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Nonconvulsive seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125184/hepatic-and-hippocampal-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-overexpression-during-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures
#1
Leonie Runtz, Benoit Girard, Marion Toussenot, Julie Espallergues, Alexis Fayd'Herbe De Maudave, Alexandre Milman, Frederic deBock, Chaitali Ghosh, Nathalie C Guérineau, Jean-Marc Pascussi, Federica Bertaso, Nicola Marchi
OBJECTIVE: Available evidence points to a role of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) drug biotransformation enzymes in central nervous system diseases, including epilepsy. Deviations in drug pharmacokinetic profiles may impact therapeutic outcomes. Here, we ask whether spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) activity is sufficient to modulate the expression of major Cyp enzymes in the liver and brain. METHODS: Unilateral intrahippocampal (IH) kainic acid (KA) injections were used to elicit nonconvulsive status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and SRS, as monitored by video-electroencephalography...
November 10, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071284/characterizing-cefepime-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Ayesha A Appa, Rupali Jain, Robert M Rakita, Shahin Hakimian, Paul S Pottinger
Neurotoxicity due to cefepime has not been well characterized. We performed a systematic review of the literature and included 5 additional cases from our center. Of the 198 cases found, the mean age was 67 years and 87% of patients had renal dysfunction. The most common clinical features were diminished level of consciousness (80%), disorientation/agitation (47%), and myoclonus (40%). It is worth noting that nonconvulsive status epilepticus was relatively common with 31% of cases, whereas only 11% had convulsive seizures...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064811/-the-risk-of-epileptic-seizures-during-antibiotic-therapy
#3
Ewa Czapińska-Ciepiela
Numerous antibiotics may trigger epileptic seizures or status epilepticus by decreasing inhibitory transmission in the brain, thus lowering the seizure threshold. The most potent seizurogenic effect is exerted by penicillins, cephalosporins, fluorochinolons and carbapenems. Predisposing factors that facilitate development of epileptic seizures in the course of antibiotic therapy comprise all conditions accompanied by damage to the blood-brain barrier (including cerebral trauma and encephalitis), a high dose of an antibiotic or lack of adequate dose adjustment in patients with renal failure...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049053/treatment-options-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy
#4
Lara L Zimmermann, Ryan M Martin, Fady Girgis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are common and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early PTS result in secondary brain injury by raising intracranial pressure and worsening cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PTE is a localization-related epilepsy strongly associated with TBI severity, but risk factors for PTE and epileptogenesis are incompletely understood and are active areas of research. Medical management of PTS in adults and children is reviewed...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963903/fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-inhibitor-urb597-may-protect-against-kainic-acid-induced-damage-to-hippocampal-neurons-dependence-on-the-degree-of-injury
#5
Irina B Mikheeva, Liubov Shubina, Nataliya Matveeva, Luybov L Pavlik, Valentina F Kitchigina
OBJECTIVE: Status epilepticus (SE) provokes changes, which lead to neuronal alterations. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) can affect the neuronal survival during excitotoxicity and brain damage. Using a kainic acid (KA)-induced experimental SE model, we investigated whether cellular changes entail damage to endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, and nuclei in hippocampal cells (CA1 field), and whether these alterations can be diminished by treatment with URB597, an inhibitor of eCB enzymatic degradation...
September 22, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886073/outcomes-of-patients-with-altered-level-of-consciousness-and-abnormal-electroencephalogram-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#6
Paula Rodrigues Sanches, Thiago Domingos Corrêa, Taissa Ferrari-Marinho, Pedro Vicente Ferreira Naves, Carol Ladeia-Frota, Luís Otávio Caboclo
INTRODUCTION: Nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) are frequent in hospitalized patients and may further aggravate injury in the already damaged brain, potentially worsening outcomes in encephalopathic patients. Therefore, both early seizure recognition and treatment have been advocated to prevent further neurological damage. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the main EEG patterns seen in patients with impaired consciousness and address the effect of treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), continuous intravenous anesthetic drugs (IVADs), or the combination of both, on outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844159/do-video-eeg-monitoring-findings-in-icu-patients-with-acute-stroke-predict-development-of-seizures-and-survival-during-follow-up
#7
Halil Onder, Ethem Murat Arsava, Mehmet Akif Topcuoglu, Nese Dericioglu
PURPOSE: Ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke are among the most common causes of seizures, especially in the elderly. EEG is the only technique that can detect epileptiform abnormalities (EA) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), which may negatively affect recovery of these patients. Herein we aimed to investigate the potential predictive value of long-term EEG findings in terms of poststroke seizures (PSS) and survival, in stroke patients followed up in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU)...
November 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808577/transition-from-intravenous-to-enteral-ketamine-for-treatment-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#8
Michael A Pizzi, Prasuna Kamireddi, William O Tatum, Jerry J Shih, Daniel A Jackson, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a diagnosis that is often challenging and one that may progress to refractory NCSE. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist that increasingly has been used to treat refractory status epilepticus. Current Neurocritical Care Society guidelines recommend intravenous (IV) ketamine infusion as an alternative treatment for refractory status epilepticus in adults. On the other hand, enteral ketamine use in NCSE has been reported in only 6 cases (1 adult and 5 pediatric) in the literature to date...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802513/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-review-of-literature
#9
Awais Aftab, Ashley VanDercar, Ayham Alkhachroum, Christine LaGrotta, Keming Gao
BACKGROUND: The clinical presentation and risk factors of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in the context of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are poorly understood, and guidance regarding diagnosis and management remains scarce. In this article, we identify case reports of ECT-induced NCSE from literature, and discuss the presentation, diagnosis, and management of these cases in the context of what is known about NCSE from the neurology literature. METHODS: A literature search on PubMed for case reports of NCSE after ECT...
July 15, 2017: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682826/misleading-eeg-lateralization-associated-with-midline-shift
#10
Gena R Ghearing, Sergiu Abramovici, Alexandra Popescu, Maria E Baldwin
Midline discharges, lateralized periodic discharges, and seizures have been described with ipsilateral lesions that result in midline shift (MLS). Periodic discharges and seizures arising contralateral to a known lesion have not previously been described as a sign of MLS. We present four patients with focal brain lesions, resulting in MLS and epileptiform discharges arising from the contralateral hemisphere. Patient 1 underwent a right anterior temporal lobectomy. On postoperative day 2, computed tomography demonstrated a right to left MLS of 12 mm, and EEG was remarkable for left temporal nonconvulsive status epilepticus...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680316/electroencephalographic-patterns-recorded-by-continuous-eeg-monitoring-in-patients-with-change-of-consciousness-in-the-neurological-intensive-care-unit
#11
Ebru Altindağ, Zeynep Vildan Okudan, Sedef Tavukçu Özkan, Yakup Krespi, Betül Baykan
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to examine the frequency of various electrographic patterns including periodic discharges (PD), repetitive spike waves (RSW), rhythmic delta activities (RDA), nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in continuous EEG monitoring (cEEG) of the critically ill patients with change of consciousness and the presence of specific clinical and laboratory findings associated with these important patterns in this study. METHODS: Patients with changes of consciousness in the neurological intensive care unit (NICU) were consecutively monitored with cEEG during 2 years...
June 2017: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659426/emergency-response-to-out-of-hospital-status-epilepticus-a-10-year-observational-cohort-study
#12
Saskia Semmlack, Désirée Yeginsoy, Rainer Spiegel, Kai Tisljar, Stephan Rüegg, Stephan Marsch, Raoul Sutter
OBJECTIVE: To determine the implications of first responses of emergency medical services (EMS) to out-of-hospital status epilepticus (SE) on outcome. METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, prehospital and in-hospital data were assessed in consecutive adults admitted to an academic medical center with out-of-hospital SE. Logistic regression was performed to identify variables with a robust association between missed epileptic events by the EMS and no recovery to functional baseline in survivors...
July 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584127/dynamic-changes-in-murine-forebrain-mir-211-expression-associate-with-cholinergic-imbalances-and-epileptiform-activity
#13
Uriya Bekenstein, Nibha Mishra, Dan Z Milikovsky, Geula Hanin, Daniel Zelig, Liron Sheintuch, Amit Berson, David S Greenberg, Alon Friedman, Hermona Soreq
Epilepsy is a common neurological disease, manifested in unprovoked recurrent seizures. Epileptogenesis may develop due to genetic or pharmacological origins or following injury, but it remains unclear how the unaffected brain escapes this susceptibility to seizures. Here, we report that dynamic changes in forebrain microRNA (miR)-211 in the mouse brain shift the threshold for spontaneous and pharmacologically induced seizures alongside changes in the cholinergic pathway genes, implicating this miR in the avoidance of seizures...
June 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542864/circadian-clustering-of-spontaneous-epileptic-seizures-emerges-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#14
Julika Pitsch, Albert J Becker, Susanne Schoch, Johannes Alexander Müller, Marco de Curtis, Vadym Gnatkovsky
OBJECTIVE: Seizures in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) associated with hippocampal sclerosis are thought to develop with various latency intervals after an initial transient brain insult. To study seizure dynamics after an initial transient precipitating insult in a systematic fashion, we utilized continuous video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring after the induction of status epilepticus (SE) in a mouse MTLE model. METHODS: Continuous 24/7 video/telemetric hippocampal EEG recordings in the systemic pilocarpine MTLE mouse model...
July 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538134/trial-of-cannabidiol-for-drug-resistant-seizures-in-the-dravet-syndrome
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Orrin Devinsky, J Helen Cross, Linda Laux, Eric Marsh, Ian Miller, Rima Nabbout, Ingrid E Scheffer, Elizabeth A Thiele, Stephen Wright
BACKGROUND: The Dravet syndrome is a complex childhood epilepsy disorder that is associated with drug-resistant seizures and a high mortality rate. We studied cannabidiol for the treatment of drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 120 children and young adults with the Dravet syndrome and drug-resistant seizures to receive either cannabidiol oral solution at a dose of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight per day or placebo, in addition to standard antiepileptic treatment...
May 25, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455892/psychotic-symptoms-as-a-complication-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-case-report
#16
Anna Antosik-Wójcińska, Magdalena Chojnacka, Łukasz Święcicki
We report a patient who experienced atypical symptoms in the course of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). During ECT treatment patient experienced psychotic symptoms which should be differentiated with prolonged delirium and nonconvulsive status epilepticus. 46-year-old female was referred to hospital with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with no psychotic features in the course of recurrent depression. Despite several changes of pharmacological treatment no improvement was achieved, therefore it was decided to initiate ECT...
February 26, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452872/combination-therapy-of-levetiracetam-and-gabapentin-against-nonconvulsive-seizures-induced-by-penetrating-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Xi-Chun M Lu, Ying Cao, Andrea Mountney, Zhilin Liao, Deborah A Shear, Frank C Tortella
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic seizures are a medical problem affecting patients with traumatic brain injury. Yet effective treatment is lacking owing to the limitations of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) applicable to these patients. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the dose-response efficacy of levetiracetam (12.5-100.0 mg/kg) and gabapentin (1.25-25.0 mg/kg) administered either individually or in pairs at fixed-dose ratios as a combination in mitigating posttraumatic nonconvulsive seizures induced by severe penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) in rats...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445615/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-1-etiopathogenesis-epidemiology-and-diagnosis
#18
REVIEW
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge of the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and consequences of status epilepticus (SE) in veterinary patients. DATA SOURCES: Human and veterinary literature, including clinical and laboratory research and reviews. ETIOPATHOGENESIS: Status epilepticus is a common emergency in dogs and cats, and may be the first manifestation of a seizure disorder. It results from the failure of termination of an isolated seizure...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445601/status-epilepticus-in-dogs-and-cats-part-2-treatment-monitoring-and-prognosis
#19
REVIEW
Susan Blades Golubovic, John H Rossmeisl
OBJECTIVE: To discuss current anticonvulsant drug options and advances in treatment of status epilepticus (SE) and to review the prognosis associated with SE. TREATMENT: When treating a patient with SE, the main goals are to halt seizure activity, prevent further seizures, identify the cause of the seizures, and manage any complications. The veterinary literature indicates that benzodiazepines are the most common class of drugs used for the initial treatment of SE...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430051/reversible-postoperative-blindness-caused-by-bilateral-status-epilepticus-amauroticus-following-thoracolumbar-deformity-correction-case-report
#20
Tarik F Ibrahim, Rochelle T Sweis, Russ P Nockels
Postoperative vision loss (POVL) is a devastating complication and has been reported after complex spine procedures. Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and posterior optic neuropathy are the 2 most common causes of POVL. Bilateral occipital lobe seizures causing complete blindness are rare and have not been reported as a cause of POVL after spine surgery with the patient prone. The authors report the case of a 67-year-old man without a history of seizures who underwent a staged thoracolumbar deformity correction and developed POVL 6 hours after surgery...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
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