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Nonconvulsive seizure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245506/should-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-be-mainly-considered-an-epileptic-disorder-results-of-a-sequential-neurophysiological-study-in-a-pediatric-cohort
#1
Daniele Grioni, Fabio Pavan, Giulia Prunotto, Francesco Canonico, Carlo de Grandi, Attilio Rovelli
Despite a wide number of studies trying to define clinical, physiopathological, and neuroradiological features of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), the true nature of symptoms is still not fully understood. We studied a standard cohort of 24 pediatric patients, affected by hemato-oncological diseases, with a neuroradiological diagnosis consistent with PRES identified from 2006 to 2013. Ten of them developed PRES after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We analyzed the sequence of clinical, radiological, and electrophysiological data...
April 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214108/cyclic-seizures-in-critically-ill-patients-clinical-correlates-dc-recordings-and-outcomes
#2
Lecio F Pinto, Emily J Gilmore, Ognen A Petroff, Adithya Sivaraju, Nishi Rampal, Lawrence J Hirsch, Nicolas Gaspard
OBJECTIVE: To describe EEG and clinical correlates, DC recordings and prognostic significance of cyclic seizures (CS). METHODS: We reviewed our prospective continuous EEG database to identify patients with CS, controls with non-cyclic status epilepticus (SE) and controls without seizure matched for age and etiology. EEG was reviewed with DC settings. RESULTS: 39/260 (15%) patients with electrographic seizures presented with CS. These patients were older (62 vs...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203468/nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus-resembling-clinical-absence-with-atypical-eeg-pattern
#3
Channaiah Srikanth Mysore, Najib Murr, Rana Zabad, John Bertoni
Objective. We are reporting two cases: a patient with steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT) and another patient with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS), both presenting with altered mental status (AMS) and later diagnosed with nonconvulsive atypical absence status epilepticus (AS), with atypical EEG changes. Methods. A report of two cases. Results. A patient with history of SREAT and the other with SPMS had multiple admissions due to AMS. For both, EEG revealed the presence of a high voltage generalized sharply contoured theta activity...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190439/neurologic-complications-of-polytrauma
#4
R M Jha, L Shutter
Neurologic complications in polytrauma can be classified by etiology and clinical manifestations: neurovascular, delirium, and spinal or neuromuscular problems. Neurovascular complications include ischemic strokes, intracranial hemorrhage, or the development of traumatic arteriovenous fistulae. Delirium and encephalopathy have a reported incidence of 67-92% in mechanically ventilated polytrauma patients. Causes include sedation, analgesia/pain, medications, sleep deprivation, postoperative state, toxic ingestions, withdrawal syndromes, organ system dysfunction, electrolyte/metabolic abnormalities, and infections...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190433/seizures-in-the-critically-ill
#5
REVIEW
J Ch'ang, J Claassen
Critically ill patients with seizures are either admitted to the intensive care unit because of uncontrolled seizures requiring aggressive treatment or are admitted for other reasons and develop seizures secondarily. These patients may have multiorgan failure and severe metabolic and electrolyte disarrangements, and may require complex medication regimens and interventions. Seizures can be seen as a result of an acute systemic illness, a primary neurologic pathology, or a medication side-effect and can present in a wide array of symptoms from convulsive activity, subtle twitching, to lethargy...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147416/treatment-of-seizures-and-postanoxic-status-epilepticus
#6
Alexandra S Reynolds, Jan Claassen
Seizures are a common occurrence following cardiac arrest and may occur both during targeted temperature management and after rewarming. Postanoxic seizures may be nonconvulsive and very difficult to diagnose without electroencephalography (EEG) or associated with prominent myoclonus. Importantly, to date no randomized controlled trials are available to guide the management of seizures in patients with cardiac arrest. Seizure prophylaxis is not recommended, and when seizures are diagnosed they are typically treated the same as seizures in other patients with acute brain injury...
February 2017: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933950/structure-activity-relationship-drug-metabolism-and-pharmacokinetics-properties-optimization-and-in-vivo-studies-of-new-brain-penetrant-triple-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers
#7
Romain Siegrist, Davide Pozzi, Gaël Jacob, Caterina Torrisi, Kilian Colas, Bertrand Braibant, Jacques Mawet, Thomas Pfeifer, Ruben de Kanter, Catherine Roch, Melanie Kessler, Olivier Corminboeuf, Olivier Bezençon
Despite the availability of numerous antiepileptic drugs, 20-30% of epileptic patients are pharmacoresistant with seizures not appropriately controlled. Consequently, new strategies to address this unmet medical need are required. T-type calcium channels play a key role in neuronal excitability and burst firing, and selective triple T-type calcium channel blockers could offer a new way to treat various CNS disorders, in particular epilepsy. Herein we describe the identification of new 1,4-benzodiazepines as brain penetrant and selective triple T-type calcium channel blockers...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872766/an-atypical-case-of-myxedema-coma-with-concomitant-nonconvulsive-seizure
#8
Pratik Patel, Mikhael Bekkerman, Cristina Varallo-Rodriguez, Rajendra Rampersaud
Hypothyroidism is a prevalent condition in the general population that is treatable with appropriately dosed thyroid hormone replacement medication. Infrequently, patients will present with myxedema coma, characterized by hypothermia, hypotension, bradycardia, and altered mental status in the setting of severe hypothyroidism. Myxedema coma has also been known to manifest in a number of unusual and dangerous forms. Here, we present the case of a woman we diagnosed with an uncharacteristic expression of myxedema coma and nonconvulsive seizure complicated by a right middle cerebral artery infarct...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799861/nonconvulsive-seizures-and-periodic-discharges-no-longer-such-innocent-bystanders
#9
Jong Woo Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27772779/latency-to-treatment-of-status-epilepticus-is-associated-with-mortality-and-functional-status
#10
Jocelyn Y Cheng
INTRODUCTION: Status epilepticus (SE) is a life-threatening neurologic emergency. Despite advances in management, in-hospital mortality remains unchanged. This is partly due to the pharmacoresistance which develops the longer that seizures persist. Therefore, rapid antiseizure medication (ASM) administration may represent a beneficial treatment option. The purpose of this study was to determine: 1) whether in-hospital mortality is reduced with shorter latencies to initial treatment of SE with an ASM (LTSE); and 2) the critical time frame during which LTSE is associated with reduced in-hospital mortality...
November 15, 2016: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749460/utility-of-continuous-eeg-monitoring-in-noncritically-lll-hospitalized-patients
#11
Santoshi Billakota, Saurabh R Sinha
INTRODUCTION: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring is used in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting to detect seizures, especially nonconvulsive seizures and status epilepticus. The utility and impact of such monitoring in non-ICU patients are largely unknown. METHODS: Hospitalized patients who were not in an ICU and underwent cEEG monitoring in the first half of 2011 and 2014 were identified. Reason for admission, admitting service (neurologic and nonneurologic), indication for cEEG, comorbid conditions, duration of recording, EEG findings, whether an event/seizure was recorded, and impact of EEG findings on management were reviewed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748723/seizures-and-epileptiform-discharges-in-patients-with-acute-subdural-hematoma
#12
Sebastian Pollandt, Bichun Ouyang, Thomas P Bleck, Katharina M Busl
PURPOSE: Subdural hematomas (SDH) are associated with seizures and epileptiform discharges, but little is known about the prevalence and impact of seizures, status epilepticus (SE), and epileptiform discharges on outcomes in patients with isolated acute SDH (aSDH). METHODS: Continuous EEG reports from 76 adult patients admitted to Rush University Medical Center with aSDH between January 2009 and March 2012 were reviewed. Clinical and radiographic findings, comorbidities, treatment, and outcome parameters, such as mortality, discharge destination, need for tracheostomy/percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy placement, and length of stay (LOS), were assessed...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744244/distinct-behavioral-and-epileptic-phenotype-differences-in-129-p-mice-compared-to-c57bl-6-mice-subject-to-intraamygdala-kainic-acid-induced-status-epilepticus
#13
Luiz Fernando Almeida Silva, Tobias Engel, Cristina R Reschke, Ronan M Conroy, Elena Langa, David C Henshall
Animal models of status epilepticus are important tools to understand the pathogenesis of epileptic brain injury and evaluate potential seizure-suppressive, neuroprotective, and antiepileptogenic treatments. Focal elicitation of status epilepticus by intraamygdala kainic acid in mice produces unilateral hippocampal damage and the emergence of spontaneous recurrent seizures after a short latent period. The model has been characterized in C57BL/6, BALB/c, and SJL mice where strain-specific differences were found in the extent of hippocampal damage...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736659/status-epilepticus-in-patients-with-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-frequency-precipitating-factors-and-outcome
#14
Emel Oğuz-Akarsu, Zeynep Aydin-Özemir, Nerses Bebek, Candan Gürses, Ayşen Gökyiğit, Betül Baykan
Status epilepticus (SE) is rarely described in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), and little is known about its frequency, subtypes, and predictors and the prognosis of these patients. In this retrospective study, we aimed to analyze the incidence of SE in patients with JME and emphasize the risk factors and long-term outcome of SE in an epilepsy outpatient-based cohort. We included patients with JME with a history of predominant myoclonic seizures and at least one diagnostic EEG with normal background activity and bursts of typical ≥3-Hz generalized spike-polyspike and waves...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709609/how-valuable-is-inpatient-electroencephalogram-for-medical-decision-making
#15
Jacques Theitler, Daniella Dassa, Revital Gandelman-Marton
BACKGROUND: The electroencephalogram (EEG) can support the diagnosis of epilepsy, diagnose nonconvulsive status epilepticus and aid in the classification of epileptic seizures. Its contribution to the diagnosis of other medical conditions or to decision-making in other clinical situations was not established. Practically, EEG laboratories frequently encounter EEG referrals that are not based on current recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To assess the value of inpatient EEG in medical decision-making...
December 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709392/functional-state-of-the-heart-during-spontaneous-nonconvulsive-seizure-activity-at-various-times-of-the-day
#16
M L Mamalyga, L M Mamalyga
Circadian peculiarities of HR regulation and functional capacities of the heart in WAG/Rij rats with genetically determined absence epilepsy are related to spike-wave activity of the brain. The number of spike-wave discharges (SWD) is maximum at night, early morning, and evening time and decreases to minimum at 08.00-16.00. At night, functional capacities of the heart are reduced and stress test at night induces ischemic changes in the myocardium at a lower functional load than in the daytime (low level of SWD activity)...
September 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695599/cefepime-associated-sirpids-in-a-patient-with-normal-renal-function
#17
Emily Johnson, Yousef Hannawi, Nirma Carballido Martinez, Eva K Ritzl
Cefepime has been associated with encephalopathy and with nonconvulsive seizure activity, primarily in patients with renal impairment. Here, we report a case of cefepime-associated encephalopathy in a patient with normal renal function with stimulus-induced rhythmic activity seen on electroencephalogram, which resolved on discontinuation of cefepime. We bring this to the attention of the neurohospitalist community, as cefepime is widely used in the hospital setting, and cefepime-related neurotoxicity may go overlooked, especially in patients with normal renal function...
October 2016: Neurohospitalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27640888/eeg-power-as-a-biomarker-to-predict-the-outcome-after-cardiac-arrest-and-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-induced-global-ischemia
#18
Lindsay-Rae Weitzel, Dayalan Sampath, Kaori Shimizu, Andrew M White, Paco S Herson, Yogendra H Raol
AIMS: Cardiac arrest (CA) is a major cause of mortality and survivors often develop neurologic deficits. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in mice on the EEG and neurologic outcomes, and identify biomarkers that can prognosticate poor outcomes. MAIN METHODS: Video-EEG records were obtained at various periods following CA-CPR and examined manually to determine the presence of spikes and sharp-waves, and seizures...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637399/seizures-and-the-role-of-anticonvulsants-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
REVIEW
Lara L Zimmermann, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Paul M Vespa
Posttraumatic seizures are a common complication of traumatic brain injury. Posttraumatic epilepsy accounts for 20% of symptomatic epilepsy in the general population and 5% of all epilepsy. Early posttraumatic seizures occur in more than 20% of patients in the intensive care unit and are associated with secondary brain injury and worse patient outcomes. Most posttraumatic seizures are nonconvulsive and therefore continuous electroencephalography monitoring should be the standard of care for patients with moderate or severe brain injury...
October 2016: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27527919/continuous-spike-waves-during-slow-wave-sleep-in-a-mouse-model-of-focal-cortical-dysplasia
#20
Qian-Quan Sun, Chen Zhou, Weiguo Yang, Daniel Petrus
OBJECTIVE: To examine if mice with focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) develop spontaneous epileptic seizures and, if so, determine the key electroencephalography (EEG) features. METHODS: Unilateral single freeze lesions to the S1 region (SFLS1R) were made in postnatal day 0-1 pups to induce a neocortical microgyrus in the right cortical hemisphere. Continuous 24-h recordings with intracranial EEG electrodes and behavioral tests were performed in adult SFLS1R and sham-control mice to assess neurologic status...
October 2016: Epilepsia
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