0.0436), cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) such as smoking (β, 0...
January 14, 2016: Blood
Michael G Chiorazzo, Noah B Bloch, Anatoliy V Popov, Edward J Delikatny
Activatable fluorophores selective to cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) were synthesized and evaluated for their ability to image triple negative breast cancer cells. The activatable constructs were synthesized by esterification of a small molecule fluorophore with a fatty acid resulting in ablated fluorescence. Selectivity for cPLA2 was generated through the choice of fluorophore and fatty acid. Esterification with arachidonic acid was sufficient to impart specificity to cPLA2 when compared to esterification with palmitic acid...
December 16, 2015: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Yann Delpech, Sami I Bashour, Ruben Lousquy, Roman Rouzier, Kenneth Hess, Charles Coutant, Emmanuel Barranger, Francisco J Esteva, Noato T Ueno, Lajos Pusztai, Nuhad K Ibrahim
BACKGROUND: Bone is one of the most common sites of distant metastasis in breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to combine selected clinical and pathologic variables to develop a nomogram that can predict the likelihood of bone-only metastasis (BOM) as the first site of recurrence in patients with early breast cancer. METHODS: Medical records of patients with non-metastatic breast cancer were retrospectively collected. On the basis of the analysis of patient and tumour characteristics using the Cox proportional hazards regression model, a nomogram to predict BOM was constructed for a 4175-patient-training cohort...
September 29, 2015: British Journal of Cancer
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