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Nonconvulsive seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620688/effects-of-branched-chain-amino-acid-supplementation-on-spontaneous-seizures-and-neuronal-viability-in-a-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Shaun E Gruenbaum, Roni Dhaher, Amedeo Rapuano, Hitten P Zaveri, Amber Tang, Nihal de Lanerolle, Tore Eid
BACKGROUND: The essential branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) leucine, isoleucine, and valine have recently emerged as a potential novel treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. Blood-derived BCAAs can readily enter the brain, where they contribute to glutamate biosynthesis and may either suppress or trigger acute seizures. However, the effects of BCAAs on chronic (ie, spontaneous recurrent) seizures and epilepsy-associated neuron loss are incompletely understood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen rats with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were randomized into 2 groups that could drink, ad libitum, either a 4% solution of BCAAs in water (n=8) or pure water (n=8)...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600511/increased-cerebral-blood-flow-on-arterial-spin-labeling-magnetic-resonance-imaging-can-localize-to-seizure-focus-in-newborns-a-report-of-3-cases
#2
Patrick Mabray, Rapeepat Thewamit, Matthew T Whitehead, Amy Kao, Joseph Scafidi, William D Gaillard, Taeun Chang, Tammy N Tsuchida
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can assess cerebral blood flow (CBF) without using radiolabeled tracers. It is unknown whether regional increases in CBF on ASL MRI correlate with seizure location in newborns. We report 3 newborns with focal seizures localized on continuous video electroencephalogram (cEEG), anatomical brain MRI, and ASL MRI. Each patient underwent pseudocontinuous ASL with segmented 3-dimensional fast spin echo readout as part of standard care. Case 1 is a term male infant presenting with left temporal status epilepticus and recurrent cEEG seizures from an idiopathic large left intraventricular hemorrhage...
March 30, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593126/effect-of-the-allopregnanolone-and-allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosteron-on-spike-wave-discharges-in-the-eeg-of-absence-epilepsy-rat-models
#3
Sebahattin Karabulut, Ruslan Bayramov, Keziban Korkmaz Bayramov, Ahmet K Filiz, Ahmet S Taskiran, Ercan Ozdemir
Absence epilepsy is a generalized nonconvulsive type of epilepsy that is characterized by spike-wave discharges (SWD) with a frequency of 2.5-4 Hz in the EEG. The activation of the GABAergic system in central nervous system suppresses convulsive seizures but exacerbates absence seizures. Endogenous neuroactive steroids such as 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THPROG; allopregnanolone) and 3α,21-dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one (3α,5α-THDOC, allotetrahydrodeoxycorticosteron) are GABA-A receptor-positive allosteric modulators...
March 2018: General Physiology and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588947/the-intrahippocampal-kainate-mouse-model-of-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-lack-of-electrographic-seizure-like-events-in-sham-controls
#4
Friederike Twele, Alina Schidlitzki, Kathrin Töllner, Wolfgang Löscher
Objective: There is an ongoing debate about definition of seizures in experimental models of acquired epilepsy and how important adequate sham controls are in this respect. For instance, several mouse and rat strains exhibit high-voltage rhythmic spike or spike-wave discharges in the cortical electroencephalogram (EEG), which has to be considered when using such strains for induction of epilepsy by status epilepticus, traumatic brain injury, or other means. Mice developing spontaneous recurrent nonconvulsive and convulsive seizures after intrahippocampal injection of kainate are increasingly being used as a model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy...
June 2017: Epilepsia Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587188/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-cessation-of-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-pediatric-intensive-care-unit-patients
#5
Jin Chen, Lingling Xie, Yue Hu, Xinghui Lan, Li Jiang
Little is known about pediatric patients suffering from nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) cessation. The aim of this study was to identify in pediatric patients the clinical characteristics of NCSE after CSE cessation and the factors that contribute to patient outcomes. Data from clinical features, electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics, neuroimaging findings, treatments, and prognosis were systematically summarized, and the associations between clinical characteristics and prognosis were quantified...
March 24, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558565/detecting-silent-seizures-by-their-sound
#6
Josef Parvizi, Kapil Gururangan, Babak Razavi, Chris Chafe
OBJECTIVE: The traditional approach to interpreting electroencephalograms (EEGs) requires physicians with formal training to visually assess the waveforms. This approach can be less practical in critical settings where a trained EEG specialist is not readily available to review the EEG and diagnose ongoing subclinical seizures, such as nonconvulsive status epilepticus. METHODS: We have developed a novel method by which EEG data are converted to sound in real time by letting the underlying electrophysiological signal modulate a voice tone that is in the audible range...
March 20, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555354/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-after-convulsive-status-epilepticus-clinical-features-outcomes-and-prognostic-factors
#7
Fang Yuan, Fang Yang, Wen Li, Xiai Yang, Qiong Gao, Lijie Bi, Yongli Jiang, Wen Jiang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate clinical characteristics and outcomes of nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) after convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) and determine risk factors for unfavorable outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive patients with NCSE after CSE over eight years in the neurological intensive care unit. Clinical presentations and the Salzburg EEG criteria for NCSE were used to identify patients with NCSE after CSE. Demographics, clinical features, and anti-epileptic treatment responses were collected and analyzed...
March 12, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456482/ring-chromosome-17-not-involving-the-miller-dieker-region-a-case-with-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#8
Antonietta Coppola, Deborah Morrogh, Fiona Farrell, Simona Balestrini, Laura Hernandez-Hernandez, S Krithika, Josemir W Sander, Jonathan J Waters, Sanjay M Sisodiya
Chromosomal abnormalities are often identified in people with neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability, autism, and epilepsy. Ring chromosomes, which usually involve gene copy number loss, are formed by fusion of subtelomeric or telomeric chromosomal regions. Some ring chromosomes, including ring 14, 17, and 20, are strongly associated with seizure disorders. We report an individual with a ring chromosome 17, r(17)(p13.3q25.3), with a terminal 17q25.3 deletion and no short arm copy number loss, and with a phenotype characterized by intellectual disability and drug-resistant epilepsy, including a propensity for nonconvulsive status epilepticus...
December 2017: Molecular Syndromology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443785/can-endotracheal-intubation-be-the-first-step-in-management-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-a-case-report
#9
Saad Warraich, Abbas Ali, Atif Nizami, Moiz Bakhiet
RATIONALE: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is prolonged seizure activity without motor manifestations. Clinically, there are certain examination findings, in addition to elements of history, that help differentiate it from other encephalopathies. When diagnosing NCSE, the physician faces significant difficulties due to inconsistent clinical presentation and somewhat nonspecific electroencephalogram (EEG) criteria. PATIENT CONCERNS: To highlight the problems faced when dealing with such a patient, a case of a 29-year-old male who presented with an altered state of consciousness is put forth for the reader...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442558/progression-of-convulsive-and-nonconvulsive-seizures-during-epileptogenesis-after-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus
#10
Zachariah Z Smith, Alexander M Benison, Florencia M Bercum, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Although convulsive seizures occurring during pilocarpine-induced epileptogenesis have received considerable attention, nonconvulsive seizures have not been closely examined, even though they may reflect the earliest signs of epileptogenesis and potentially guide research on antiepileptogenic interventions. The definition of nonconvulsive seizures based on brain electrical activity alone has been controversial. Here, we define and quantify electrographic properties of convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures in the context of the acquired epileptogenesis that occurs after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE)...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432248/neurologic-complications-in-the-pediatric-intensive-care-unit
#11
Mark S Wainwright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: All critical care is directed at maintaining brain health, but recognizing neurologic complications of critical illness in children is difficult, and limited data exist to guide practice. This article discusses an approach to the recognition and management of seizures, stroke, and cardiac arrest as complications of other critical illnesses in the pediatric intensive care unit. RECENT FINDINGS: Convulsive and nonconvulsive seizures occur frequently in children after cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury and during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation...
February 2018: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414555/specificity-of-electroclinical-features-in-the-diagnosis-of-ring-chromosome-20
#12
A B Gago-Veiga, R Toledano, I García-Morales, M A Pérez-Jiménez, J Bernar, A Gil-Nagel
BACKGROUND: Ring chromosome 20 (R20) syndrome is a chromosomal disorder characterized mainly by drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), and typical EEG features. The aim of this study was to investigate if this triad is common and specific to all patients with R20. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study (from 2000 to 2011), we selected patients who fulfilled at least two out of three criteria: drug-resistant frontal lobe seizures, recurrent NCSE, and characteristic electroencephalography (EEG) features...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344469/successful-use-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-for-refractory-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#13
Do-Hyung Kim, Hye-Hoon Kang, Minjung Kim, Tae-Won Yang, Oh-Young Kwon, Jung Sook Yeom, Bong Su Kang, Yong Hwan Kim, Young-Soo Kim
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) has rarely been utilized as an adjunct to anticonvulsants in treating patients with refractory convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). However, determining the effectiveness of TH in CSE is difficult due to the unavoidable use of sedative drugs to manage hypothermia. Additionally, the effectiveness of TH has not been studied in patients with refractory non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). Here, we report the successful use of TH without additional sedative drugs in a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy and refractory NCSE...
December 2017: Journal of Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262437/ictal-interictal-continuum-when-to-worry-about-the-continuous-electroencephalography-pattern
#14
Justine Cormier, Carolina B Maciel, Emily J Gilmore
Continuous electroencephalography (cEEG) monitoring is an invaluable tool in the evaluation of encephalopathy and coma in critically ill patients. Marked increases in cEEG monitoring, coinciding with several societal guideline statements in the last decade, have allowed earlier detection and treatment of clearly harmful patterns, including nonconvulsive seizures (NCSz) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). However, it has also unmasked a range of EEG patterns of less clear clinical significance, with some more "malignant" than others given their potential association with increased neuronal stress and secondary brain injury...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260591/subacute-encephalopathy-with-seizures-in-alcoholics-sesa-presenting-as-focal-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#15
Peter W Kaplan, Andrew Billnitzer, José Luis Fernández-Torre
PURPOSE: To acquaint readers with the underrecognized subacute encephalopathy with seizures in chronic alcoholics (SESA) that has more recently been associated with different types of status epilepticus. METHODS: Case reports and review of the literature on SESA and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). RESULTS: Two cases: one with alternating bifrontoparietal NCSE, and one with focal, confusional NCSE, with imaging and EEG correlates. CONCLUSION: Underrecognized SESA may present as NCSE with focal clinical, EEG and reversible diffusion-weighted MRI abnormalities, warranting expedited diagnosis and antiseizure treatment to minimize morbidity...
December 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248799/early-withdrawal-of-non-anesthetic-antiepileptic-drugs-after-successful-termination-of-nonconvulsive-seizures-and-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#16
Jennifer A Creed, Jake Son, Alfredo E Farjat, Christa B Swisher
PURPOSE: Multiple antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often necessary to treat nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) and nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). AED polypharmacy places patients at risk for adverse side effects and drug-drug interactions. Identifying the likelihood of seizure relapse when weaning non-anesthetic AEDs may provide guidance in the critical care unit. METHOD: Ninety-nine adult patients with successful treatment of electrographic-proven NCS or NCSE on continuous critical care EEG (CCEEG) monitoring were identified retrospectively...
January 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125184/hepatic-and-hippocampal-cytochrome-p450-enzyme-overexpression-during-spontaneous-recurrent-seizures
#17
Leonie Runtz, Benoit Girard, Marion Toussenot, Julie Espallergues, Alexis Fayd'Herbe De Maudave, Alexandre Milman, Frederic deBock, Chaitali Ghosh, Nathalie C Guérineau, Jean-Marc Pascussi, Federica Bertaso, Nicola Marchi
OBJECTIVE: Available evidence points to a role of cytochrome P450 (Cyp) drug biotransformation enzymes in central nervous system diseases, including epilepsy. Deviations in drug pharmacokinetic profiles may impact therapeutic outcomes. Here, we ask whether spontaneous recurrent seizure (SRS) activity is sufficient to modulate the expression of major Cyp enzymes in the liver and brain. METHODS: Unilateral intrahippocampal (IH) kainic acid (KA) injections were used to elicit nonconvulsive status epilepticus (SE), epileptogenesis, and SRS, as monitored by video-electroencephalography...
January 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071284/characterizing-cefepime-neurotoxicity-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ayesha A Appa, Rupali Jain, Robert M Rakita, Shahin Hakimian, Paul S Pottinger
Neurotoxicity due to cefepime has not been well characterized. We performed a systematic review of the literature and included 5 additional cases from our center. Of the 198 cases found, the mean age was 67 years and 87% of patients had renal dysfunction. The most common clinical features were diminished level of consciousness (80%), disorientation/agitation (47%), and myoclonus (40%). It is worth noting that nonconvulsive status epilepticus was relatively common with 31% of cases, whereas only 11% had convulsive seizures...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064811/-the-risk-of-epileptic-seizures-during-antibiotic-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Ewa Czapińska-Ciepiela
Numerous antibiotics may trigger epileptic seizures or status epilepticus by decreasing inhibitory transmission in the brain, thus lowering the seizure threshold. The most potent seizurogenic effect is exerted by penicillins, cephalosporins, fluorochinolons and carbapenems. Predisposing factors that facilitate development of epileptic seizures in the course of antibiotic therapy comprise all conditions accompanied by damage to the blood-brain barrier (including cerebral trauma and encephalitis), a high dose of an antibiotic or lack of adequate dose adjustment in patients with renal failure...
2017: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049053/treatment-options-for-posttraumatic-epilepsy
#20
Lara L Zimmermann, Ryan M Martin, Fady Girgis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Posttraumatic seizures (PTS) and posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) are common and debilitating consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Early PTS result in secondary brain injury by raising intracranial pressure and worsening cerebral edema and metabolic crisis. PTE is a localization-related epilepsy strongly associated with TBI severity, but risk factors for PTE and epileptogenesis are incompletely understood and are active areas of research. Medical management of PTS in adults and children is reviewed...
December 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
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